Study the effect of "product, price, promotion and distribution mix" (4p) on sales increase of Pakdis Beverage Co.
In today's competitive world, organizations need to use and marketing techniques and also marketing specialized research. The studies showed that failure of the companies is due to their incapability to utilize the marketing techniques. Such companies were ignoring the market developments and changes in customers' consumption pattern and instead of following an advanced market, they were selling while preferring more profit for the customers. Meanwhile, marketing is a war but not a war with gun or rifle. As Albert Omry states in this regard: "Marketing" is a civil war that in most battles, companies and organizations succeed in utilizing more suitable words, ideas and intellectual discipline. In other words, it has updated and consistent marketing management in order to be competitive in the competitions . Today's companies use maximum of their potential in domestic and foreign competitions in order to capture a larger share of the market. The organization require to make a review over their own marketing mix to fulfill their goals and outpace their competitors because principal and suitable application of the marketing mix in the implementation process of the market strategic plan and marketing lead to maintain or increase sales volume and market share. All activities of the Iranian companies in the field of marketing management have led to achieve a small share of the available international markets.
When other developed countries and developing ones are competing with each other and they have shared the available markets among themselves, the domestic companies aren't aware of the necessity of studying four mix elements as the marketing product, price, distribution and sales promotion and they still produce using traditional methods plus using old methods for pricing and distribution. Moreover, they don't perform all proper promotional and advertising activities so that productivity of production factors is minimal and even in some industries is about zero. The Dairy industry is a perfectly competitive industry with a mass of competitors all over the country. Undoubtedly, for having a strong presence in this market, to develop appropriate strategies is a prerequisite. Correct application of the marketing mix in each industry is term of success and sales guarantee. Due to high number of competition in this industry, the successful organizations are the ones that can present and distribute a good-quality product with reasonable price at a proper time and place. Therefore, such cycle is constantly being studied and its weak and strong points will be identified and enhanced in order to achieve high profitability from all production factors.
The present research aims to assess the effect of the marketing mix on the sales of Pakdis Company and it firstly reviews literature related to the research. By using conceptual model, the stated research hypotheses and research methods, population, sampling method, measurement tools and statistical tests will be determined.
The companies will find their weak and strong points by studying effect of the marketing mix elements. One main condition to satisfy customers is production based on their taste and opinion. To fulfill this goal, the marketing mix should be constantly studied and all required changes be made and satisfaction level of the consumers from the product consumption and services should be attracted in order to increase sales.
Since the marketing mix is one of the main factors of designing the marketing strategies and sales increase by which the companies fulfill their goals. The Pakdis Company should be aware of its effect of the marketing mix on the sales of the production and it should make required changes in the elements of the marketing.
Theoretical Basics and Conceptual Model of Research:
In the contrary to the past, the first goal of today's organization is to maintain and grow the main question of this research whether the elements of the marketing mix is effective on the sales and if yes, how's their effect rating? The researcher looks for evaluation of the marketing mix element's effect on the sales according to the sales agents' point of view and showing their direct relationship. The next step of the researcher is to discover the most effective element among the marketing mix elements and prioritizing them so that the company can have a powerful presence by enhancing strong points and covering weak points in competition. Marketing is a process through which people and groups supply their needs and demands by producing and exchanging goods. Primarily the marketing task includes: identification of needs and desires, determination of target marketsfor giving service to them, product design and customer service are profitable so that the market can have a greater share, plus identifying new markets and developing them due to the ability of the organization to increase sales is of specific and essential measures in today's organizations. The marketing mix consists of everything the firm can do to influence the demand for the product .
By demand increase, the sale is also raised and it will lead to profitability rise and being superior of the competitors in the competition, so that all institutions look for sales increase in order to fulfill their own strategic goals by greater confidence.
The schedule for presenting services to these markets and finally calling all inter-organization people to serve customers and to them . The marketers attempt by the help of various tools to recognize reactions indicating by the target market. These tools generally create a marketing mix. A marketing mix is a set of the marketing tools that an organization applies in the target market to achieve the marketing goals. Mc Carthy categorized these tools in four groups and named them 4p. 4p stands for four words of product (all products of a company which are distributed for sale), price (amount of money that customers pay for a good or service), distribution (sending a product to a customer at a suitable time and to the required place) and promotion (all activities that a company does for creating connection and advancing its products in the target market).
