Study of milling on [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] ceramic/GFRP component using sintering diamond tools.
Lightweight materials have been extensively used in modern armours in recent years. One of those is [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] ceramic/GFRP component, which plays an important role in improving the bulletproof ability and reducing armour vehicle weight for its excellent physical and mechanical properties such as high hardness, high compressive strength and low density; as a result, many of the current and foreseeable applications for [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] ceramic/GFRP component can be seen in modern armours and aerospace.
However, machining difficulties and high costs have been associated with the uses. After the composite components are manufactured, secondary machining processes such as milling are required for the purpose of joining and assembling, which is very difficult due to the different properties of the material, such as high hardness and low fracture toughness of ceramic and high hardness and easy laying of the GFRP. Milling is often a manufacturing process to machine irregular holes of different sizes and shapes, such as square holes and hexagonal holes to meet the assembly requirements. However, rare articles are found on studying milling technology on components made of ceramic and GFRP; more articles focus on processing of single material. For instance, Basile et al. (2016) studied the processing of a glass ceramic surface by selective focused beam laser treatment. Zhang et al. (2002) analysed a drilling tool's rotation with fixed abrasives and the machining mechanism of drilling based on the fracture mechanics concept, and a new theoretical model of the material removal rate is proposed. Huang and Liu (2003) studied the machining characteristics and surface integrity of advanced ceramics including alumina, aluminatitania and yttria partially stabilised tetragonal zirconia. Abdul Majeeda et al. (2008) studied the machinability of [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]/[LaPO.sub.4] ceramic composites using ultrasonic machining methods. Rubio et al. (2013) have done drilling tests using three kinds of cemented carbide drill on glass fibre and analysed the influence of tool parameters. Lazar and Xirouchakis (2011) carried out drilling tests on carbon fibre- and glass fibre-reinforced composite, which studied the distribution of the load and the determination process parameters. Jin, Yuan, and Xiao (2004) studied the drilling characteristics using brazing of diamond drill bit on [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] ceramics. Li, Chen, and Huang (2006) machined the alumina ceramics using brazing craft production diamond drill bit. Klocke, Verlemann, and Schippers (1999) studied various process strategies for high speed grinding of aluminium oxide and silicon-infiltrated silicon carbide at high removal rates. Ferreira, Coppini, and Miranda (1999); Ferreira, Coppini, and Levy Neto (2011) studied the effects of cutting speed, feed rate, cutting depth and other parameters on tool wear, machining quality and cutting force using carbide and CBN cutting tools. Davim, Reisa, and Antonio (2004) studied the relationship between process parameters and cutting force and surface quality. Slamani, Gauthier, and Chatelain (2015) studied the effect of process parameters on cutting force. Pecat, Rentsch, and Brinksmeier (2012) studied the influence of milling process parameters on the surface integrity of CFRP. And in these works: (Kaczmar, Pietrzak, and Wlosinski 2000; Jarzabek, Chmielewski, and Wojciechowski 2015; Kaczmar, Naplocha, and Morgiel 2014; Chmielewski et al. 2014; Anup Shetty, Rajesh Mathivanan, and Mahesh 2016), there are no detailed investigations of the effects of milling conditions on the milling efficiency and milling force has been reported.
Based on these, milling technology on [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] ceramic/GFRP component is investigated, which could solve the problem of difficulty in material cutting, thereby improving the milling efficiency and obtaining regular law when milling composite component. This investigation is helpful to improve the application of ceramic/GFRP component in the field of armour protection, and promote the lightweight of special vehicles.
2. Experimental design
2.1. Diamond tool
The diamond tool is mainly made of a diamond layer and a steel matrix, which is shown in Figure 1. Diamond layer is manufactured by compression derived from shrinkage upon sintering of a metal powder and diamond particles; steel matrix (45 steel, tempered to 45HRC hardness) is linked to the diamond layer by welding. According to the test results of references (Zheng, Yuan, and Li 2007; Gao et al. 2011), on sintering diamond tools, this paper uses SMD40 type diamond (supplier: Nanjing Lide grinding tools factory) and the sintering diamond tool manufacturing parameters are shown in Table 1. The dimensions of the diamond tool in this experiment are 20 mm in outside diameter, 8 mm in working layer height, 3 mm in wall thickness and grit size is 50/60 US mesh (300-250 [micro]m).
