Printer Friendly

Study of the ossification centers and skeletal development of pectoral limb in quad after hatching.

INTRODUCTION

Numerous studies are done about the forming of the ossification centers in birds before and after hatching. There are studies about quail before hatching and embryonic period but there is no fundamental investigation on the time and place of the ossification centers after hatching and there is little information about the wing skeleton in quail (Coturnix c. japonica), which is rapidly changing to a proper bird for many research studies like toxicology and teratology.

The anatomy of the wing of the birds and the patterns related to it are widely studied [16,26] and there have been many attempts for the analysis of the involved elements in controlling the differentiation of it [1,2,30].

Most of these studies, apart from some exceptions [18,19], are mostly about domestic poultry (Gallus domesticus).

As there is a lot of information about the skeletal development in gallus domesticus, we can consider them to compare with the results of this study on quail.

Such a comparison between two species that are categorized under different order of galliformes is of great importance [35].

The development of long bones in poultry from the histogenesis process of all the wing skeleton part to the differentiation of mesenchymal cells to chondroblasts and osteoblasts are described with a lot of

details [8].

Lansdown's study has surveyed the differentiation of mesenchymal cells to chondroblasts and osteoblasts and the development method of cartilage and bone structure in humerus and wing skeleton considering the age of the quail (coturnix c. japonica) embryo [17].

Hogg's study that was done on gallus domesticus showed the time of appearance of ossification centers after hatching in different parts of the wing skeleton [15].

In this study the formation process of the ossification centers in the wing skeleton of quail after hatching is investigated.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This study is done on quail after hatching. Fourteen quail (coturnix c. japonica) were kept from day one to the end of the studies under the same conditions and were reared under the standard conditions related to food, temperature, humidity and light.

The techniques employed include processing the radiographic stereotype with normal radiography film. The radiography machine was Dean 44 X-Ray machine, KV 40-110 and mAs 0.1-200 and focal-film distance 100 cm.

For radiography of the specimens the lateral and ventrodorsal position were used. Preparing the radiographs was on the specified times which means radiography was done twice on the first week (first and seventh days) and then once at the end of second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth week and after the ninth week until the full maturity stage and completion of skeletogenesis radiography of specimens was done every two weeks.

Study of the centers on the specimens continues until 91 days after hatchig.

Results:

The time of ossification in pectoral girdle and sternum: Scapula, Clavicle, Coracoid, Humerus:

On the first day after hatching this bone was not observed in any specimen because it was cartilaginous and was observed in all specimens after day seven.

Sternum:

It was not observed until the seventh days in any specimen. After day 14 it was observed in all specimens (Figure 1). The ossification starting time of pectoral girdle is shown in table 1.

Ossification time of wing bones:

Head of humerus:

It was not observed in any of the specimens until day 35. It was observed in day 42 in more than 90% and after day 49 in all specimens (Figure 2).

Dorsal tubercle of humerus:

It was not observed in any of the specimens until day 49. It was observed in day 56 in more than 90% and after day 56 in all specimens.

Venteral tubercle of humerus:

It was not observed in any of the specimens until day 42. It was observed in day 49 in 80%, in day 56 in 95% and after day 63 in all specimens.

Humerus:

On the first day after hatching this bone was not observed in any specimen because it was cartilaginous and was observed in all specimens after day seven.

Venteral condyle of humerus:

It was not observed in any of the specimens until day 42. It was observed in day 49 in 60%, in day 56 in 85%, in day 63 in 95%, and after day 70 in all specimens.

Dorsal condyle of humerus:

It was not observed in any of the specimens until day 42. It was observed in day 49 in 60%, in day 56 in 85%, in day 63 in 95%, and after day 70 in all specimens (Figure 3).

Radius:

On the first day after hatching this bone was not observed in any specimen because it was cartilaginous and was observed in all specimens after day seven.

Ulna:

On the first day after hatching this bone was not observed in any specimen because it was cartilaginous and was observed in all specimens after day seven.

Radial carpal bone:

It was not observed until the seventh day in any specimen. After day 14 it was observed in more than 95% and after day 21 in all specimens.

Ulnar carpal bone:

It was not observed until the seventh day in any specimen. After day 14 it was observed in more than 95% and after day 21 in all specimens (Figure 4).