The dimensions of the marketing mix is in the following category (Figure 2) (4p) .
Thus, the winning companies are those that can meet the customer's needs economically and easily with convenient and efficient communication .
Conceptual Model of the Research:
The following model includes the concepts, dimensions, components and parameters considered in this study. The relationships between dimensions and concepts which have been identified in the hypothesis have been mentioned in the analytical model of the project. Moreover, correlation and relationship between concepts in this model is clear very well.
Choice model and also the components of the marketing mix elements are of Mc Carthy marketing mix model that considering the research's them, its sub-indexes (sub-elements) based on structure and method of company's deal with the target market are as below:
Explanation of the Model:
Marketing mix consists of four basic elements including product mix, price mix, distribution mix, and sales promotion mix.
Each of the above elements includes various other sub-elements that using them correctly and fundamentally can result in maintaining or increasing sales volume.
Below some of the sub-elements of the marketing mix (4p) are given.
1. Marketing Mix Elements have a significant effect on sales of the company.
1-1. Product Mix has a significant effect on the sales of the company.
1-2. Price Mix has a significant effect on the sales of the company.
1-3. Distribution Mix has a significant effect on the sales of the company.
1-4. Sales Promotion Mix has a significant effect on the sales of the company
After creating a competitive marketing strategy, a company is prepared to plan marketing mix. In modern marketing, marketing mix is considered as an important issue .
The marketing mix is a tool through which the marketing managers try to fulfill their goals in target market which are a set of controllable marketing variables that the company combine them in the target market in order to create the required reactions .
According to dynamism of the marketing, the elements of the marketing mix are constantly progressing and evaluating. Moreover, in the recent years, other elements such as services, public relations, facilities and physical assets and action management have been added to them .
Tools and Methods:
This research is applicable based on the research goal, but it is descriptive according to the research method. Additionally, this research is a survey study in terms of controlling the research conditions. In terms of extensive width and scope, it is a micro study and in terms of time, it is a sectional study (Aug 2013 to Sep 2013); therefore, a survey-descriptive method is used to identify the features of the population studying available position and nature. The population of this research consists of all customers of Pakdis sales agents in Urmia, the metropolitan city that is considered finite N=27 based on the spatial and temporal limits of a population. Using "Corgesy and Morgan" table, a sample size of 159 people was calculated by distributing 170 questionnaires that 155 of them were returned correctly. A list of sales agents of Pakdis products in Urmia was taken from Pakdis Company and the standard questionnaire was distributed among the selected samples of the customers (large retail markets) at a specific time.
It is noteworthy to mention that a stratified random sampling method is used to prevent slope and also to allow the whole population having the equal chance of selection. In order to collect data in this research, questionnaire and when necessary, interviews with five choices of Likert scale have been used. This questionnaire consists of 24 questions. The variables of the research and number of the questions related to each variable have been indicated as table in the questionnaire.
In order to determine content validity and reliability of the questionnaire according to comments of marketing experts and professors, 30 questionnaires were distributed in the sample and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated for questions.
In the end, the questionnaire of the research is approved by credit rating of 0.81.
Analytical and Statistical Methods:
The models of the statistical tests and the statistical software of SPSS and the following methods have been used:
1. Cronbach's alpha test to determine the reliability of the designed questionnaire
2. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test (KS) to study normality and abnormality of distribution
3. Test of the main and sub-hypothesis of the research using a binomial test
4. The Friedman test for ranking the marketing mix
This test is used to study the submitted claims regarding data distribution of a quantitative variable (normality or abnormality). According to the data of the table, the claim of normality is not accepted because sig of the distribution mix, price mix and promotion mix is less than 5 %. Since sig of the product mix and the marketing mix (4p) is more than 5 %, the claim of distribution normality is accepted. The general result of the test is that the distribution of the product mix and marketing mix is normal but distribution, price and promotion of sales are not normal.
In general, the distribution is not normal and the other qualitative data are nonparametric.
Since the distribution of statistical sample of the research is not normal, the binomial test which is of nonparametric tests have been used. This test is used when we want to study a specific proportion. The binomial test is utilized for identifying the effect or lack of effect of a variable in a givn phenomenon. In general, H0 shows lack of the variable's effect in designing the hypotheses and H1 indicates the variable's effect.
