Study on the Diversity and Use of Wild Edible Plants in Bullen District Northwest Ethiopia.
The rural communities of developing countries depend on wild edible plants to meet their food requirements during periods of food shortage. Studies conducted by  indicated that the wild edible plants are mostly serving as supplementary foods in different parts of Africa. Wild edible plants are nutritionally rich  and can supplement especially vitamins and micronutrients . These show that wild edible plants are essential components of many African diets, especially in period of seasonal food shortage.
The Ethiopian flora has approximately 6000 species of higher plants of which about 10% are endemic [4, 5]. The country is known as the biodiversity hotspot and center of origin and diversification for a significant number of food plants and their wild relatives . The wide range of climatic and edaphic conditions permitted the growing of a variety of wild food plants .
Some studies in Ethiopia indicated that many rural people are endowed with deep knowledge on how to use plant resources. This is particularly true with regard to the use of medicinal plants  and wild edible plants that are consumed at times of famine and other hardships . In this regard, the elder community members are mostly the key sources of knowledge about plants .
The consumption of wild plants seems more common in food insecure areas of the country as compared to relatively food sufficient areas . Thus, many rural people of Ethiopia usually feed on wild food plants for survival during food shortage . Although wild edible plants play an important role during periods of food shortage, little attention has been given to conservation of wild edible plant species.
Available published studies on the ethnobotany of wild food plants are limited to specific area . In northwestern Ethiopia, the consumption of wild food plants seems to be one of the important local survival strategies and appears to have intensified due to the repeated climatic shocks hampering agricultural production and leading to food shortages . In Bullen district of Benshanguel-Gumez region, the noncultivated plants provide considerable amount of supplementary food and have significant contribution to generating additional income for many households. However, there has not been sufficient research carried out about the indigenous knowledge of wild edible plants in Bullen district. Therefore, this study was designed to (1) identify and document wild edible plant species, (2) identify and record the parts of wild edible plants which are edible to humans, (3) evaluate the exploitation and conservation status of wild edible plants, and (4) assess threats on the wild edible plant species and recommend the possible management scenarios for their conservation.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Description of Study Area. Bullen district, the study area, is located in northwestern Ethiopia lying within 10[degrees]00' to n[degrees]07' N and 35[degrees]45' and 36[degrees]07' E (Figure 1). The altitude varies from 900 to 2300 m.a.s.l. According to the traditional agroecological zonation of Ethiopia, 85% is Kola (lowlands, warm), 10% Woina dega (mid-altitude moist, cool), and 5% Dega (highland, cool). The mean annual rainfall of the district ranges from 700 to 1000 mm. The average annual temperature ranges from 23.5 to 35.5[degrees]C. Diverse soil types exist in the areas, of which Acrisols and Nitisols that occur on the gentler slopes and Vertisols in the valley bottoms are the dominant ones .
2.2.1. Reconnaissance Survey and Site Selection. A reconnaissance survey was conducted from August 10 to 25, 2010, to depict the different vegetation types, natural resource management, and indigenous knowledge associated with the use of wild edible plant species. Following the survey, focus group discussion was carried out in one of the study sites. After the discussion, five villages were systematically selected as study sites out of the total 15 villages of the district (Figure 1). The study villages were chosen based on proximity to the existing remnant forest resources and representativeness of the different agroecologies.
2.2.2. Ethnobotanical Data Collection. Seventy-two informants (40 males and 32 females) from different age groups were chosen from five villages of the study site based on the recommendations given from elders, Development Agents (DAs), and kebele (village) administration leaders. The ages of the informants were between 15 years and 60 years. The key informants were chosen based on traditional knowledge of wild edible plants following the suggestion made by . Semistructured interviews, field observation, and focus group discussions (FGDs) were employed for data collection. Focus group discussions were employed for wild edible plants investigation to help in comparison of patterns evident among individual interviews and to reject contradictory information. Accordingly, FGDs were undertaken in groups consisting of six to eight people in five selected kebeles. Interviews were conducted in "Shinashegna, Gumuzegna, and Amharic" languages with the help of local translators.
2.2.3. Plant Specimen Collection and Identification. Based on the ethnobotanical information obtained from informants, specimens with their vernacular names were collected, numbered, pressed, and dried for identification. Preliminary identification was done in the field based on published guides of useful trees and shrubs of Ethiopia . The identification was done mainly based on the works of [4,14-16]. All voucher specimens of the wild edible plants labeled with scientific and vernacular names were stored in Biology department herbarium, Bahir Dar University.
2.3. Data Analysis. Descriptive statistics that are percentage and frequency were used to analyze the ethnobotanical data of the reported wild edible plants and their associated indigenous knowledge. Preference ranking was computed to assess the degree of preference of wild edible fruit and leafy vegetables based on taste, edibility quality, and importance of species at different seasons. Priority ranking was employed to determine threats of wild edible plants based on their level of destructive effects. To recognize threats of wild edible plant species, values from 1-5 were given: 1 is the least destructive threat and 5 is the most destructive threat. Use diversity ranking was carried out to identify the multipurpose use of wild edible plants which were commonly reported by the key informants.
3. Results and Discussions
3.1. Indigenous Knowledge (IK) Transfer and Practice. Out of the 72 respondents, 70 (93.5%) reported that their knowledge of wild food plants was acquired through observation, imitation, and oral history, while 2 (26.5%) reported that they acquired knowledge secretly from elders, when they became very old. Moreover, the respondents reported that the knowledge of wild food plants was transferred through songs, folklore, and riddles in local languages at different times especially when the people are at rest especially during the night time.
3.2. Taxonomic Diversity. A total of 77 wild edible plant species belonging to 61 genera and 39 families were recorded in the study area (Table 1). The relative high number of wild edible plants in the study area may be due to the more intensive utilization of plants by the local communities and diverse agroecology. Of the reported 39 families, Tiliaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Moraceae had the highest number of species (5, 4, and 4), respectively. But the remaining families were represented by 1 to 3 species. The reported plant species were comparable with those reported elsewhere in Ethiopia [5, 7, 17].
3.3. Growth Forms, Parts Used, and Mode of Consumption/Preparation. The largest numbers of edible wild plant species were found to be trees, followed by herbs, shrubs, and climbers (Figure 2). This result also concurs with the works of [17, 18]. Regarding parts used, a total of 6 edible parts were recorded. Of these, 63.6% were fruits, 20.8% leaves, and 6.5% roots and tubers, while the remaining 9.1% were flowers, nectar, stem barks, and seeds (Figure 3). This implies that more than one part of a plant species was consumed by humans. The result concurs with . As regards the mode of consumption, 57.1% are consumed raw, 16.9% boiled, 6.5% in juice form, 9.1% either raw or boiled, and 5.2% as porridge/sauce (Figure 4).
3.4. Preference of Edibility of Parts. In the study area preference of wild food plants parts varied. For example, plants consumed during famine were not consumed during normal periods. As informants reported, the roots of Dioscorea cayenensis Lam. and the young stem of Phoenix reclinata Jacq. are only consumed during times of food shortage. Moreover, the results of pairwise ranking in Table 2 indicated that the fruits of Vitex dodoniaa Sweet are the most preferred wild food fruits over the other reported wild food fruits (Table 2). This is due to them being well known by all communities. Preference of wild leafy vegetables indicates that Portulaca quadrifida L. ranks first (Table 3). This is due to their easy accessibility and palatability. These results concur with .
3.5. Traditional Medicinal and Other Uses of Wild Edible Plants. In the study area informants reported that of the identified plant species sixteen (20.7%) plant species including parts such as leaves, fruit, stem bark, root, and seeds were mentioned as useful to treat one or more human health problems (Table 4). The number of these plants against the specific human ailment ranged from 1% to 18.7%. Of the 16 species mentioned, the leaves and roots of Balanites aegyptiaca got priority by the local communities to relive abdominal pain. The fruit of Cordia africana is also mentioned as treatment for diarrhea; the leaves of Solanum nigrum are used to treat abdominal pain and the roots of Carissa spinarum for remedying tape worm.
Most of the plant remedies used by the people of Bullen district are obtained from herbs (37.5%) followed by trees (31.2%) (Table 4). Data analysis showed that the majority (20.7%) of medicinal plants in the wild are herbs and are used in the treatment of different kinds of diseases, in addition to their food value. This result indicates that people rely more on herbs and trees because they are relatively common in the area compared to shrub species. This finding agrees with the findings of [17, 20] in southern Wello Chefa area and Debub Omo Zone.
The most widely sought plant parts in the preparation of remedies are roots (56.2%). The popularity of these parts has grave consequences, from both ecological point of view and the survival of the wild edible species point of view . On the other hand, collecting leaves alone could not pose a lasting danger to the continuity of an individual plant compared with the collection of roots, bark, stem, or whole plant.
3.6. Multipurpose Use of Wild Edible Plants. Apart from their food and medicinal values, the reported wild edible plants are used for different purposes. Direct matrix ranking was undertaken in order to evaluate multipurpose use of tree species and their relative importance to the local people and the extent of the existing threats related to their use values (Table 5). The result of use diversity indicates that Syzygium guineense are ranked 1st because they are used for different purposes such as construction, firewood, fence, and so forth in the study area. This shows that the local people harvest the wild edible plants not only for food but mostly for construction, firewood, and furniture (Table 5).
3.7. Threats to Wild Edible Plants. Currently some of the remnant forests with large numbers of the wild edible plants in the study area are subjected to frequent deforestation by the local community. This is attributed mainly to human population pressure and its associated effects. Agricultural land expansions, wild fire, fuel wood collection, overgrazing, and overharvesting are the main reasons for the destruction of wild edible plants. Of these factors, agricultural land expansion ranks first followed by overgrazing and fuel wood collection (Table 6).
The level of threats of wild edible plants varies among the different studied villages of the district. Accordingly, informants from Aygal Mozanbus and Azemna Bansh rated agricultural land expansion as the principal threat to wild edible plant species. This is mainly due to increasing demand for arable land due to increasing human population. In the Baruda village, overgrazing uncontrolled fire setting followed by agricultural land expansion is the major factor that threatens the wild edible plants' diversity. The introduction of new grazing land due to high livestock density has possibly resulted in the overgrazing of large areas of the Baruda village. Similarly, in Doshna Moch, informants claimed fuel wood collection to be equally hazardous as overgrazing in threatening wild edible plants species. Uncontrolled fire setting was also another major threat to wild plant in Chilanqo village. It was observed that many woody species were severely affected by such fires where the tree and shrub stands decline and some are completely burned. Others are dried and collected as fire wood and the newly grown vegetative parts of woody species are further overbrowsed and trampled by overgrazing, causing considerable damage to the species. The same result was reported by  in Derashe and Kucha districts of southern Ethiopia, indicating that uncontrolled fire affects many woody plants including fire tolerant species when the duration of fire is too long.