Metacarp II:

It was not observed in any of the specimens until day 21. It was observed in day 28 in 50%, in day 35 in 80%, in day 42 in 95%, and after day 49 in all specimens.

Metacarp III:

On the first day after hatching this bone was not observed in any specimen because it was cartilaginous and was observed in all specimens after day seven.

Metacarp IV:

On the first day after hatching this bone was not observed in any specimen because it was cartilaginous and was observed in all specimens after day seven (Figure 5).

Proximal and distal phalanx of digit II:

On the first day after hatching these bones were not observed in any specimen because they were cartilaginous and after day 7 they were observed as joined together. After day 21 they were separable.

Proximal and distal phalanx of digit III:

On the first day after hatching these bones were not observed in any specimen because they were cartilaginous and after day 7 they were observed as joined together. After day 21 they were separable.

Phalanx of digit IV:

On the first day after hatching this bone was not observed in any specimen because it was cartilaginous and after day 7 it was observed as joined to proximal of digit III. After day 21 these two were separable. The ossification starting time of wing bones is shown in table 2.

Discussion:

Because of the widespread of the information in the field of skeletal development in chick we try to compare the development of wing skeleton in quail with gallus domesticus in this study.

In adult birds the differences observed in the formula were interesting as it illuminated the contrasts in past studies.

The general formula in digit ossification in birds is 1:2:1 [4, 5, 28]. But the formula observed in this study was usually 2:2:1 that was observed in further studies of past researchers about chicken [15, 22].

It seems that only Bellairs et al (1960) uses this formula specifically for gallus domesticus and it was confirmed in few birds studied in this investigation [5].

On the other hand, the formula 2:3:2 is also discussed for gallus domesticus that was not seen in the specimens of this study and that it may be mentioned for the inferior row of phalanges that exists as an extra and in embryo but it is synthesized with the proximal row later [5,11].

For adult birds the formula 2:3:2 is also mentioned [6].

Maybe the fuse time of carpus and manus is after hatching that it is in contrast with the findings of past researchers [31].

According to Schinz et al (1973) about 1 or 2 months after hatching the chicken metacarpus ossifies which is at the end of the first week for metacarpus III and IV and end of the seventh week for metacarpus II in quail in all specimens [32].

It seems that less attention is paid for the development of the digits in yet it can be said that the first center of ossification in digits area of wing skeleton in quail is about the end of the first week.

It is probable that the skeletal development in distal elements of quail wing happens around the end of the first week with special mention of development in metacarpus, and digits area. Such a speed can have little result in the development of the carpus area.

Conclusion:

The formation process of pectoral limb and wing skeleton elements in quail (coturnix c. japonica) and chicken have little differences but the growth pattern is identical in both.

Ossification of the long bones in wing area beginning at the end of the first week and at the end of the ninth week all the elements in these bones are formed.

The obvious point was that there are no secondary ossification centers in pectoral girdle and limb.

The best time to mention as the completion of the ossification process and the formation of all bone elements in pectoral girdle and limb is 63 days after hatching (Figure 6).

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 23 March 2014

Received in revised form 23 April 2014

Accepted 31 May 2014

Available online 10 June 2014

REFERENCES

[1] Amprino, R., D. Bonetti, 1967. Experimental observations on the development of ectoderm free mesoderm of the limb bud in chick embryos. Nature, Londan, 214: 826-827.

[2] Amprino, R., M. Camosso, 1958. Experimental observations on influences exerted by the proximal over the distal territories of the extremities. Experientia, 142: 41-243.

[3] Barnerr, C.H., 0.J. Lewis, 1958. The evolution of some traction epiphyses in birds and mammals. Journal of Anatomy, 92(4): 593-601.

[4] Baumel, J.J., 1980. Osteologia ln Nomina Anatomica Avium (ed. J. J. Baumel, A. S. King, A. M. Lucas, J. Breazile & H. E. Evans). New York and London Academic Press.

[5] Bellaairs, A.D.A., C.R. Jenkin, 1960. The skeleton of birds. In Biology and Comparative Physiology of Birds, vol. 1 (ed. A. J. Marshall). New York and London Academic Press, pp: 241-300.

[6] Chamberlain, F.W., 1943. Atlas of Avian Anatomy. Michigan State College.