If sig < 0.05, H0 hypothesis is rejected, but if sig is greater or equal with 0.05, the H0 hypothesis is accepted.
Tests Related to the Main Hypothesis of the Research:
The Main Hypothesis of the Research:
The elements of the marketing mix have a significant effect on sales of the company. According to the binomial test, the effect of sales promotion mix, distribution mix, price mix and product mix on sales at the level of 95% is significant. It means the above mentioned four mixes have direct effect on the sales according to the sales agents of Pakdis beverage, so that the effect of the marketing mix elements on sales amount with coefficient of 95% is significant and according to the main hypothesis of the research, the effect of the marketing mix elements is significant on the sales of the company.
Considering all the information of Table 4 and since sig of the marketing mix elements is (sig=000<0.05), the effect of the marketing mix elements on the sales with a coefficient of 95% is significant.
Tests related to the sub-hypothesis of the research:
Tests related to the first sub-hypothesis of the research:
The first sub-hypothesis of the research: Product mix has a significant effect on the sales of the company. Based on the available data in Table 5, sig has become all sub-elements of the product mix except ease in transporting packages and products, type of packaging and variety in producing more than 0.05, it means that Position and goods, type of packaging and variety in production has no effect on sales, but the rest of the subelements have effect on sales; on the other hand, all the elements mentioned about the product, except ease in Position, type of packaging and variety in production have a significant effect on the sales of the company, so that the product mix is effective on sales.
So that sig will be less than 0.05 and the effect of the product mix on the sales with coefficient 95% is significant.
The first hypothesis of the research (product mix has a significant effect on the sales of the company) is approved.
A. Based on z approximation.
Test Related to the Second Sub-hypothesis of Research:
The second sub-hypothesis of the research: Price mix has a significant effect on sales of the company. The result of the binomial test related to the second hypothesis of the research is as below.
Considering the available data in the above table, all sub-elements of price mix have become less than 0.05, so that sig of price has become less than 0.05. It means the effect of the product mix of sales with coefficient of 95% is significant. The result of binomial test shows that from four mentioned indexes in the price mix, cash discounts, long-term payment, credit purchase (credit or cheque), and price comparison are significant in the sales of the company, so that the price mix is effective on sales and the second hypothesis of the research (the price mix has significant effect on the sales of the company) is approved.
Test Related to the Third Sub-hypothesis of Research:
The third sub-hypothesis of research: Distribution mix has a significant impact on the company's sales.
Based on the available information in the above table, all sub-elements of the distribution mix have become less than 0.05. Namely, all elements had impact on the distribution mix, so that sig of the distribution becomes less than 0.05 and it means that the effect of the distribution mix on sale with coefficient of 95% is significant.
The effects of five elements such as velocity of products' distribution, behavior of distributors, distribution of products in early hours, capillary distribution and mediated distribution have significant effect on the sales. So that the distribution element is generally effective on sales of the company and the third hypothesis of the research (distribution mix has a significant effect on the sales of the company) is approved.
Test Related to the Fourth Sub-hypothesis of Research:
The fourth sub-hypothesis of the research: Sales promotion mix has a significant effect on the sales of the company.
Considering the table, the effect of the sub-elements of type of advertisement, advancing sales, in-person sales and public relations with (sig < 05.0) is significant on sales of the country, so that the effect of advancing sales mix with ((sig = 000 < 05.0)) is significant on the sales of the country.
The forth hypothesis of the research (sales promotion mix, sales has a significant effect on the company's sales) is approved.
The Friedman test:
In order to find out whether responses or comments of the respondents were all the same or not? And what is the rate of the importance of each variable?, we used the Friedman test . The following table shows the effect ranting of the marketing mix impact on sales.
Results of the Test:
Considering the table sig<05.0 and the difference between the variables in level 95% is significant.
As a result, the effect of each element of the marketing mix on the sales differs and its rating is respectively as below:
1. Sales promotion mix
2. Price mix
3. Distribution mix
4. Product mix
Rating General Effect of Sub-elements of the Marketing Mix Considering the Friedman test Table 11 indicates the general rating of sub-effects of the marketing mix elements on the sales.
Based on Table 12, since sig is effect of sub-elements of the marketing mix on sales of less than 0.05, the difference among them will be significant.
Results of the binomial (test) revealed that among sub-elements of the marketing mix, the effect of ease in transportation, type of packaging and variety in production is not significant on the sales of Pakdis Company.
Considering the Friedman test, its results with rating the effect of sub-element of marketing mix on sales (according to priority) are mentioned in Table 13.
Here, we study each of the sub-elements mix and rate of their impact on sales:
Sales Promotion Mix:
The promotion mix as the most effective factor on sales with an average rating above 76.2, sub-elements, prize giving, public relations, advancing sales, fame, type of advertisement (respectively) and by average rating of 3.23'3.04' 2.91 ' 2.89 has the greatest impact on sales.
Among the elements of the marketing mix, price with the average rating (2.58) is in the second rating of effectiveness on the sales of the company after promotion mix. The sub-elements, cash discounts, long-term payment, credit purchase, price comparison have the greatest effect on sales (respectively with the average rating of 65.2, 83.2, 54.3,60.3).
The third rate of the effect on the sales of the company's products is related to the distribution's element with the average rate of 45.2. The rate and amount of distribution effect of the elements are given below:
1. Velocity of Products' distribution (37.4)
2. Behavior toward customers (90.2)
3. Distribution of products in the early hours (76.2)
4. Capillary distribution (2.58)
5. Mediated distribution (2.39)
Among all element of the marketing mix, a product with average rating of (36.2) has less importance and effect on the sales. The product mix consists of 15 sub-elements with various effects of rating on the sales. The priority order of these elements is as follow:
1. Quality of product (39.7)
2. Having positive mentality (84.6)
3. Durability of product (28.6)
4. Position of brands' name (10.6)
5. Variety of packaging (56.4)
6. Type of packaging (69.5)
7. Information on packages (56.4)
8. Variety of production (64.4)
9. Ease of goods' transportation (62.4)
10. Production of new product (89.3)
Results of Kolmogorov-Smirnov ks Test:
In ks test, it was found that the distribution mix of the production and marketing mix (4p) were normal; but the result of the test shows that distribution of the distribution mix, price and advancing sales weren't normal.
Results of The Friedman test:
Considering the Friedman test, the results taken in this section are significant due to several reasons. Firstly, we can assure that the respondents replied with no intention and secondly, whether the respondents understood the difference between questions or not? If yes, the results will be applicable in reliability part of the questionnaire; it means the reliability of the questionnaire stems from this question whether the respondents understood the questions or not? In case it is approved that they understood the questions, therefore it is approved in another way that data measurement which is questionnaire is reliable.
The rating resulting from the effect of the main elements of the marketing mix are respectively sales promotion mix, price mix, distribution mix and product mix. Moreover, the general rating of the sub-elements of the table of the most influential on sales is as below:
1. Quality of product 2. Having positive mentality 3 .Durability of product 4. Position of brands' name 5. Variety of packaging 6. Type of packaging 7. Information on packages 8. Variety of production 9. Ease of goods' transportation 10. Production of new product 11. Velocity of product distribution 12. Discounts 13. Longterm payment 14. Prize giving 15. Public relations 16. Advancing sales 17. Fame 18. Behavior of distributor 19. Price comparison 20. Type of advertisement 21. Credit purchase 22. Distribution in early hours 23. Capillary distribution 24. Mediated distribution
Rating the effect of sub-elements of the marketing mix has been shown in Table 11 considering the Friedman test.
The General Results of the Research Considering the Model:
As mentioned in the final model of the research, the elements of the marketing mix has direct effect on sales that the relevant hypotheses have been proven by binomial test. Besides, the effect rating of the marketing mix elements has been stated using the Friedman test which is shown in the model. Any of the main elements has various sub-elements as mentioned in the model, each sub-element in the mix relevant to itself has rating and priority in effect volume on sales.
Discussion and Comparison:
Generally, it should be mentioned since all subjects related to marketing management are in scope of humanities and social societies, therefore in each of them, some studies have been conducted by certain differences and similarities and the related results have been utilized at the specified time and place. Below are a number of them which are more similar to the present research:
Tereling and Peterson have considered multi-channel marketing.
These writers consider development of communicative facilities as requirements of developing countries by stating that the governments interact with their citizens through different ways and the development of Egovernment is one of the best opportunities for institutions and people in order to use in the advertisement so that they consider their goal of the research showing advertisement effect on sales.
Weber and Deholakia concluded that the elements of the marketing mix related to hierarchy of changes in market share and then applying this information in exploring, evaluating and comparing timely alternatives for the market growth. In the end, the researchers concluded that capital return to the company is conducted more quickly by determining suitable market share growth strategies.
Fook et al. also reached the following conclusions from their own research:
They concluded that the models of attracting the market share are useful tool for analyzing competitive structures. The main and essential point which should be noted is to infer from the models of sales increase that the marketing mix elements have various effects on sales increase; namely, some elements are more effective and others are less effective.
As the above mentioned documents indicate all the marketing subjects in general and marketing mix and its effect on sales specifically are examples of subjects showing weak points and strong points of the institutions in the sales department. Anyway, commercial and manufacturing companies will require such researches and studies in order to satisfy and maintain customers and achieve higher sales and required profits or even remaining in the competition.
Although the results of the present research can be compared with the results of some of the mentioned researches, it is better to conduct the comparison with utmost caution.
Finally, it should be mentioned even in comparison that conducting the essential measures to maintain or increase the sales through applying the marketing mix elements principally and exploiting all related factors in the marketing mix section are the most significant task of each company to remain.
In the above researches, certain results similar to the present results of the research have been taken, and the mentioned four mixes are effective on sales. Moreover, these four factors have certain priorities in effectiveness on sales.
The present research similar to the other researches states effect of the marketing mix elements on sales and it concluded that study of the marketing mix and identification of weak and strong points plus corrective and appropriate measures are the essential conditions for the sales increase.
In addition to all attempts of the company to follow quality, price and advertisement factors for sales, the companies should know that their distribution system should be changed from traditional method of selling products to provinces to modern sales which is capillary system for having better sales. Since the Iranian companies undergo high costs in production part, they are not able to consider any costs for customer searching and they try to hand such task to the whole sellers that it can result in price increase per se. If it continues for a long time, a great profitability will be brought for the company which is the policy of two steps forward and one step backward because all products of the company are sold by the capillary marketing and the customer can be more close to the company and reaction of the customers' opinions about the product will be thoroughly clear.
In the end, this marketing method results: 1- the company's products have an effective presence in the competitive market. 2- the profits of sales be returned to the company which is of the most important principle in staying the company. 3-liquidity is done quicker than any other method.
Executive solutions to strengthen the strengths and weakness of marketing mix elements.
A) Product mix:
1: among the sub-elements of the product mix, ease in transportation of packages and goods, type of packaging, variety in production are not effective on the sales. In order to hide such shortcoming, the company should follow the standards of packaging which result in easy transportation and consumption method. Moreover, production of new products which are not based on taste of the customers should be interrupted and its energy should be used for better quality of best-seller products which are suitable for consumers' taste.
2: we can be more hopeful to the sales increase by strengthening strong points of the company in quality and durability part of the product and long-term programs can be done in these parts. It is recommended that the management controls implementation of the above sub-elements' performance based on the long-term programs of the company by shaping experts groups.
B) Distribution mix:
1: It's recommended to the company to keep distance with traditional sales which is conducted as sales of the products to whole sellers of provinces by using sales capillary system in provinces and the company can open distribution centers in the considered province in order to conduct capillary sales or the so-called shop to shop sale leading to sales of all the company's products and the profit resulting from the sales is returned to the company.
2: It's recommended that the company's available strengths in the distribution mix be enhanced by implementing specific programs along with required training for sales staff, thereby it becomes cause of higher goal of the company in the sales department.
C) Price mix:
1: It's recommended to increase sales by activating cash discounts for a certain volume of the cash purchase and volume discounts for certain volume of volume purchase of the products, thereby it becomes cause of higher goal of the company in the sales department.
2: It's recommended that by identifying active and suitable agents and by credit creation in a way when the customer meets the appointed ceiling of purchase as cheque, the company does not dispatch the product till all cheques of the customer are cashed. Many companies could not collect their liquidity due to not follow this rule and they also lost their buying power for productive raw materials and were eliminated from the competition.
D) Sales promotion mix:
1: It's recommended that the management takes action in communication and advertisement by recruiting expert forces in order to increase company's fame besides conducting promotional programs including (samples and prizes) more than the past, so that they can continue working in a more secure environment.
2: It is suggested to continue all the taken actions in this section more efficiently than the past with direct supervision of the marketing manager and all available forces will be motivated by performing incentive programs.
Suggestions for the Future Researches:
1) Evaluating other effective factors on the sales volume
2) Evaluating effect of the marketing mix on sales for food industry
3) Evaluating internal and external factors of the organization on sales
4) Evaluating effect of each marketing mix element on sales individually
5) Evaluating effect of sales' increase on income and companies' profits
6) Evaluating effect of more detailed elements and indexes of marketing mix on sales
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(1) Amin Reza Kamalian, (2) Maryam Rashki, (3) Farzad Ftahi Chahrrah, (4) Mahla Sarmadipour
(1). Associate Professor, Faculty Member, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan. Iran.
(2) Ph.D. Management Student, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan. Iran.
(3) Student of Financial Management, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan. Iran. email@example.com
(4) Master of Business Management, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan. Iran.
Received 12 October 2014
Received in revised form 26 December 2014
Accepted 1 January 2015
Available online 10 February 2015
Corresponding Author: Farzad Ftahi Chahrrah, Student of financial management, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, zahedan. Iran. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1: Number of questing mix variables. The required variables Number of questions Product 10 Price mix 4 Distribution mix 5 Sales and promotion mix 5 Total 24 Table 2: Alpha coefficient of the questionnaire. Number of Number of Alpha questions variables coefficient 155 24 76% Table 3: Kolmogorov-smimov. Marketing product price mix N 155 155 155 Normal mean 1.945 2.134 1.8232 parameters Std.deviatiion .35354 .5450 .5101 Most extreme absolute .087 .065 .121 differences Positive .047 .065 .121 Negative -.087 -.051 -.081 kolmogorov-smimov z 1.085 .808 1.504 Asymp.sig. (2-tailed) .190 .531 .022 distribution Sales promotion N 155 155 Normal 2.018 1.6155 parameters .4235 .4387 Most extreme .122 .153 differences .096 .153 -.122 -.106 kolmogorov-smimo 1.515 1.903 Asymp.sig. (2-ta .020 .001 Table 4: Binomial test related to the main hypothesis. binomial test category n Observed Test sig prop prop Product Group 1 >2.5 39 .25 .50 .000 Group 2 <=2.5 116 .75 .000 total 155 1.00 .000 Price Group 1 <=2.5 140 .90 .50 .000 Group 2 >2.5 15 .10 .000 total 155 1.00 .000 Distribution Group 1 <=2.5 140 .90 .50 .000 Group 2 >2.5 15 .10 .000 total 155 1.00 .000 promotion Group 1 <=2.5 149 .96 .50 .000 Group 2 >2.5 6 .04 .000 total 155 1.00 .000 marketing Group 1 <=2.5 149 .96 .50 .000 Group 2 >2.5 6 .04 .000 total 155 1.00 .000 A. Based on z approximation. Table 5: Binomial test related to the first sub-hypothesis. binomial test category n Observed Test sig prop prop Product's quality Group 1 <=2.5 141 .91 .50 .001 Group 2 >2.5 14 .09 total 155 1.00 Type packing Group 1 >2.5 57 .37 .50 .000 Group 2 <=2.5 98 .63 total 155 1.00 Position Group 1 <=2.5 125 .81 .50 .077 Group 2 >2.5 30 .19 Total 155 1.00 Type of packing Group 1 >2.5 66 .43 .50 .872 Group 2 <=2.5 89 .57 total 155 1.00 Ease in Group 1 >2.5 79 .51 .50 .000 transportation Group 2 <=2.5 76 .49 total 155 .100 Information Group 1 >2.5 20 .13 .50 .000 of packing Group 2 <=2.5 135 .87 total 155 1.00 Variety in Group 1 >2.5 69 .45 .50 .1999 production Group 2 <=2.5 86 .55 total 155 1.00 Positine Group 1 >2.5 24 .15 .50 .000 mentality Group 2 <=2.5 131 .85 total 155 1.00 Durability Group 1 <=2.5 131 .85 .50 .000 of product Group 2 >2.5 24 .15 total 155 1.00 production Group 1 >2.5 99 .25 .50 .001 Group 2 <=2.5 56 .75 Total 155 1.00 Table 6: Binomial test related to the second sub-hypothesis. binomial test Category n Observed Test prop sig prop price Group 1 <=2.5 104 .67 .50 .000 Group 2 >2.5 51 .33 total 155 1.00 credit Group 1 <=2.5 135 .87 .50 .000 Group 2 >2.5 20 .13 total 155 1.00 discounts Group 1 <=2.5 148 .95 .50 .000 Group 2 >2.5 7 .05 total 155 1.00 Long period Group 1 <=2.5 138 .89 .50 .000 Group 2 >2.5 17 .11 total 155 1.00 a. Based on z approximation. Table 7: Binomial test related to third sub-hypothesis. binomial test category n Observed Test sig prop prop Velocity of Group 1 <=2.5 147 .95 .50 .000 distribution Group 2 >2.5 8 .05 total 155 1.00 Behavior of Group 1 <=2.5 145 .94 .50 .000 distributors Group 2 >2.5 10 .06 total 155 1.00 Distribution Group 1 <=2.5 143 .92 .50 .000 of products Group 2 >2.5 12 .08 in early hours total 155 1.00 Capillary Group 1 >2.5 130 .84 .50 .000 distribotion Group 2 <=2.5 25 .16 total 155 1.00 Mediated Group 1 <=2.5 140 .72 .50 .000 distribution Group 2 >2.5 15 .28 total 155 1.00 A. Based on z approximation. Table 8: Binomial test related to the forth sub-hypothesis. binomial test category n Observed Test sig prop prop Type of Group 1 >2.5 25 .16 .50 .000 advertisement Group 2 <=2.5 130 .84 total 155 1.00 Advancing sales Group 1 <=2.5 149 .96 .50 .000 Group 2 >2.5 6 .04 total 155 1.00 Public relation Group 1 <=2.5 142 .97 .50 .000 Group 2 >2.5 13 .03 total 155 1.00 Fame of Group 1 <=2.5 150 .97 .50 .000 company's name Group 2 >2.5 5 .03 total 155 1.00 Prize giving Group 1 <=2.5 149 .96 .50 .000 Group 2 >2.5 6 .04 total 155 1.00 (a.) Based on z approximation. Table 9: The friedman test. Rating impact of the marketing mix elements of an sales rate. Rating Average rating 2.36 Product 2.58 Price 2.45 Distribution 2.76 Promotion Table 10: The friedman test. Statistical analtsis 155 N 38.143 Chi-square 3 Df .000 Asymp. sig (a.) The friedman test Table 11: The general rating of sub-effects of the marketing mix elements on the sales. Rating 20.34 Quality of products 15.77 Type of packing 16.17 Name position 15.04 Method of packing 12.79 Ease in transportation 14.95 Information on packing 14.66 Variety in products 18.68 Positive mentality 17.07 Durability of product 12.03 Generation of new products 10.47 Credit purchase 11.95 Discounts 11.88 Long-term payment 11.10 Price comparison 12.64 Velocity 11.11 Dealing 10.18 Product Distribution in the early hours 9.97 Capillary distribution 9.37 Mediated distribution 1.68 Type of advertisement 11.55 Advancing sales 11.47 Fame 11.81 Public relations 11.87 Prize Table 12: Marketing mix the friedman test on sales of the company. Statistical analysis 155 N 716.474 Chi-square 24 Df .000 Asymp. sig a. The friedman test Table 13: Rating effects of marketing mix elements (sub-index) on sales according to priority. rating effects of marketing mix elements (sub-index) on sales according to priority 1 Quality of products 2 Positive mentality 3 Durability of product 4 Name position 5 Type of packing 6 Method of packing 7 Information on packing 8 Variety in products 9 Ease in transportation 10 Velocity 11 Generation of new products 12 Discounts 13 Long-term payment 14 prize 15 Public relations 16 Advancing sales 17 Fame 18 dealing 19 Price comparison 20 Type of advertisement 21 Credit purchase 22 Product Distribution in the early hours 23 Capillary distribution 24 Mediated distribution Fig. 1: Marketing mix elements. Distribution: distribution channels, coverage, assortment, location, transportation Advertisement: promotion advertisement, media advertisement, sale staffs, public relation, direct marketing Product: variety, quality, design, feature, brand name, packaging, services Price: price list, discount, payment period, credit terms
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|Author:||Kamalian, Amin Reza; Rashki, Maryam; Chahrrah, Farzad Ftahi; Sarmadipour, Mahla|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||Jan 15, 2015|
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