3.8. Conservation of Wild Edible Plants and Associated Knowledge. Agricultural land expansion, fuel wood collection, and uncontrolled fire setting are the major threats to the conservation of wild edible plants in the study area. Despite the understanding of the local people about the importance of conserving the wild edible plants, only some in situ (in original/natural habitat) conservation methods like planting in the form of fences and protected pasture land in different worship areas (churches, mosques) and in their farm field/farm margins are being practiced in the study area. This indicates that the necessary conservation measures are not being taken in the area, and hence the wild edible plants are not free from threats.
The knowledge of wild food plants was transferred through songs, folklore, and riddles in local languages at different times especially when the people are at rest especially during the night time. The study revealed that all household members of the study area were involved in the collection and consumption of wild edible plant species. This helps to ensure the maintenance of indigenous knowledge associated with wild edible plant species. However, there is a decline in the consumption of some wild edible plant species that were used during periods of drought and famine such as the young seedling of Borassus aethiopum and the young stem of Phoenix reclinata which gradually lead to the fade-away of the indigenous knowledge associated with them. The local knowledge about the nutritional composition and side effects of the wild edible plant species is very scanty and little is known about undesirable side effects such as toxicity originating from the wild edible plants. Apart from their food and medicinal value, most of the identified wild edible plant species in the study area are used by the community for other different purpose. The local people harvest the wild edible plants not only for food but also for construction, fire wood, and furniture. Particularly, wild edible plant species such as Syzygium guineense and Cordia africana are multipurpose plant species widely used by the local communities. Thus, this has led to a high level of threats to the wild edible plant species in the study area. In addition, many of the wild edible plants found in the study area are found to be under growing pressure, due to anthropogenic and socioeconomic factors. This has resulted in the dwindling of the species of wild edible plants and the associated indigenous knowledge.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors have not declared any conflicts of interest.
The authors are grateful to the informants and local communities of Bullen district for sharing their incredible accumulated knowledge of the wild edible plants in the field. Without their contribution, this study would have been impossible.
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Tariku Berihun (1) and Eyayu Molla (2)
(1) Department of Biology, Dilla University, P.O. Box 419, Dilla, Ethiopia
(2) Department of Biology, BahirDar University P.O. Box79, BahirDar, Ethiopia
Correspondence should be addressed to Tariku Berihun; firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 9 January 2017; Accepted 16 April 2017; Published 15 May 2017
Academic Editor: Muhammad Iqbal
Caption: FIGURE 1: Location map of the study area (Woreda is an administrative unit almost equivalent to a district and kebele to village).
Caption: FIGURE 2: Number and habit of wild edible plants used by the local people.
Caption: FIGURE 4: Number of wild edible plant parts used by the local people. FO = fruit only, Lo = leaf only, FL & Ne = flower and nectars, SB = stem bark, RT & TU = root and tuber, and OP = other part.
TABLE 1: List of the reported wild edible plants in study area based on family name, scientific name, local name, habit, part used, and mode of consumption and preparation. Growth habit: T = tree, H = herb, S = shrub, and C = climber local name: GU = Gumuzegna, SH = Shinashegna; habitat: WL = wood land, FL = farm land, HG = home garden, DR = dry river bed, RV = riverine forest, RS = road side, FM = forest margin, FE = fences, RC = rocky or dry forest TB = Tariku Berihun, and Co. No = collection number. Family Scientific names Local name Habit Acanthus sennii Chiove Koshosha (SH) H Acanthaceae Justica ladanoides Lam. Kakim (GU) H Justicia schimperiana Dumuga (SH) S Hochst. ex Nees Amaranthaceae Amaranthus caudata L. Darka (GU) H Amaranthus cruentus Thell Lama (SH) H Amaranthus hybridus L. Dahka (GU) H Rhus retinorrhoea Oliv. Kefijanga (SH) T Anacardiaceae Rhus vulgaris Meikle Bakitela (SH) S Rhus ruspolii Engle. Qamo (SH) T Annonaceae Annona cherimola Mill Gishita (SH) T Annona senegalensis Pers. Bambuta (SH) T Apocynaceae Carissa spinarum (Forssk) Soha (GU) S Vahil. Saba comorensis (Boji.) Fuya (SH) C Pichen Apiaceae Anethum graveolens (Mill) Lubicha (GU) H Foeniculum vulgare (Mill) Qushuwa (SH) H Asteraceae Vernonia amygdalina Del Banjaga (GU) H Bidens pilosa L. Tsetsega (SH) H Araceae Colocosa esculanta Kompha (SH) H (Hochst) Arecaceae Borassus aethiopum Mart. Goha (SH) T Phoenix reclinata Jacq Wola (SH) S Balanitaceae Balanites aegyptiaca Qota (SH) T (L.) Del. Boraginaceae Cordia africana Lam. Banja (SH) T Celastraceae Maytenus senegalensis Tisha (GU) S (Lam.) Excell. Salacia congolensis Tsera (SH) S (Wild.) Commelinaceae Commelina africana L. Echaya (GU) T Cucurbita pepo L. Maximara (SH) C Cucurbitaceae Gladiolus candies Engula (SH) C (Rendle) Momordica foetida Badha (SH) C Schumach. Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea cayenensis Egera (GU) C Lam. Dioscorea Anga (GU) C prehensilis Benth Ebenaceae Diospyros Maranta (SH) T mespiliformis Hoechst Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylon Tiriga (GU) H fischeri Engle Bridelia micrantha Yejega (GU) T Hoechst Croton macrostachyus Shekeshek (SH) T Del. Euphorbiaceae Bridelia scleroneura Ajega (GU) T Muell.Arg. Sepium ellipticum L. Andirgago (SH) S Clutia lanceolata Hoechst Doguha (SH) S Fabaceae Senna obtusifolia (L.) Bamdisa (GU) H Irwan & Barneby Piliostigma thonningii Mac'a (SH) T (Schum.) Milne-Redh Tamarindus indica L. Dogha (SH) T Flacourtiaceae Oncoba spinosa Forssk. Ula (SH) S Loganiaceae Strychnos innocua Del. Oola (SH) T Strychnos spinosa L. Merenza (GU) T Abelmoschus esculentus Andeha (GU) H (L.) Malvaceae Abelmoschus ficulneus Andha yiza (SH) H (L.) Monch Hibiscus cannabinus L. Tisha (GU) H Ficus vasta Forssk Bowa (GU) T Moraceae Ficus sur Forssk Essa (SH) T Ficus sycomorus L. Fuqa (GU) T Moras alba L. Injor (SH) S Moringaceae Moringa stenopetala Sheferwu (SH) S Lam Musaceae Ensete Ventricosum Echecha (SH) T (Wild) Eugenia uniflora L. Badirbonga (SH) S Myrtaceae Syzygium guineense Daguwa (GU) T (Wild.) Dc. sp. guineense Syzygium guineense Diwa (SH) T (Wild.) Dc. ssp. macrocarpum Poaceae Oxytenanthera abyssinica Soha (GU) H (A. Rich.) Munro Polygonaceae Rumex abyssinicus Jacq Ambata (SH) H Olacaceae Ximenia americana L. Meyo (GU) T Portulacaceae Portulaca quadrifida L. Kiwa (SH) H Sapotaceae Mimusops kummel A.DC. Shemiya (SH) T Lycopersicon Komidira (SH) H esculentum Mill Solanaceae Physalis peruviana L. Bosiya (SH) H Solanum nigrum L. Func'a (SH) H Rhamnaceae Ziziphus abyssinica Anguga (GU) T Hoechst Ziziphus spina-christi Sirah (Gu) T (L.) Wild Sapindaceae Lepisanthes senegalensis Bekuda (SH) S Pers Rubiaceae Gardenia ternifolia Gaaba(GU) T Schummach & Thonn. Pavetta crassipes Munqa (SH) S (K.Schum) Vangueria apiculata L. Hawa (SH) S Grewia bicolor Juss Somoya (SH) S Tiliaceae Grewia ferruginea Galqoriya (Sh) S Hochst. ex A.Rich Grewia mollis Juss Qoriya (GU) S Grewia schweinfurthii Badiriya (GU) S Burret. Corchorus olitorius L. Laliaq (SH) H Verbenaceae Vitex doniana Sweet Kokor (SH) T Ulmaceae Celtis africana Brum.f. Qawo (GU) T Zingiberaceae Etlingera littoralis L. Zingibila (GU) H Family Scientific names Part used Acanthus sennii Chiove Flower nectar Acanthaceae Justica ladanoides Lam. Leaves Justicia schimperiana Flower nectar Hochst. ex Nees Amaranthaceae Amaranthus caudata L. Leaves & young shoot Amaranthus cruentus Thell Leaves & seed Amaranthus hybridus L. Leaves Rhus retinorrhoea Oliv. Fruit Anacardiaceae Rhus vulgaris Meikle Fruit Rhus ruspolii Engle. Fruit Annonaceae Annona cherimola Mill Fruit Annona senegalensis Pers. Fruit Apocynaceae Carissa spinarum (Forssk) Fruit Vahil. Saba comorensis (Boji.) Fruit Pichen Apiaceae Anethum graveolens (Mill) Leaves Foeniculum vulgare (Mill) Leaves Asteraceae Vernonia amygdalina Del Leaves Bidens pilosa L. Leaves Araceae Colocosa esculanta Tubers (Hochst) Arecaceae Borassus aethiopum Mart. Fruit &young seedling Phoenix reclinata Jacq Fruit and stem Balanitaceae Balanites aegyptiaca Fruit (L.) Del. Boraginaceae Cordia africana Lam. Fruit Celastraceae Maytenus senegalensis Fruit (Lam.) Excell. Salacia congolensis Stem bark (Wild.) Commelinaceae Commelina africana L. leaves Cucurbita pepo L. Leaves Cucurbitaceae Gladiolus candies Young shoot (Rendle) Momordica foetida Leaves and fruit Schumach. Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea cayenensis Tubers/root Lam. Dioscorea Root/tubers prehensilis Benth Ebenaceae Diospyros Fruit mespiliformis Hoechst Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylon Leaves fischeri Engle Bridelia micrantha Fruit Hoechst Croton macrostachyus Leaves Del. Euphorbiaceae Bridelia scleroneura Fruit Muell.Arg. Sepium ellipticum L. Fruit Clutia lanceolata Hoechst Fruit Fabaceae Senna obtusifolia (L.) Seed Irwan & Barneby Piliostigma thonningii Fruit (Schum.) Milne-Redh Tamarindus indica L. Fruit Flacourtiaceae Oncoba spinosa Forssk. Fruit Loganiaceae Strychnos innocua Del. Fruit Strychnos spinosa L. Fruit Abelmoschus esculentus Fruit (L.) Malvaceae Abelmoschus ficulneus Fruit (L.) Monch Hibiscus cannabinus L. Leaves Ficus vasta Forssk Fruit Moraceae Ficus sur Forssk Fruit Ficus sycomorus L. Fruit Moras alba L. Fruit Moringaceae Moringa stenopetala Y, L Lam Musaceae Ensete Ventricosum Fruit (Wild) Eugenia uniflora L. Fruit Myrtaceae Syzygium guineense Fruit (Wild.) Dc. sp. guineense Syzygium guineense Fruit (Wild.) Dc. ssp. macrocarpum Poaceae Oxytenanthera abyssinica Yse (A. Rich.) Munro Polygonaceae Rumex abyssinicus Jacq Root Olacaceae Ximenia americana L. Fruit Portulacaceae Portulaca quadrifida L. Leaves Sapotaceae Mimusops kummel A.DC. Fruit Lycopersicon Fruit esculentum Mill Solanaceae Physalis peruviana L. Fruit Solanum nigrum L. Fruit and leaves Rhamnaceae Ziziphus abyssinica Fruit Hoechst Ziziphus spina-christi Fruit (L.) Wild Sapindaceae Lepisanthes senegalensis Fruit Pers Rubiaceae Gardenia ternifolia Fruit Schummach & Thonn. Pavetta crassipes Fruit (K.Schum) Vangueria apiculata L. Fruit Grewia bicolor Juss Fruit Tiliaceae Grewia ferruginea Fruit Hochst. ex A.Rich Grewia mollis Juss Stem bark Grewia schweinfurthii Leaves Burret. Corchorus olitorius L. Leaves Verbenaceae Vitex doniana Sweet Fruit Ulmaceae Celtis africana Brum.f. Fruit Zingiberaceae Etlingera littoralis L. Tuber Family Scientific names Preparation and mode of consumption Acanthus sennii Chiove Juice of flower nectars is sipped by lip Acanthaceae Justica ladanoides Lam. Flesh leaves are boiled and eaten Justicia schimperiana Juice of nectars is Hochst. ex Nees sipped by lip Amaranthaceae Amaranthus caudata L. Young leaves and shoots of plants are eaten after being cooked with Phaseolus vulgaris L. Amaranthus cruentus Thell Leaves are eaten cooked and the seed is grinded and eaten when it is changed to porridge Amaranthus hybridus L. Leaves are eaten boiled Rhus retinorrhoea Oliv. Fruit is eaten raw Anacardiaceae Rhus vulgaris Meikle Fruit is eaten raw Rhus ruspolii Engle. Fruit is soaked with straw until it is ripe and eaten raw Annonaceae Annona cherimola Mill Fruit is eaten raw Annona senegalensis Pers. Fruit is eaten raw Apocynaceae Carissa spinarum (Forssk) Fruit is eaten raw Vahil. and as juice Saba comorensis (Boji.) Fruit is eaten raw Pichen Apiaceae Anethum graveolens (Mill) Leaves are eaten raw or after being cooked with Cucurbita pepo Foeniculum vulgare (Mill) Leaves are squeezed with Allium sativum L. and used as condiment Asteraceae Vernonia amygdalina Del Leaves are eaten either raw or cooked Bidens pilosa L. Leaves are eaten after being boiled Araceae Colocosa esculanta The tuber is cut (Hochst) off, dried for one day, and eaten after being properly boiled Arecaceae Borassus aethiopum Mart. Germinating parts are eaten after being boiled and the fruit is eaten raw after soaking with straw for a month Phoenix reclinata Jacq External surface of the young stem i removed by sharp materials and boiled for two days until toxic substances are removed and then after staying for 30 minutes before eating. Fruit is eaten raw or after soaking with straw until it is ripened Balanitaceae Balanites aegyptiaca Fleshy exocarp of (L.) Del. the fruit is removed first and then the stony mesocarp is broken and the endocarp fruit is roasted and is eaten after getting immersed with alcohol for sexual excitement and to neutralize the alcoholic effects Boraginaceae Cordia africana Lam. The fruit is eaten raw Celastraceae Maytenus senegalensis The fruit is eaten raw (Lam.) Excell. Salacia congolensis The internal part of (Wild.) stem bark is removed carefully ground and the extracted juice is used as sauce Commelinaceae Commelina africana L. Leaves are eaten after cooking Cucurbita pepo L. Young leaves are eaten after cooking Cucurbitaceae Gladiolus candies Young shoots are (Rendle) eaten after cooking Momordica foetida Young leaves are Schumach. eaten after cooking and the fruit endocarp is eaten raw Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea cayenensis The poisonous parts Lam. of tubers are removed and the remaining parts are eaten after cooking Dioscorea Boiled tuber is eaten prehensilis Benth Ebenaceae Diospyros Fruit is eaten raw mespiliformis Hoechst Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylon The leaves are eaten fischeri Engle raw Bridelia micrantha The fruit is eaten raw Hoechst Croton macrostachyus Young cooked shoots Del. eaten Euphorbiaceae Bridelia scleroneura The fruit is eaten raw Muell.Arg. Sepium ellipticum L. The fruit is eaten raw Clutia lanceolata Hoechst The fruit is eaten raw Fabaceae Senna obtusifolia (L.) Endocarp is eaten raw Irwan & Barneby Piliostigma thonningii Fruit is eaten raw (Schum.) Milne-Redh Tamarindus indica L. Fleshy exocarp is eaten raw Flacourtiaceae Oncoba spinosa Forssk. Fleshy endocarp is eaten raw Loganiaceae Strychnos innocua Del. The fruit is eaten raw Strychnos spinosa L. The fruit is eaten raw Abelmoschus esculentus The fruit is eaten raw (L.) Malvaceae Abelmoschus ficulneus The fruit is eaten raw (L.) Monch Hibiscus cannabinus L. Leaves are burned until they form ash and are used as salt Ficus vasta Forssk The fruit is eaten raw Moraceae Ficus sur Forssk The fruit is eaten raw Ficus sycomorus L. The fruit is eaten raw Moras alba L. The fruit is eaten raw Moringaceae Moringa stenopetala Cooked young leaves, Lam eaten with Phaseolus vulgaris L. and rice Musaceae Ensete Ventricosum The fruit is eaten raw (Wild) Eugenia uniflora L. The fruit is eaten raw Myrtaceae Syzygium guineense The fruit is eaten raw (Wild.) or drunk in juice form Dc. sp. guineense Syzygium guineense The fruit is eaten raw (Wild.) Dc. ssp. macrocarpum Poaceae Oxytenanthera abyssinica The young seedling (A. Rich.) Munro boiled and eaten with bread Polygonaceae Rumex abyssinicus Jacq Root grinded by mortar and the squeezed part used as food decoction Olacaceae Ximenia americana L. The fruit is eaten raw Portulacaceae Portulaca quadrifida L. The shoot part is ground together with Allium sativum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Ruta chalepensis to form sauce and eaten with porridge and injeria (local bread) Sapotaceae Mimusops kummel A.DC. The fruit is eaten as raw Lycopersicon The fruit is eaten raw esculentum Mill Solanaceae Physalis peruviana L. The fruit is eaten raw Solanum nigrum L. The fruit is eaten raw and the leaves are eaten raw together with green pepper Rhamnaceae Ziziphus abyssinica The fruit is eaten raw Hoechst Ziziphus spina-christi The fruit is eaten raw (L.) Wild Sapindaceae Lepisanthes senegalensis The fruit is eaten raw Pers Rubiaceae Gardenia ternifolia The fruit is eaten raw Schummach & Thonn. Pavetta crassipes The fruit is eaten raw (K.Schum) Vangueria apiculata L. The fruit is eaten raw Grewia bicolor Juss The fruit is eaten raw Tiliaceae Grewia ferruginea The fruit is eaten raw Hochst. ex A.Rich Grewia mollis Juss The inner parts of stem bark are safely removed and soaked with hot water and grinded and collecting juice used as sauce Grewia schweinfurthii The fruit eaten raw Burret. Corchorus olitorius L. Young leaves eaten raw or after being cooked Verbenaceae Vitex doniana Sweet The fruit is eaten Ulmaceae Celtis africana Brum.f. The fruit is eaten raw Zingiberaceae Etlingera littoralis L. The fruit is eaten raw Family Scientific names Habitat Co. No Acanthus sennii Chiove WL, FL TB 069 Acanthaceae Justica ladanoides Lam. RV EL TB 046 Justicia schimperiana FE TB 014 Hochst. ex Nees Amaranthaceae Amaranthus caudata L. HG, RS TB 034 Amaranthus cruentus Thell HG, WL TB 063 Amaranthus hybridus L. HG, RS TB 031 Rhus retinorrhoea Oliv. WL TB 009 Anacardiaceae Rhus vulgaris Meikle RV, WL TB 015 Rhus ruspolii Engle. WL TB 002 Annonaceae Annona cherimola Mill WL, FE TB 060 Annona senegalensis Pers. WL TB 043 Apocynaceae Carissa spinarum (Forssk) WL, RV TB 068 Vahil. Saba comorensis (Boji.) RV TB 050 Pichen Apiaceae Anethum graveolens (Mill) RS, RV TB 045 Foeniculum vulgare (Mill) HG TB 037 Asteraceae Vernonia amygdalina Del WL DR TB 070 Bidens pilosa L. RS TB 057 Araceae Colocosa esculanta RV, HG TB 004 (Hochst) Arecaceae Borassus aethiopum Mart. WL TB 038 Phoenix reclinata Jacq FM, WL TB 003 Balanitaceae Balanites aegyptiaca WL TB 071 (L.) Del. Boraginaceae Cordia africana Lam. WL, FM TB 051 Celastraceae Maytenus senegalensis WL TB 012 (Lam.) Excell. Salacia congolensis WL TB 036 (Wild.) Commelinaceae Commelina africana L. WL TB 047 Cucurbita pepo L. HG TB 053 Cucurbitaceae Gladiolus candies RV TB 001 (Rendle) Momordica foetida RV TB 028 Schumach. Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea cayenensis WL, RV TB 010 Lam. Dioscorea WL TB 040 prehensilis Benth Ebenaceae Diospyros RV, FL TB 072 mespiliformis Hoechst Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylon HG TB 030 fischeri Engle Bridelia micrantha WL, FL TB 062 Hoechst Croton macrostachyus WL TB 076 Del. Euphorbiaceae Bridelia scleroneura WL, FL TB 044 Muell.Arg. Sepium ellipticum L. RC TB 065 Clutia lanceolata Hoechst WL TB 067 Fabaceae Senna obtusifolia (L.) HG, RS TB 011 Irwan & Barneby Piliostigma thonningii WL TB 033 (Schum.) Milne-Redh Tamarindus indica L. WL TB 008 Flacourtiaceae Oncoba spinosa Forssk. WL TB 059 Loganiaceae Strychnos innocua Del. WL, DR TB 035 Strychnos spinosa L. WL TB 047 Abelmoschus esculentus HG TB 024 (L.) Malvaceae Abelmoschus ficulneus Hg, FM TB 058 (L.) Monch Hibiscus cannabinus L. HG, FL TB 032 Ficus vasta Forssk RV, F TB 021 Moraceae Ficus sur Forssk RV TB 013 Ficus sycomorus L. WL, FL TB 067 Moras alba L. FE TB 019 Moringaceae Moringa stenopetala HG TB 016 Lam Musaceae Ensete Ventricosum RV, HG TB 066 (Wild) Eugenia uniflora L. WL TB 064 Myrtaceae Syzygium guineense RV TB 061 (Wild.) Dc. sp. guineense Syzygium guineense WL, FL TB 018 (Wild.) Dc. ssp. macrocarpum Poaceae Oxytenanthera abyssinica WL, HG TB 007 (A. Rich.) Munro Polygonaceae Rumex abyssinicus Jacq HG TB 073 Olacaceae Ximenia americana L. WL, FL TB 017 Portulacaceae Portulaca quadrifida L. HG, FL TB 006 Sapotaceae Mimusops kummel A.DC. WL, FL TB 040 Lycopersicon R TB 048 esculentum Mill Solanaceae Physalis peruviana L. Rs, DA TB 023 Solanum nigrum L. HG, RS TB 054 Rhamnaceae Ziziphus abyssinica WL TB 055 Hoechst Ziziphus spina-christi WL TB 049 (L.) Wild Sapindaceae Lepisanthes senegalensis W1 TB 052 Pers Rubiaceae Gardenia ternifolia WL, FL TB 016 Schummach & Thonn. Pavetta crassipes WL, FL TB 020 (K.Schum) Vangueria apiculata L. FM TB 056 Grewia bicolor Juss FE.FL TB 074 Tiliaceae Grewia ferruginea WL TB 039 Hochst. ex A.Rich Grewia mollis Juss WL, FL TB 025 Grewia schweinfurthii RV.FL TB 077 Burret. Corchorus olitorius L. FL, DR TB 027 Verbenaceae Vitex doniana Sweet WL TB 005 Ulmaceae Celtis africana Brum.f. DR TB 07 Zingiberaceae Etlingera littoralis L. RV TB 026 TABLE 2: Pairwise ranking based on taste of seven edible fruits in study area. Plant species Respondents Score Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Annona senegalensis 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 25 2nd Balanites aegyptiaca 3 2 4 2 3 1 2 17 4th Vitex doniana 5 4 2 3 5 5 4 28 1st Tamarindus indica 2 3 4 5 2 3 1 20 3rd Syzygium guineense 2 1 3 4 3 1 2 16 5th Ziziphus spina-christi 1 1 2 1 2 3 4 14 6th Oncoba spinosa 2 3 3 2 2 1 1 13 7th TABLE 3: Pairwise ranking based on taste of seven green leafy vegetables in study area. Plant species Respondents Score Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Portulaca quadrifida 4 1 4 4 5 5 1 24 1st Corchorus olitorius 3 2 4 5 1 2 4 21 2nd Amaranthus hybridus 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 11 6th Solanum nigrum 4 5 1 3 3 2 2 20 3rd Vernonia amygdalina 2 2 1 1 1 3 2 12 5th Bidens pilosa 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 10 7th Rumex abyssinica 3 4 2 3 1 4 4 21 4th TABLE 4: Traditional medicinal importance of some wild edible plants for human in the study area (N = 48). Scientific name Treated health Part used problem symptom Balanites aegyptiaca Abdominal pain Leaf/root Malaria Root A kind of dermal swelling Root Hypertension Root Bichawoba Root Bidens pilosa Tanea pedis Leaf Amaranthus hybridus Tape worm Leaf Tape worm Root Carissa spinarum Constipation Fruit Gonorrhea Fruit Diarrhea Fruit Cordia africana Constipation Fruit Abdominal ache Fruit Corchorus olitorius Diarrhea Leaf Grewia bicolor Venereal disease Fruit (syphilis) Constipation Root Liver disease Root Gardenia ternifolia Abdominal ache (coli) Root Abdominal distension Root Momordica foetida Bronchitis Leaf Ficus sur Ring worm Sap Diarrhea Aerial part Portulaca quadrifida Abdominal distension Aerial part Abdominal ache coli Aerial part Vernonia amygdalina Abdominal pain Leaf Solanum nigrum Abdominal pain Leaf Malaria Leaf Tamarindus indica Abdominal pain Fruit Abdominal pain Fruit Ximenia americana Gastritis Fruit Wound (as ointment) Fruit Ziziphus abyssinica Diarrhea Root Abdominal pan Root Scientific name Treated health Habit problem symptom Balanites aegyptiaca Abdominal pain Malaria A kind of dermal swelling Tree Hypertension Bichawoba Bidens pilosa Tanea pedis Herb Amaranthus hybridus Tape worm Herb Tape worm Carissa spinarum Constipation Shrub Gonorrhea Diarrhea Cordia africana Constipation Tree Abdominal ache Corchorus olitorius Diarrhea Herb Grewia bicolor Venereal disease Shrub (syphilis) Constipation Liver disease Gardenia ternifolia Abdominal ache (coli) Shrub Abdominal distension Momordica foetida Bronchitis climber Ficus sur Ring worm Tree Diarrhea Portulaca quadrifida Abdominal distension Herb Abdominal ache coli Vernonia amygdalina Abdominal pain Herb Solanum nigrum Abdominal pain Herb Malaria Tamarindus indica Abdominal pain Tree Abdominal pain Ximenia americana Gastritis Tree Wound (as ointment) Ziziphus abyssinica Diarrhea Shrub Abdominal pan Scientific name Treated health Number of problem symptom citations Balanites aegyptiaca Abdominal pain 9 Malaria 1 A kind of dermal swelling 1 Hypertension 1 Bichawoba 1 Bidens pilosa Tanea pedis 1 Amaranthus hybridus Tape worm 12 Tape worm 3 Carissa spinarum Constipation 1 Gonorrhea 3 Diarrhea 10 Cordia africana Constipation 2 Abdominal ache 1 Corchorus olitorius Diarrhea 1 Grewia bicolor Venereal disease (syphilis) Constipation 1 Liver disease 1 Gardenia ternifolia Abdominal ache (coli) Abdominal distension 1 Momordica foetida Bronchitis 1 Ficus sur Ring worm 1 Diarrhea Portulaca quadrifida Abdominal distension 1 Abdominal ache coli 1 Vernonia amygdalina Abdominal pain Solanum nigrum Abdominal pain Malaria 1 Tamarindus indica Abdominal pain 1 Abdominal pain 1 Ximenia americana Gastritis 1 Wound (as ointment) 1 Ziziphus abyssinica Diarrhea 1 Abdominal pan 1 Scientific name Treated health Participants problem symptom cited for use (%) Balanites aegyptiaca Abdominal pain 18.75 Malaria 2.08 A kind of dermal swelling 2.08 Hypertension 2.08 Bichawoba 2.08 Bidens pilosa Tanea pedis 2.08 Amaranthus hybridus Tape worm 25 Tape worm 6.25 Carissa spinarum Constipation 2.08 Gonorrhea 6.25 Diarrhea 20.8 Cordia africana Constipation 4.1 Abdominal ache 2.08 Corchorus olitorius Diarrhea 2.08 Grewia bicolor Venereal disease 4.1 (syphilis) Constipation 2.08 Liver disease 2.08 Gardenia ternifolia Abdominal ache (coli) 4.1 Abdominal distension 2.08 Momordica foetida Bronchitis 2.08 Ficus sur Ring worm 2.08 Diarrhea 8.3 Portulaca quadrifida Abdominal distension 2.08 Abdominal ache coli 2.08 Vernonia amygdalina Abdominal pain 4.1 Solanum nigrum Abdominal pain 6.25 Malaria 2.08 Tamarindus indica Abdominal pain 2.08 Abdominal pain 2.08 Ximenia americana Gastritis 2.08 Wound (as ointment) 2.08 Ziziphus abyssinica Diarrhea 2.08 Abdominal pan 2.08 Note. Based on growth habit, the total number of medicinal wild edible plants in the study area: herb = 6, tree = 5, shrub = 4, and climber = 1. TABLE 5: Average score for direct matrix ranking of the 11 wild edible plant species on eight use criteria (use given from 0 to 4, 0 = not used, 1 = least used, 2 = good, 3 = very good, 4 = excellent). Edible plant species and ranking * 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Edibility 2 0 2 1 2 1 3 Medicine 0 4 2 0 0 3 0 Construction/building 1 3 4 3 3 4 3 Furniture 4 0 3 3 3 3 4 Agricultural tools 0 0 1 0 4 1 0 Fuel wood collection 2 2 3 1 2 4 2 Fodder 2 1 1 4 3 3 1 Fencing 0 0 4 0 4 3 3 Total score 11 10 20 12 21 22 16 Rank 8 9 2 7 3 1 5 Edible plant Total Rank species and ranking * 8 9 10 11 Edibility 1 1 3 1 17 6th Medicine 1 0 0 0 10 8th Construction/building 3 3 2 0 29 1th Furniture 2 0 0 0 22 3rd Agricultural tools 0 2 3 1 12 7th Fuel wood collection 1 2 3 2 24 2nd Fodder 2 0 4 0 21 4th Fencing 3 0 3 0 20 5th Total score 13 8 18 4 Rank 6 10 4 11 * 1 = Annona senegalensis, 2 = Carissa spinarum, 3 = Cordia africana, 4 = Piliostigma thonningii, 5 = Ficus sur, 6 = Syzygium guineense, 7 = Vitex doniana, 8 = Ximenia americana, 9 = Ziziphus abyssinica, 10 = Balanites aegyptiaca, and 11 = Ziziphus spina-christi. TABLE 6: Priority ranking of threats to wild food plants used on their degree of destructive effects/values of 1-5 that were given: 1 is the least destructive threat and 5 is the most destructive threat. Factors Respondents of each village A1 A2 A3 Dm1 Dm2 Dm3 B1 Agricultural land expansion 4 3 4 2 2 1 3 Uncontrolled fire setting 1 2 1 3 1 1 3 Fuel wood collection 3 2 3 2 3 2 1 Overgrazing 2 2 3 1 4 2 3 Overharvesting 2 3 1 3 1 3 0 Factors Respondents of each village Total B2 Ch1 Ch2 Ab1 Ab2 Agricultural land expansion 2 1 1 3 3 29 Uncontrolled fire setting 2 1 3 2 1 21 Fuel wood collection 2 2 1 1 2 24 Overgrazing 3 2 2 1 1 26 Overharvesting 1 1 2 0 1 18 Factors Rank Agricultural land expansion 1st Uncontrolled fire setting 4th Fuel wood collection 3rd Overgrazing 2nd Overharvesting 5th A = Aygal mozanbus; Dm = Doshna Moch; B = Bardud; Ch = Chilanqo; Ab = Azemina Banosh. FIGURE 3: Mode of consumption. Porridge 5% Boiled or raw 9% Ash salt 1% Juice 7% Boiled 14% Condiment 5% Decoration 3% Raw 56% Note: Table made from pie chart
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|Title Annotation:||Research Article|
|Author:||Berihun, Tariku; Molla, Eyayu|
|Publication:||Journal of Botany|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2017|
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