[7] Church, L.E., L.C. Johnson, 1964. Growth of long bones in the chicken. Rates of growth in length and diameter of the humerus, tibia and metatarsus. American Journal of Anatomy, 114(3): 521-538.

[8] Fell, H.B., 1925. The histogenesis of cartilage and bone in the long bones of the embryonic fowl. Journal of Morphology and Physiology, 40(3): 417-459.

[9] Franceschi, M.P., 1967. On the appearance and evolution of secondary ossification centers in the tibia of Gallus gallus (Linn.). Acta anatomica, 68: 169-188.

[10] Fujioka, T., 1955. Time and order of appearance of ossification centers in the chicken skeleton. Acta anatomica nipponica, 30: 140-150.

[11] Hamilton, H.L., 1952. Lillie's Development of the Chick, 3rd ed. New York: Henry Holt & Co.HERRICK, E. H. & HERRICK, E. M. (1956). Rib abnormalities in fowls. Poultry Science, 35: 191-194.

[12] Hines, R.W., 1942. The evolution of epiphyses and of endochondral bone. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philisophical Society, 17: 267-290.

[13] Hines, R.W., 1940. Note on the independence of sesamoid and epiphyseal centers of ossification. Journal of Anatomy, 75: 101-105.

[14] Hines, R.W., 1938. Primitive form of epiphysis in long bones of tetrapods. Journal of Anatomy, 72: 323343.

[15] Hogg, D.A., 1980. A re-investigation of the ossification centers in the avian skeleton at and after hatching. Journal of Anatomy, 130(4): 725-743.

[16] Knopfli, W., 1919. Beitrage zur Morphologie und Entwicklungsgeschichte des Brustschulterskelettes bei den Vogeln. Jena Z. Naturw, 55: 577-720.

[17] Lansdown, A.B.G., 1967. An investigation of the development of the wing skeleton in the quail (Coturnix c. japonica). Journal of Anatomy, 105(1): 103-114.

[18] Leighton, V.L., 1894. The development of the wing in Sterna wilsoni. Am. Nat, 28:761-774.

[19] Maillard, J., 1948. Recherches embryologique sur Catharacta skua (Brunn.) Revue Suisse. Zool. Suppl, 55: 1-114.

[20] Montagna, W., 1945. Areinvestigation of the development of the wing of the fowl. Journal of Morphology, 76: 87-113.

[21] MORSE, E.S., 1874. On the tarsus and capus of birds. Ann. Lyc. nat. Hist, N.Y., 10:141-158.

[22] Newton, A., H. Gadow 1896. A Dictionary of Birds. London: A. & C. Black.

[23] Padgett, C.A., W.D., IVEY, 1959. Coturnix quail as a laboratory research animal. Science, N.Y, 129: 267268.

[24] Parsons, F.G., 1905. On pressure epiphyses. Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, 39(4): 402-412.

[25] Parsons, F.G., 1904. Observations on traction epiphyses. Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, 38: 248-258.

[26] Parker, W.K., 1888. On the structure and development of the wing in the common fowl. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., 179: 385-398.

[27] Parker, W.K., 1868. A monograph on the structure and development of the shoulder girdle and sternum. Published for the Ray Society by Hardwicke, London.

[28] Portmann, A., 1950. Squelette. In Traitd de Zoologie (ed. P. Grasse), Tome XV, Oiseaux. Paris: Masson.

[29] Romanoff, A. L., 1960. The Avian Embryo. New York: Macmillan.

[30] Saunders, J.W. JR., 1948. The proximo-distal sequence of origin of parts of the chick wing and on the role of the ectoderm. J. exp. Zool, 108: 363-403.

[31] Schinz, H.R., R. Zangerl, 1937. Beitrage zur Osteogenese des Knochensystems bein Haushuhn, bei der Haustaube und beim Haubensteissfuss. Memoires de la Sociftj helvdtique des sciences naturelles LXXII, Mem, 2: 117-165.

[32] Schinz, H.R., R. ZANGERL, 1937. Uber die Osteogenese des Skelettes beim Haustaube und beim Haubensteissfuss. Morph. Jb, 80: 620-628.

[33] Strong, R.M., 1902. The order and rate of ossification of the skeleton. I. Birds. Anat. Rec, 18, 263.