2.2. Composite component
The component is made up of three parts from top to bottom, namely fibreglass layer (2.0 mm), alumina ceramic (10.0 mm) and fibreglass layer (12.0 mm) and it has dimensions of 50 mm x 50 mm x 24 mm, which are shown in Figure 2.
[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] (99.5 wt%) ceramic used in this study is produced by hot isostatic pressing; alumina powder size is 0.35-0.75 [micro]m and its mechanical properties are listed in Table 2. GFRP is stacked by a fibreglass mono-layer plate, which is bound by thermosetting epoxy resin among each layer; the volume fraction of the fibre is maintained at 60% and its mechanical properties are listed in Table 3.
2.3. Experimental conditions
Milling experiments were performed on a milling machine whose power of the spindle drive motor was 750 W with available rotating speeds of 1890-3200 r/min. The way of feed processing was constant pressure and feed force was 605-835 N, which were achieved by hanging specific weights on the driving wheel of the machine. Ordinary water coolant was used during the experiment to reduce milling cutter surface temperature; water pressure was 0.3 MPa, and flow rate was 120 cc/s.
Milling force experiments were carried out on the vertical machining center ZX6350A, whose spindle speed range was 20-8000 r/min and feed speed(X, Y, Z) was 1-15000 mm/min, which are shown in Figure 3. The milling force data were collected and recorded by a data acquisition system, which is shown in Figure 4. The schematic diagram of milling force measurement system is shown in Figure 5, which mainly consists of YDX-9702 piezoelectric sensor (the measurement range of X, Y and Z is [+ or -]3000 N, the sensitivity of Z is [+ or -]42 pc/kgf, the sensitivity of X, Y is [+ or -]80 pc/kgf and the size of resolution is [+ or -]0.001 kgf), YE5850 charge amplifier, A/D converters, data acquisition board, computer and virtual instruments.
2.4. Experimental steps
Since [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] ceramic has a dominant influence on processing efficiency when compared with GFRP when milling composite component; therefore, the milling time of ceramic was used to evaluate the milling efficiency on composite component. First, the influencing rules of feed force, spindle speed and milling depth on milling efficiency were investigated in the milling experiments, and an orthogonal test was designed to further analyse the influence on milling efficiency; the GFRP layer of 2 mm should be milled off in advance; milling length of 50 mm and the milling time were saved under different process parameters for analysing the milling efficiency. Then, the milling force experiments were carried out using nine milling cutters under the different spindle speeds, feed speeds and milling depths; another orthogonal experiment was designed to further analyse the effect of process factors on milling force; the experimental data were acquired by a milling force measurement system. Finally, single-factor tests were conducted to find out empirical formula of milling force, which was used to further investigate the influence of processing factors on milling force.
3. Experimental results and discussion
3.1. The influence of feed force on milling efficiency
Figure 6 shows the milling time under different feed forces when spindle speed is 2600 r/min and milling depth is 5 mm.
It is clear that the milling time decreases with the increase in feed force, i.e. the milling efficiency is enhanced. The reason is that the milling depth of each cutting abrasive becomes greater with a higher feed force, which increases the volume of the removed material per unit time, so the milling efficiency increases. However, the milling efficiency is decreased when the feed force rises up to 770 N, which might be caused by the permitted feed speed of [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] being very small; the difficulty in crushing the material increased when the diamond cutting depth increased with a higher feed force. Besides, the efficiency is also influenced by the spindle torque; when feed force is too high, the machine tool power provided to the main shaft torque is insufficient, thus the milling efficiency declined. Figure 6 shows the limitation of 770 N for feed force.
3.2. The influence of spindle speed on milling efficiency
Figure 7 shows the milling efficiency by varying the spindle speed under the feed force of 770 N and the milling depth is 5 mm.
