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Studying of planting density influence on dry matter accumulation changes in chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) under irrigation deficit stress regimes.

Introduction

Drought stress is especially important in countries where crop agriculture is essentially rain-fed (Boyer, 1982 and Ludlow and Muchow, 1990). Drought stress causes an increase in solute concentration in the environment, leading to an osmotic flow of water out of plant cells. This in turn causes the solute concentration inside plant cells to increase, thus lowering water potential and disrupting membranes along with essential processes like photosynthesis. These drought-stressed plants consequently exhibit poor growth and yield. In worst case scenarios, the plants completely die. Certain plants have devised mechanisms to survive under low water conditions. These mechanisms have been classified as tolerance, avoidance or escape (Kramer and Boyer, 1995; Neumann, 1995). Drought stress reduced dry matters of chicory by reduction in the area of the leaf and height plant (Labreveux and Hall, 2002). High plant density may increase relative humidity within the canopy and increase the duration of leaf wetness by reducing air movement and sun light penetration (Burdona and Chilvers, 1982 and Tu, 1997). Thus plant density could have significant impact on plant disease incidence (Burdona and Chilvers, 1982 and Copes and Scherm, 2005). The treatments in an experiment on chicory were 60000, 80000, 130000 and 170000 plants/ha. The average total fresh weight/plant, the marketable fresh weight/plant and head size were higher at the lower plant density. The total yield was higher at the treatment with 4 plants/[m.sup.2] and a double planting line/row. The highest marketable and export quality yield was obtained with the treatment 4 plants/m, single planting line/row. The lowest marketable yield was observed in the highest plant density treatment. The critical plant density was 0.2 m with a single row (Carrasco et al., 1998). Two experiments were conducted in Southern Italy with two cultivars of chicory such us "Cicoria da foglie" (leaf chicory) and "Cicoria di Galatina" ("asparagus chicory") grown at three plant densities (11.1, 5.6 and 3.7 plants/[m.sup.2]). At maturity, the aerial part of the plant was excised or not. With the closest spacing during the second year a high seed yield, stems per plant and germination percentage were noticed. Leaving the plants in situ resulted in a faster germination, while the excised plants showed a decrease in seed yield, seed per plant, 1000 seed weight, plant height and number of stems per plant (Bianco et al., 1994). Water deficit occurs when water potentials in the rhizosphere are sufficiently negative to reduce water availability to sub-optimal levels for plant growth and development (Aliabadi Farahani et al., 2008a). The results of a study showed that drought stress reduced flowering shoot yield, essential oil yield and internode length, and increased essential oil percentage of coriander (Aliabadi Farahani et al., 2008b). Irrigation according and planting density are the most important environmental factors that effect on plants yield. Therefore, this experiment was carried out to study the effects of irrigation according and planting density on biological yield of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.).

Material and Methods

An experiment was carried out using a split plot based randomized complete block design with 4 replications. The factors studied included irrigation according (50, 100 and 150 mm water evaporation from evaporation pan) and planting densities (6, 9, 12 and 15 plants/[m.sup.2]). At the end of growth stage for determination of some characteristics of chicory, we selected 10 plants from each plot and then determined biological yield, stem yield, height plant, lateral stem number, leaf yield, root diameter and etc. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS institute, 1996).

Results and Discussion

The results showed that irrigation according had significantly affected on biological yield, leaf number, pod number and lateral stem number in P<0.01 and height of plant had not significantly affected due to irrigation according (Table 1). Highest biological yield (19708 kg/ha), leaf number (16.8 leaf/plant), pod number (135 pod/plant), lateral stem number (10.7 stem/plant) and height of plant (119.2 cm) were achieved under irrigation according of 50 mm water evaporation from evaporation pan (Table 2). Also, the results showed that planting density had significantly affected leaf number, pod number and lateral stem number in P<0.01. Biological yield and height of plant had not significantly affected due to planting density (Table 1). Highest biological yield (21870 kg/ha) and height of plant (116.3 cm) were achieved under planting density of 15 plant/[m.sup.2]. Highest leaf number (22 leaf/plant), pod number (171.6 pod/plant) and lateral stem number (10.9 stem/plant) were achieved under planting density of 6 plant/[m.sup.2] (Table 2). Interaction of irrigation according and planting density had significantly affected biological yield and lateral stem number in P<0.01 (Table 1). Highest biological yield (20789 kg/ha) was achieved under irrigation according of 50 mm water evaporation and planting density of 15 plant/[m.sup.2] and highest lateral stem number (26.1 stem/plant) was achieved under irrigation according of 50 mm water evaporation and planting density of 6 plant/[m.sup.2] (Table 3). As it was shown in the results of this study, water deficit stress had a negative effect on most of the chicory characteristics under study. This shows that in order to resist water deficit stress, the plant uses different ways. Great reduction in the length and width of the leaf and accordingly reduction in the area of the leaf, reduction in the height plant and lateral stem number, all contribute to the reduction of plant's evaporation area and consequently reduction in the produced dry matter is the final result of the reduction in the plant's photosynthesis which in turn, is the result of water deficit stress. Under water deficit stress, stomatals become blocked or half-blocked and this leads to a decrease in absorbing [Co.sub.2] and on the other hand, the plants consume a lot of energy to absorb water, these cause a reduction in producing photosynthetic matters. It was also seen that as the increase of water deficit stress, its height plant, root diameter and stem yield decreased. Shoot reduction could be due to the reduction in the area of photosynthesis, drop in producing chlorophyll, the rise of the energy consumed by the plant in order to take in water and to increase the density of the protoplasm and to change respiratory paths and the activation of the path of phosphate pentose, or the reduction of the root deploy, etc. This fact indicates that exerting water deficit stress, the flowering shoot yield decreased of chicory. The results showed that highest leaf, pod and lateral stem numbers were achieved under planting density of 6 plant/[m.sup.2], because the plant increased its shoot for increase of assimilation matters by increase of refulgence absorb for compensation of low density in this condition. Therefore were increased leaf and lateral stem number under planting density of 6 plant/[m.sup.2]. Also pod number was increased under low density because flower reproductive cells increased in this condition by low rivalry between plants. The plant increases its root diameter for increase of water absorb under high density by high rivalry between plants, but root length increases under low density because be assimilation matters enough for increase of root length. The increase of planting density causes increase in height plant and debilitates stems by decrease of stem diameter.

Conclusion

The investigation showed that irrigation according and planting density are important effective factors on quantity and quality yield of plants that they can affect on quantity yield of chicory sorely.

Acknowledgement

The authors are indebted to Dr. Daneshian, Dr. Bigdeli and Dr. Shiranirad for providing financial assistance and continuous encouragement to carry out in the investigation.

References

Aliabadi Farahani, H., M.H. Lebaschi, A.H. Shiranirad, A.R. Valadabadi, J. Daneshian, 2008a. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, different levels of phosphorus and drought stress on water use efficiency, relative water content and proline accumulation rate of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 2(6): 125-131.

Aliabadi Farahani, H., M.H. Lebaschi, A. Hamidi, 2008b. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, phosphorus and water stress on quantity and quality characteristics of Coriander. Journal of Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 2(2): 55-59.

Bianco, V.V., G. Damato, G. Fanizza, 1994. Plant-Density and Seed Production of 2 Cultivars of Chicory (Cichorium-Intybus L). Acta Horticulturae Fifth International Symposium on Seed Research in Horticulture (eds Quagliotti, L. and Belletti, P.), 39(362): 91-98.

Boyer, J.S., 1982. Plant productivity and environment. Science, 218: 443-448.

Burdon, J.J., G.A. Chilvers, 1982. Host density as a factor in plant diseased ecology. Phytopathologist, 20: 143-166.

Carrasco, G., C. Carmona, C. Sandoval, M. Urrestarazu, 1998. Plant density on yield of red chicory heads Radiccio rosso--(Cychorium intybus L. var. foliosum Hegi) grown in south-central Chile. Acta Horticulturae, 467: 269-275.

Copes, W.E., H. Scherm, 2005. Plant spacing effects on microclimate and Rhizoctonia web blight development in container-grown Azalea. Horticulture Science, 40: 1408-1412.

Kramer, P.J., J.S. Boyer, 1995. Water Relations of Plants and Soils. Academic press. San Diego, USA, pp: 1-495.

Labreveux, M., R.H. Skinner, M. Hall, M.A. Sanderson, 2002. Water stress on puna chicory and Lancelot planting--morphological and physiological effects. Agronomy Abstracts. CD-ROM.

Ludlow, M.M., R.C. Muchow, 1990. A critical evaluation of the traits for improving crop yield in water limited environments. Advances Agronomy, 43: 107-153.

Neumann, P.M., 1995. The role of cell wall adjustment in plant resistance to water deficits (Review and Interpretation). Crop Science, 35: 1258-1266.

SAS Institute, 1996. SAS/stat users' guide. Version 6, SAS Inst, Cary, NC.

Tu, J.C., 1997. An integrated control of white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) of beans, with emphasis on recent advances in biological control. Journal of Botany, 38: 73-76.

(1) Mahdi Taheri Asghari, (1,2) Jahanfar Daneshian and (1) Hossein Aliabadi Farahani

(1) Islamic Azad University of Takestan branch, 10 km Quzwin-Zanjan highway, Azad University of Takestan, Faculty of Agriculture, No. 1 Iran.

(2) Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), P.O. Box: 4119, Mardabad Rd, Karaj 31585, Iran.

Corresponding Author: Mahdi Taheri Asghari,, Islamic Azad University of Takestan branch, 10 km Quzwin- Zanjan highway, Azad University of Takestan, Faculty of Agriculture, No. 1 Iran.

E-mail: m_taheri@yahoo.com
Table 1: Variance analysis
                                     Means Square

Value Sources             df     Biological yield    Lateral stem

Replication               3      320.501             406.167 **
Irrigation according      2      15028.722 **        13113.188 **
Error (a)                 6      577.908             25.438
Planting density          3      307.714             8290 **
Irrigation according      6      4588.082 **         343.438 **
Planting density
Error (b)                 27     621.586             40.995
CV (%)                           16.37               7.13

                                  Means Square

Value Sources             Pod number        Height of plant

Replication               13996.41          0.102
Irrigation according      1343165.688 **    0.032
Error (a)                 74970.66          0.039
Planting density          341060.41 **      0.021
Irrigation according      28559.576         0.036
Planting density
Error (b)                 46365.873         0.031
CV (%)                    19.8              18.48

                          Means Square

Value Sources             Leaf number

Replication               2424.743 *
Irrigation according      4414.521 **
Error (a)                 331.493
Planting density          11088.188 **
Irrigation according      141.188
Planting density
Error (b)                 266.984
CV (%)                    10.13

* and ** : Significant at 5% and 1% levels respectively.

Table 2: Means comparison

Treatments                Biological      Lateral stem    Pod number
                          yield (kg/ha)   (stem/plant)    (pod/plant)
Irrigation according
  50 mm evaporation       19708 a         10.7 a          135 a
  100 mm evaporation      14133 b         9.4 b           92.1 b
  150 mm evaporation      14123 b         5.5 c           83.6 c
Planting density
  6 plant/m2              9480 d          10.9 a          171.6 a
  9 plant/m2              13824 c         8.2 b           107 b
  12 plant/m2             18192 b         8 b             85 c
  15 plant/m2             21870 a         8.2 b           89.1 c

Treatments                Height of     Leaf number
                          plant (cm)    (leaf/plant)
Irrigation according
  50 mm evaporation       119.2 a       16.8 a
  100 mm evaporation      100.3 b       15.6 b
  150 mm evaporation      95.3 b        13.7 c
Planting density
  6 plant/m2              92.3 c        22 a
  9 plant/m2              102.4 bc      16 b
  12 plant/m2             108.7 ab      13.7 b
  15 plant/m2             116.3 a       13.5 b

Means within the same column and rows and factors, followed by
the same letter are not significantly difference (P<0.05).

Table 3: Means comparison of interaction

Survey instance           Biological       Lateral stem    Pod number
qualifications            (kg/ha yield)    (stem/plant)    (pod/plant)

50 mm evaporation
  6 plant/m2              14594 c          26.1 a          217 a
  9 plant/m2              16766 bc         11.5 bcd        144 bc
  12 plant/m2             18950 b          6.7 efg         112.4 c
  15 plant/m2             20789 a          4.5 hg          115 c
100 mm evaporation
  6 plant/m2              11807 d          23.1 ab         152.1 b
  9 plant/m2              13979 cd         10 cde          101.3 cd
  12 plant/m2             16163 bc         6.4 efg         67.4 e
  15 plant/m2             18002 b          3.3 hi          82.3 d
150 mm evaporation
  6 plant/m2              11802 d          19.8 abc        145.7 bc
  9 plant/m2              13974 cd         9.4 def         75.9 d
  12 plant/m2             16158 bc         6.1 fg          75.3 d
  15 plant/m2             17952 b          2.5 i           70 e

Survey instance           Height of    Leaf number
qualifications            (plant cm)   (leaf/plant)

50 mm evaporation
  6 plant/m2              148.7 a      37.4 a
  9 plant/m2              114.3 b      20 c
  12 plant/m2             109 bc       12.7 def
  15 plant/m2             92.3 cd      8.8 fg
100 mm evaporation
  6 plant/m2              116.3 b      33.1 b
  9 plant/m2              111 bc       19.1 c
  12 plant/m2             102 bcd      12 efg
  15 plant/m2             83.8 d       8.6 g
150 mm evaporation
  6 plant/m2              114.5 b      30.7 b
  9 plant/m2              109 bc       17.6 cde
  12 plant/m2             97.5 bcd     11.8 efg
  15 plant/m2             38.2 e       8 g

Means within the same column and rows and factors, followed by
the same letter are not significantly difference P<0.05 using
Duncan's multiple range test.
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Original Articles
Author:Asghari, Mahdi Taheri; Daneshian, Jahanfar; Farahani, Hossein Aliabadi
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Sep 1, 2009
Words:2375
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