[34] Warren, A.E., 1934. Experimental studies on the development of the wing in the embryo of Gallus domesticus. Am. Journal of Anatomy, 54: 449-486.

[35] Wetmore, A., 1951. A revised classification of birds of the world. Smithson. misc. Collns, 117(4): 22.

[36] Wolbach, S.B., D.M. Hegsted, 1952. Endochondral bone growth in the chick. American Medical Association Archives o Pathology, 54(1): 1-12.

(1) Siamak Alizadeh, (1) JAbbas Veshkini, (2) Hassan Gilanpour

(1) Department of Clinical Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

(2) Department of Anatomical Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Corresponding Author: Siamak Alizadeh, Department of Clinical Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Table 1: Time of pectoral girdle ossifying.

           Days after hatching
Bone
           1    7    14   21   28   35   42   49

Scapula         +    +    +    +    +    +    +
Clavicle   -    +    +    +    +    +    +    +
Coracoid   -    +    +    +    +    +    +    +
Sternum    -    -    +    +    +    +    +    +

           Days after hatching
Bone
           56   63   70   77   84   91

Scapula    +    +    +    +    +    +
Clavicle   +    +    +    +    +    +
Coracoid   +    +    +    +    +    +
Sternum    +    +    +    +    +    +

Table 2: Time of wing skeleton ossifying.

                                Days after hatching
Bone
                                1    7    14   21   28   35   42

Head of humerus                 -    -    -    -    -    -    -+
Dorsal tubercle of humerus      -    -    -    -    -    -    -
Venteral tubercle of humerus    -    -    -    -    -    -    -
Humerus                         -    -    -    -    -    -    -
Venteral condyle of humerus     -    +    +    +    +    +    +
Dorsal condyle of humerus       -    -    -    -    -    -    -
Radius                          -    -    -    -    -    -    -
Ulna Radial carpal bone         -    +    +    +    +    +    +
Ulnar carpal bone               -    +    +    +    +    +    +
Metacarp II                     -    -    -+   +    +    +    +
Metacarp III                    -    -    -+   +    +    +    +
Metacarp IV                     -    -    -+   +    +    +    +
Proximal phalanx of digit II    -    -    -    -    -+   -+   -+
Distal phalanx of digit II      -    +    +    +    +    +    +
Proximal phalanx of digit III   -    +    +    +    +    +    +
Distal phalanx of digit III     -    +    +    +    +    +    +
Phalanx of digit IV             -    +    +    +    +    +    +
                                -    +    +    +    +    +    +
                                -    +    +    +    +    +    +
                                -    +    +    +    +    +    +

                                Days after hatching
Bone
                                49   56   63   70   77   84   91

Head of humerus                 +    +    +    +    +    +    +
Dorsal tubercle of humerus      -    -    +    +    +    +    +
Venteral tubercle of humerus    -    -+   +    +    +    +    +
Humerus                         -+   -+   +    +    +    +    +
Venteral condyle of humerus     +    +    +    +    +    +    +
Dorsal condyle of humerus       -+   +    +    +    +    +    +
Radius                          -+   -+   -+   +    +    +    +
Ulna Radial carpal bone         +    +    +    +    +    +    +
Ulnar carpal bone               +    +    +    +    +    +    +
Metacarp II                     +    +    +    +    +    +    +
Metacarp III                    +    +    +    +    +    +    +
Metacarp IV                     +    +    +    +    +    +    +
Proximal phalanx of digit II    +    +    +    +    +    +    +
Distal phalanx of digit II      +    +    +    +    +    +    +
Proximal phalanx of digit III   +    +    +    +    +    +    +
Distal phalanx of digit III     +    +    +    +    +    +    +
Phalanx of digit IV             +    +    +    +    +    +    +
                                +    +    +    +    +    +    +
                                +    +    +    +    +    +    +
                                +    +    +    +    +    +    +
COPYRIGHT 2014 American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2014 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 
Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Alizadeh, Siamak; Veshkini, Abbas; Gilanpour, Hassan
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Date:May 1, 2014
Words:2631
Previous Article:Effect of parental attitude toward physical activity on sport participation of their children in school.
Next Article:The effect of various concentrations of Iba and Naa on the rooting of semi hardwood cuttings of Azalea Alexander 1.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters