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Study protection against radioactive radiation Ramsar Region.

1. Physics of Biological Protection Against Radiation:

Exposure to energy or energy carrier material. This radiation can affect the certain actions do matter in which both matter and radiation will change. If the material is placed under the reaction, living organisms, the effects of interactions can be up to the stage of serious illness or death of living tissue damage. Precise effects and mechanisms of radiation damage to living tissue are not yet known. Health Physics not only related to the radiation effects on living tissue are not yet known. Health Physics not only related to the radiation effects on living tissue are not yet known. Health Physics not only related to the radiation effects on living tissue. But the radiation detection that may hurt the people will check. Health Physics Radiation levels allowed for people to estimate and to protect people against making light of additional instructions and methods that are working. People somewhat randomly harmful nature of radiation on living tissue found knowledge. First burn on the skin are workers who were irradiated, were observed. It is natural that this view leads to biological effects of radiation were studied. Unfortunately, before the radiation damage is known, cases of deaths and serious injuries caused by exposure occurred. A classic example of workers in this person's story is that the analogue clock and the colors were caused accidentally dipping part of radium in the paint that had died. In the years 1299/1920 (over 25 years after the discovery of radiation X) the safety standards for working with radioactive materials was proposed. In the years 1309/1930 the maximum permissible exposure level allowed is reduced radiation damage.

2--Radiation Damage and Biological:

Radiation exposure is done in two ways:

A. External Radiation born clothing directly from a spring.

B. Internal Radiation springs that dig through inhalation or absorption into the body have been.

Exposure to a cell (by internal or external exposures) may cause damage to the cell nucleus or to other components. The general belief is that cells can compensate for damage unless their interactions with the cell nucleus to be done. In this case the cells may go away or that the chromosomes in reproductive cells, are caused to change and evolution are daughter cells. These developments are retained by daughter cells and living cells that eventually this will grow with that of cells that have absorbed radiation comes to the different (better or worse) will be. In humans may be longer at the time of these developments (generations) is obvious. As a result, many long-term effects of radiation is still unknown. The potential results of genetic effects caused grave concern is health physics professionals. Many feel that the effect of these developments in the highly evolved human is undesirable will be. This means that children will be more or less defective and this defect may then be transmitted to succeeding generations. It is likely that the overall increase in radiation levels increase because those people are gathering. Being able to play a role in public welfare are not. More precisely, all of Ionization Radiation effects can be induced cells. This can Ionization processes in each of the interactions occur. Should be noted however that the amount of particle LET a major role in damaging cells plays. Ionization and excitation radiation causes cells to be in regular work is disturbing. Evidence of this are:

A) Splinter Cell. B) movement of cells or core inflation beyond their normal place. C) increased permeability of skin cells. D) formation of radioactive isotopes that are torn apart. Almost all of Ionization Radiation effects by secondary electron and free radical-induced cells are primary. Too much radiation can destroy many cells and a major part of tissue damage.

The effects of radiation exposure the body will be achieved largely depends on the nature Radiation exposure is acute, severe dose of radiation that is received in a short time. For example, the result of radiation absorption in an accident, will be acute. Relatively low dose chronic exposure value that is received in a long time, like the daily work with radioactive materials is achieved. Generally less than the risk of chronic exposure Acute exposure because the body can continuously damage to compensate. The most notable and most important biological characteristic latent period of exposure. The course has delayed the emergence of symptoms occurs. This is comparable with that sunburn redness and injuries often go several hours after exposure to radiation near the sun appears. Radiation exposure caused by sunburn similar effect but is more dangerous. Because the radiation can penetrate tissue under the skin. Other courses on the latent effects of radiation exposure also used. Latent period in some cases may even be more than one lifetime.

If a large dose is absorbed much of the apparent changes are observed for a few weeks and look better in a few months will be. This relatively short-term effects as skin redness, nausea, vomiting, decreased red and white blood cell count, anorexia, diarrhea and wound up appearing. Interval depends on the emergence of these symptoms has been absorbed dose. For most people, absorbed dose equal to 100 ram causes acute vomiting and fatigue are. But in some people the most downloaded doses have no effect. Thus determine the exact levels for certain biological damage is impossible. In an emergency or disaster may be a person with acute radiation dose should be strong. Possible effects of an acute dose can for all to examine the body. These effects in the body are shown in Table 1.

If long-term exposures should be done daily, no sign of Annie will not see (perhaps for years). However, the damage until the exposure continues, becomes more severe. If exposure stops, the damage may improve long-term effects in later years appear. Due to the long-term effects, set the time during which full recovery occurs, it is difficult. With a moderate dose several effects of this kind will come into existence, but delays may be even up to 25 years. Between short-term effects and the emergence of long-term effects may not all victims of any sign. Increasing the dose interval between the short and long term effects are reduced. This table based on received dose extrapolation number and tell people about animals has been set. Dose values on the data RAM 200 based on reliable data, but after about 200 Roma who have been irradiated, the rate decreases. For more than 600 Rome tell almost the whole based on observations conducted on animals that have been irradiated. You may also mix two types of radiation exposure Radiation injury of two or more members make the total individual when they are separate downloads, more. Some living things more than others are sensitive to radiation. The most sensitive cells are those that constantly reproduce or grow. Examples of these include: the hematopoietic organs, intestine and gut, reproductive organs, lenses eyes, skin, and thyroid than non-sensitive cells are those that do not grow or reproduce, such as brain and muscle cells in adults. Cells and tissues that can create new cells are restored. Also the ability to repair cells that do not reproduce or if any recovery is not. Summary list of the following biological effects are obvious. 30-50 LD is the most important works. This amount is equal to the acute dose causing death in 50 percent of the population 30 days after exposure is. (Table 2).

(1) the amount per dose acute roentgen 30-50 LD (measured in air).

(2) Red skin similar to sunburn, but due to being more penetrating radiation, the sunburn is different.

(3) growth rate and prevent growth.

(4) Irregular growth. Growth may be localized in various portions, such as atypical glands, etc. are produced.

(5) blood cell counts. The most reliable sign is the degree of exposure. The first symptom, reduced white blood cell count, followed by reducing the number of red blood cells. Despite these high exposures to measure the degree of blood cell counts alone are not enough.

(6) Mitosis index. A small measure for the amount of exposure response is quick. Mitosis index than the number of cells in certain stages of their Rash total number of cells is the same type. Mitosis index continuously changes and normal, but exposure to radiation causes a change that is unusual.

(7) life is purely statistical criterion to measure the radiation effects. However, to ensure there is enough exposure to acute life slightly reduces.

(8) cataracts. Eye sensitivity to gamma rays has little fast neutrons, but quite sensitive. It is estimated that about 109 x 3 neutrons can cause cataracts.

(9) and lack of white blood cell cancers. Latent period for the emergence of cancer and white blood cell deficiency is very long (about 25 years). Why limit the exposure levels actually has no harmful changes that lead to cancer, there did not.

(10) genetic effects. Full effect has not been set on because to create this effect takes approximately ten generations. Still, it is shown that the changes caused by the same radiation effects that occur in nature. So, as far as possible, even better exposure to the small number of individuals is unique and is better for these exposures during the reproduction be restricted.
65.6   Ordinary people
63.3   Low Radiation
60.7   Radiologists

Additional exposure in male and female reproductive cells may cause temporary or permanent sterilization is becoming. The decreased fertility or sterilization may be later be transferred to succeeding generations. Genetic damage from this type of personal health that has been exposed to risk not throws. Only after this form hereditary disorder, disease and increased birth of dead fetuses, etc. F. appears incomplete. We predict the correct amount of genetic damage caused by excess exposure is impossible. However, the sensitivity of reproductive cells to hematopoietic organs is size so that the exposure levels allowed for hematopoietic cells and reproductive organs also is satisfactory.

Radiation effects of local springs with springs external effects do not matter, except that this spring, focused exposure to the vital organs near the offers. This particularly alpha and beta particles is important. When a radioactive source of through (a) wounds, (b) gastrointestinal or (c) the lungs into the body, the Way to control the damage there.

Exposure to the half-life period of the internal springs and the amount excreted from the body depends. Some waste materials through the body are excreted quickly. Other materials such as plutonium, strontium and radium are concentrated in the bone. Uranium in the kidneys, but Tr gather around the body as well. Critical comments from members, the most basic vital organs that can be collected in that isotope. To estimate the internal risks to consider two concepts is useful. Effective half-life and maximum density permitted in the body.

1/[t.sub.1/2eff] = 1/[t.sub.1/2biol] + 1/[t.sub.1/2rad] (1)

T 1/2 eff= Effective half-life

[T.sub.1/2biol] = biological half-life or long when it is necessary to the biological half the isotope to be wiped out.

[T.sub.1/2rad] = radioactive half-life

Effective half-life due to attend a normal change in biological half-life there, cannot be accurately predicted for all individuals. For example, the effective half-Sr 10, between 3000 to 5000 days. Maximum permissible concentration of radioisotopes some body that is authorized maximum internal dose to a member brings a crisis. Intake of the body that ultimately led to a certain density is the effective half-life is proportional to the present crisis. Radiation treatment can only effect to minimize radiation exposure. Common methods of treatment, rest for a period of time. To increase body resistance of antibiotics used for exchange transfusion of blood to neutralize the damage is done. Recently, in some cases bone marrow transplantation is a serious but this link has not been successful because the body tends to repel the foreign tissue.

3--Analysis Of Radiation Protection:

Of radiation protection NCRP for people exposed to radiation through their jobs are, as follows:

1) the total body dose received over the years should be equal to the maximum (18-n) 5 Rome, where n is =-life person. Should be noted that people under 18 are not allowed in the local radiation tends to work.

2) Dose received should not exceed five years in Rome.

3) the maximum exposure, except for skin, hands and forearms should not be in Rome for 13 weeks is more than five.

Certain parts of the body that can get more exposure, but usually to help the whole body is considered. The Radiation Emergency Help the RAM 12 is permitted to limit the not exceed the total dose received. For example, when the exposure may be an accident after the elimination of regional pollution to be done. Your body with continuous exposure and low, to adapt, because humans continuously exposed to natural background radiation is located. The natural background radiation from cosmic rays and materials found in soil, air, water, C 11, k10 in the body is composed. Currently low levels of radiation from nuclear weapons testing and the reactors must be added to the above amounts.

Resulting from natural background radiation in different parts of the 100 to 250 Mill Ram year will change. The average dose received (in the United States) in Rome around 130 mm per year. Plus additional dose equal to most people 70 to 75 mm in Rome rays - X of Medicine have received. Radiation NCRP guidelines for community people to each person 5 / 0 in Rome for the whole body is limited. Minimal to genetic effects, the average dose received NCRP guidelines body for a large group of people to 17 / 0 RAM is limited. For internal hazards, radioactivity concentration guides (RCG) with regard to the maximum average density in the air and water isotopes have been determined. This amount represents the amount of radiation that leads to additional storage in the body unfortunately not RCG values are unknown for most isotopes. Some of the values in Table 2 shows the RCG.

4--Calculation of Fast Neutron Irradiation:

Nearly all springs larger radiation from a point source. Fortunately, gamma-ray interactions with each other is not doing. As a result the total radiation can be as a collection of radiation from a point source is on. For example, a circular flat isotropic source and we consider uniform, dose (intensity) at point P is:

D = [[integral].sup.R.sub.0] [Se.sup.-[mu]a] B([mu]a)]/4[mu][a.sup.2] (2)

Depending on the distance to point P on the page is as follows:


Slipped a point nucleus is called. The light intensity is equal to the value observed in a distance from a point source is isotropic units. In this case:

g(a) = B([mu]a)[e.sup.-[mu]a]/4[pi][a.sup.2] (4)

Integration of the equation for a flat surface leads to an integral of first kind can be exponential. With the concept of a core point, the intensity can be calculated for other geometric shapes.

A source volume can be through a spring below the surface was about: We assume that the representative power of a uniform source in the volume dV is low. Power source to the volume part is equal. Within this section, its height and its length is dr. Radiation level resulting from volume dV is:

dS = [s.sub.v]G(a)[a.sup.2] sin [psi]d[theta]d[psi]da (5)

Total intensity level equal to the total volume would be:

S = [S.sub.v] [[integral].sup.2[pi].sub.0] [[integral].sup.[pi]/2.sub.0] [[integral].sup.D.sub.0] G(a)[a.sup.2] sin [psi]d [theta]d [psi]da (6)

During Vahlsh entering the core point and putting the a factor of production and have increased.

G(a) = [e.sup.-a/[lambda]]/4[pi][a.sup.2] (7)

Calculating the above equations the following equation is obtained.

S = 1/2 [S.sub.v] [lambda] (9)

And since the equation for springs only in one direction it was written, to obtain the total surface springs in the second equation should be multiplied.


Ramsar one of the most beautiful and spectacular natural areas of the world. Who hold the second international conference in Ramsar (one before and another revolution after the revolution) is confirming the above subject. Therefore particular attention to this beautiful area (because of stability in tourism) and more sensitivity to this region (especially in the problem of pollution created) should be at the top issues of national and provincial authorities should be. In pollution control and deal with nuclear regulations imposed various national and international seminars and also have been formed. In the country in this field there is only one law that was passed in 1988. While the daily application of radiation in the affairs of human life expands. It is essential that in all its various aspects in order to deal with the damaging effects of radiation and radioactive material to develop more comprehensive and more detailed rules on the disposal of nuclear waste is also important to the overall interests of compliance with appropriate regulations to be imposed. General of Iran in this area is faced with a vacuum and requires further harvest has many steps. Therefore, the full accuracy of the estimates due to slightly warm rays of the Ramsar according to international standards is felt


(1.) "Radiation Effects on Man," Nucleonics, 1963. 21(3).

(2.) "New ICRU., 1963. Recommendations on Radiation Quantities and Units ," Nucleonics 21(7).

(3.) "Radiological., 1974. Factors Affecting Decision--Making in a Nuclear Attack, " NCRP Report, 42.

(4.) Glasstone , S. and A. Sesonske, 1963. Nuclear Reactor Engineering. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc.

(5.) Etherington , E., 1958. Nuclear Engineering Handbook. New York : McGraw- Hill Book Co., Inc.

(6.) Blatz, H., ed., 1959. Radiation Hygiene Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.

(7.) Radiation Protection., 1959. Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. New Yourk: Pergamon Press, Inc.

(8.) "Maximum Permissible, 1959. Body Burdens and Maximum Permissible Concentrations of Radionuclides in Air and Water for Occupational Exposure, "N.B.S. Handbook, 69.

(9.) Saenger, E.L., 1963. ed., Medical Aspects of Radiation Accidents USAEC.,

(10.) Radiological Health Handbook. U.S. Department of Health. Education and Welfare, 1965. Ch. 5.

(11.) Ocucpational Radiation Protection. U.S. Department of Health. Education, and Welfare, 1962.

(12.) Batter, J.F., 1963. "Cobalt and Iridium Buildup Factors Near the Ground / Air Interface, "Trans. Amer. Nucl. Soc., 6(1).

(13.) Spencer, L.V., 1962. "Strucure Shielding Against Fallout Radiation from Nuclear Weapons, "N.B.S. Monograph, 42.

(14.) Eisenhauer, C., 1964. "An Enagineeering Mothod for Calculating Protection Afforded by Structures Against Fallout Radiation ,"NBS Monograph, 76.

(15.) "Basic Radiation Protection Criteria, 1971. "NCRP Report, 39.

(16.) Proceedings of the Second United Nations International Conference, 1958. on the Peaceful Uses Of Atomic Energy, XXI.

Mofidnakhaei Farshed

Department of Physics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mazandaran, Iran.

Corresponding Author

Mofidnakhaei Farshed, Department of Physics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mazandaran, Iran.

Table 1: Effects of acute radiation doses to whole body.

1000-5000      600-1000    200-600        100-200

100%           100%        30%-100%       5%-50%

0.5 hours      1 hours     2 hours        3 hours

Convulsions,   Diarrhea    Lack of        White blood
chills and     and fever   white blood    cell
lethargy                   cells,         deficiency
                           under the

Of Housing     Possible    Blood          Confidence
               link to     transfusion,
               brain and   antibiotics

               Long        1-12 Month     A few weeks

90%-100%       80%-100%    0-80%          No

               2 month     2 month

Failure        Bleeding    Bleeding
of the         and         and
circulatory    infection   infection

1000-5000      0-100        Intensity

100%           No           Vomiting

0.5 hours      No           Latent

Convulsions,                characteristic
chills and                  symptoms

Of Housing     Confidence   Treatment

               No           recovery

90%-100%       No           Death

                            Death Time

Failure                     Death Cause
of the

Table 2: Acute dose amount per roentgen
30-50 LD (measured in air).

250       Hindi pigs   450       Man
300-430   dogs         500       Monkey
520       sheep        590       Rat
580-780   Ass          790-875   Rabbit
1500      turtle       1000      Chicken

Table 3: Radioactivity concentration guides.

Critical       RCG Air         RCG Water       Maximum        Element
Member                                         density in
                                               the body

              [micro]c /      [micro]c /      [micro]c
              [cm.sup.3]      [cm.sup.3]

Bone          [sup.11-]10 x 3   [sup.7-]10 x 4    0.1            Ra 226

Bone          [sup.10-]10 x 3   [sup.6-]10 x 4    1.0            Sr 90

Bone          [sup.12-]10 x 2   [sup.4-]10        0.04           Pu 239

Thyroid       [sup.9-]10 x 9    [sup.5-]10 x 6    0.3            I131

[TEXT NOT     [sup.11-]10 x 7   [sup.4-]10 x 5    [sup.2-]10 x 5   *U

Table 4:lengths.

Mev 8 with       fast       density       Article
energy gamma   neutrons

cm                cm      g/[cm.sup.3]

40                10           1           Water
18                12          2.3        Concrete
2                 9           11.3         Lead
30                9           1.85       Beryllium
25                9           1.65        Graphic
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Farshed, Mofidnakhaei
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Nov 1, 2011
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