It can be seen from the diagram, when the spindle speed is below 2600 r/min, that the efficiency enhanced with the increase in spindle speed because of the increase in volume of the removed material per unit time per unit grain; but when the speed reaches 3200 r/min, the efficiency decreases. There are major two reasons: first, with the spindle speed increasing, tangential velocity of the working diamond in the worn surface increases, then the impact load acting on the diamonds increases, which leads to the diamond's early pulling out or fragmentation; second, the increasing tangential velocity reduces the diamond's cutting depth in unit time when the feed force is being constant, which gives rise to the cutting distance of each diamond; furthermore, the temperature of the milling zone also increases which may cause diamond graphitising easily, then the diamond tends to wear flat. Figure 7 shows that the highest spindle speed should not exceed 2600 r/min.
3.3. The influence of milling depth on milling efficiency
Figure 8 shows the milling efficiency by varying milling depth under the condition of spindle speed is 2600 r/m and feed force is 770 N.
It can be found that milling time is the shortest when the milling depth is 3 mm, which implies the milling efficiency is highest. The milling efficiency declines with the increase in the milling depth; the reason is that the load acting on the single diamond abrasive decreases with the increase in contact area between materials and tools, so the volume of the removed material declines, which leads to the decrease in milling efficiency.
Additionally, the milling efficiency declines more significantly when the range of milling depth is from 5 to 7 mm. The reason is that greater milling depth results in greatly declined load born on single diamond abrasive, which results in the milling depth of each cutting abrasive to become smaller.
3.4. Orthogonal experiment
3.4.1. Experimental design
In order to further analyse the influence of milling parameters on milling efficiency, an orthogonal test with three factors and three levels was designed. The influences of milling parameters on milling efficiency was studied by range analysis. The levels and factors are listed in the Table 4.
3.4.2. The results and analysis of orthogonal experiment
The results of orthogonal experiment are listed in Table 5; range analysis results are shown in Table 6, among them: [K.sub.i] (i = 1, 2, 3) is the sum of the experimental results of 1, 2, 3 levels at various factors; [k.sub.i] (i = 1, 2, 3) is the average value of the sum of the experimental results of 1, 2, 3 levels at various factors; R is range.
The range analysis shows that [R.sub.A] > [R.sub.C] > [R.sub.B]; therefore, the influencing capacity order of each factor is feed force > milling depth > spindle speed, feed force has the greatest influence on milling efficiency, milling depth has a second impact and the spindle speed has the least influence on milling efficiency. Optimal level can be selected to optimise the milling efficiency according to the average values of the sum of the experimental results at various factors, [A.sub.3] (770 N) is the optimal level of feed force because of [k.sub.A3] < [k.sub.A2] < [k.sub.A1]; similarly: [B.sub.3] (2600 r/min) is the optimal level of spindle speed.
Since milling efficiency and milling times are required to be high and minimised separately, considering the ceramic thickness as 10 mm, it is the most reasonable that the milling depth is 5 mm in this experiment. Therefore, [A.sub.3][B.sub.3][C.sub.2] is the best optimal level combination of the experimental factors, which is 770 N in feed force, 2600 r/min in spindle speed and 5 mm in milling depth. Under such conditions, milling efficiency is the highest. And the results indicate that feed force is the most significant factor influencing the efficiency of milling [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] ceramic and the influencing capacity order is feed force > milling depth > spindle speed.
3.5. The analysis of milling force
3.5.1. The design scheme of orthogonal experiment
Since feed force is the most significant factor influencing the efficiency based on the above experiment results, [L.sub.9]([3.sup.3]) orthogonal milling force tests were arranged to further analyse the effect of process factors on milling force and milling efficiency; a total of nine milling cutters with SMD40 diamond grain were used in this experiment and the experimental data were saved by a milling force measurement system. Because GFRP is easier to mill than ceramic, the latter was focused. The effect of technological factors on the milling force and the processing efficiency was analysed through the scheme of orthogonal experiment; then, the influence level size of various factors on milling force and processing efficiency was evaluated by range analysis and variance analysis; finally, the most reasonable processing parameters were found out. The levels and factors are listed in the Table 7.
3.5.2. The results and analysis of orthogonal experiment
Results of the [L.sub.9]([3.sup.3]) orthogonal test are listed in Table 8. The data of groups (1, 2, 3) indicate that the resultant force increases with the increase in feed speed and milling depth under the same spindle speed; at the same time, the milling time reduces gradually, which means that the milling efficiency increases. In order to distinguish the influence of feed speed and milling depth on milling force and machining efficiency. It can be easily observed that the data of groups (4, 5, 6), two of those are groups (4, 5), of the milling force and the processing time are changed when there is an increase in feed speed and milling depth, which are similar to the groups (1, 2, 3). But in the group of 6, the milling force falling suddenly under the condition of the milling depth increases and the feed speed decreases; at the same time, the processing time doubles; it is clear that the milling force and processing efficiency decline due to the decrease in feed speed.
Furthermore, Table 9 contains the range analysis based on the experimental results for more accurate analysis of the influence of processing parameters (feed speed, milling depth, spindle speed) on milling force, among them: ([F.sub.xi], [F.sub.yi], [F.sub.i] (i = 1 - 3)) is the average value about milling force corresponding to results of the three levels for each influencing factor; R is range.
The range analysis shows that feed speed is the most significant factor influencing the milling force and the influencing capacity order of each factor is C > B > A, and this range analysis is consistent with the observation analysis; therefore, the key factor of milling [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] ceramic/GFRP component is that the feed speed is controlled reasonably.
Based on range analysis, Table 10 contains the variance analysis for more accurate evaluation of the effect of various process factors on milling force.
The variance analysis shows the feed speed is the most significant factor influencing the milling force, so the variance analysis is consistent with the range analysis.
The analysis results show that the influencing capacity order of each factor is C > B > A, but it can't be judged which group's processing parameters are the most reasonable. The mathematical formula relevant to processing parameters is proposed based on the above analysis in order to determine the most reasonable processing parameters, which can be expressed as follows:
u = [[F.sub.mx] * T * [V.sub.f]/[a.sub.]] (1)
where [F.sub.mx] is the resultant milling force, T is the milling time, [V.sub.f] is the feed speed and [a.sub.p] is the milling depth.
According to the formula (1), when [mu]-value is small, it indicates that the tool can remove more volume of the material under the condition of low milling force, short time and low feed speed; in other words, the milling efficiency is high and this kind of process parameters is the most reasonable. Table 11 contains calculation results of the formula (1) based on the experimental results in Table 8.
The calculation results indicate that the sixth group can achieve the highest milling efficiency under the condition of small cutting force, small feed speed and large milling depth, which can account for the fact that the processing parameters of the sixth group are the most reasonable. Accordingly, high spindle speed, large milling depth and small feed speed should be used on milling [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] ceramic/GFRP component, which is consistent with the literature (Davim, Reisa, and Antonio 2004).
3.5.3. Single-factor experiments
Since each of the parameters gives conflicting solutions, it is important to arrive at an optimised solution. This is achieved by developing a normalised objective function that includes all the milling parameters, which are obtained by the least square method of linear regression equation. The multivariable linear regression model is used to further accurately investigate the influence of processing factors on milling force. Experiment equipment is the same as the orthogonal experiment; the normal milling force and tangential milling force were collected and recorded, respectively.
22.214.171.124. Mathematical model of milling force. The multivariable linear regression model is dependent on feed speed ([V.sub.f]), milling depth ([a.sub.p]) and spindle feed (n), which are shown in the formula (2):
F = C[V.sub.f.sup.[alpha]][a.sub.p.sup.[beta]][n.sup.r] (2)
where C is a constant which relates to material properties, [V.sub.f] (mm/min) is the feed speed, [a.sub.p] (mm) is the milling depth and n (r/min) is the spindle speed.
The mathematical models of milling force about spindle speed, feed speed and milling depth are expressed, respectively, in formulas (3), (4), (5):
F = C[n.sup.r] (3)
F = C[V.sub.f.sup.[alpha]] (4)
F = C[a.sub.p.sup.[beta]] (5)
126.96.36.199. The empirical formula of milling force
(1) The influence of spindle speed on milling force Experimental conditions: feed speed, [V.sub.f] = 5 mm/min; milling depth, [a.sub.p] = 4 mm/min; the size of milling force was adjusted by changing spindle speed. The experimental scheme and results are listed in the Table 12.
The empirical formula of milling force about spindle speed was obtained using the linear regression equation of the least square method, which can be expressed, respectively, as formulas (6) and (7):
[F.sub.n] = 6.1983[n.sup.-0.0862] (6)
[F.sub.t] = 6.6688[n.sup.-0.2992] (7)
The empirical formulas about spindle speed indicate that the milling force decreases with the increase in the spindle speed, which is caused by the increase in diamond abrasive particle per unit time; the reason is that the maximum milling thickness of single diamond abrasive particle decreases with the increase in diamond abrasive particle per unit time.
(2) The influence of milling depth on milling force
Experimental conditions: feed speed, [V.sub.f] = 5 mm/min; spindle speed, n = 3200 r/min; the size of milling force was adjusted by changing milling depth. The experimental scheme and results are listed in the Table 13.
The same method to calculate the empirical formula of milling force about milling depth is used, which can be expressed, respectively, as the formulas (8) and (9):
[F.sub.n] = 5.3491[a.sub.p.sup.0.1522] (8)
[F.sub.t] = 4.1269[a.sub.p.sup.0.1378] (9)
It should be noted that the milling force increases with the increase in milling depth, but because the machine tool power provided to the main shaft torque is insufficient, the milling depth can't be increased indefinitely in the actual process; otherwise, it will lead to the decline of milling efficiency when milling machine reaches the maximum power; this results are consistent with the above experimental results.
(3) The influence of feed speed on milling force
Experimental conditions: spindle speed, n = 3200 r/min; milling depth, [a.sub.p] = 4 mm/min; the size of milling force was adjusted by changing feed speed. The experimental scheme and results are listed in the Table 14.
The empirical formula of milling force about feed speed is expressed, respectively, as the formulas (10) and (11):
[F.sub.n] = 5.1454[V.sub.f.sup.0.2155] (10)
[F.sub.t] = 3.842[V.sub.f.sup.0.2959] (11)
It is clear that the milling force increases with the increase in feed speed, but the milling force tends to be stable when feed speed reaches a certain value. The reason is that the increase of feed speed leads to the increase in milling force of a single diamond abrasive particle, which causes diamond grain pulling out or shedding early; at the same time, matrix binder wears seriously; what's worse is that the phenomenon of skidding occurs and finally, the milling force tends to be stable.
3.6. Milling samples of composite component
Due to the high brittleness of the armour ceramic, cracks or breakouts are often found in the entrance and exit sides of the hole during the milling; therefore, [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] ceramic has a dominant influence on the milling efficiency and milling quality. According to the above experimental results, high milling efficiency and good processing quality can be achieved under the condition of spindle speed of 2600 r/min, milling depth of 5 mm and feed force of 770 N. The milling sample of composite component is shown in Figure 9.
The results outlined in this study indicate that processing parameters play a significant role in the milling of [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] ceramic/GFRP component. Conclusions are drawn as follows:
(1) Feed force is the most significant factor influencing the efficiency when milling [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] ceramic/GFRP component using sintering diamond tools and the influencing capacity order is feed force > milling depth > spindle speed.
(2) Higher milling efficiency and good quality can be achieved under the conditions of spindle speed of 2600 r/min, milling depth of 5 mm and feed force of 770 N when milling the component.
(3) Feed speed is the most significant factor influencing milling force; spindle speed has a minimum influence on the milling force and the influencing capacity order is feed speed > milling depth > spindle speed.
(4) Milling force decreases with the increase of the spindle speed, and increases with the rise in milling depth and feed speed. It tends to be stable when feed speed rises.
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu High Education Institutions of China [grant number 14KJB460008].
Notes on contributors
Chao Gao constructed the article, designed the main experiments setting. Chao analyzed the results and did the paper writing.
Sheng Wang assisted in experiments setup and milling force analyzing. Sheng also participated in paper writing.
Guorong Wu did the literature surveying and reviewing, and designed experiments setting.
Abdul Majeeda, M., L. Vijayaraghavana, S. K. Malhotrab, and R. Krishnamurthy. 2008. "Ultrasonic Machining of [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]/La[PO.sub.4] Composites." International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 48 (1): 40-46. doi:10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2007.07.012.
Anup Shetty, H., N. Rajesh Mathivanan, and B. S. Mahesh. 2016. "An Experimental Investigation on the Process Parameters Influencing Machining Forces during Milling of Carbon and Glass Fiber Laminates." Measurement 91: 39-45. doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2016.04.077.
Basile, N., M. Gonon, F. Petit, and F. Cambier. 2016. "Processing of a Glass Ceramic Surface by Selective Focused Beam Laser Treatment." Ceramics International 42 (1): 1720-1727. doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2015.09.129.
Chmielewski, M., S. Nosewicz, K. Pietrzak, J. Rojek, A. Strojny-Nedza, S. Mackiewicz, and J. Dutkiewicz. 2014. "Sintering Behavior and Mechanical Properties of NiAl, [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3], and NiAl-[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] Composites." Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 23 (11): 3875-3886. doi:10.1007/s11665-014-1189-z.
Davim, J. P., P. Reisa, and C. C. Antonio. 2004. "Experimental Study of Drilling Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP) Manufactured by Hand Lay-up." Composites Science and Technology 64 (2): 289-297. doi:10.1016/S0266-3538(03)00253-7.
Ferreira, J. R., N. L. Coppini, and G. W. A. Miranda. 1999. "Machining Optimisation in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composite Materials." Journal of Materials Processing Technology 92-93: 135-140. doi:10.1016/S0924-0136(99)00221-6.
Ferreira, J. R., N. L. Coppini, and F. Levy Neto. 2011. "Characteristics of Carbon Composite Turning." Journal of Materials Processing Technology 109 (1-2): 65-71. doi:10.1016/S0924-0136(00)00776-7.
Gao, C., J. T. Yuan, H. Jin, and Z. Q. Song. 2011. "Performance Optimization of Diamond-Impregnated Bit for Engineering Ceramics." Journal of Nanjing University of Science and Technology: Natural Science Edition 35 (3): 415-421. http://njlgdxxb.paperopen.com/oa/DArticle.aspx?type=view&id=201103024
Huang, H., and Y. C. Liu. 2003. "Experimental Investigations of Machining Characteristics and Removal Mechanisms of Advanced Ceramics in High Speed Deep Grinding." International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 43 (8): 811-823. doi:10.1016/S0890-6955(03)00050-6.
Jarzabek, D. M., M. Chmielewski, and T. Wojciechowski. 2015. "The Measurement of the Adhesion Force between Ceramic Particles and Metal Matrix in Ceramic Reinforced-Metal Matrix Composites." Composites Part a: Applied Science and Manufacturing 76: 124-130. doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2015.05.025.
Jin, X. L., J. T. Yuan, and B. Xiao. 2004. "Experiment of Machining Technology on Engineering Ceramic Materials." Tools Technology 38 (5): 22-24.
Kaczmar, J. W., K. Pietrzak, and W. Wlosinski. 2000. "The Production and Application of Metal Matrix Composite Materials." Journal of Materials Processing Technology 106 (1-3): 58-67. doi:10.1016/S0924-0136(00)00639-7.
Kaczmar, Jacek W., Krzysztof Naplocha, and Jerzy Morgiel. 2014. "Microstructure and Strength of [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] and Carbon Fiber Reinforced 2024 Aluminum Alloy Composites." Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 23 (8): 2801-2808. doi:10.1007/s11665-014-1036-2.
Klocke, F., E. Verlemann, and C. Schippers. 1999. "High-Speed Grinding of Ceramics." In Machining of Ceramics and Composites, edited by S. Jahanmir, M. Ramulu, and P. Koshy, 119-138. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker.
Lazar, M. B., and P. Xirouchakis. 2011. "Experimental Analysis of Drilling Fiber Reinforced Composites." International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 51 (12): 937-946. doi:10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2011.08.009.
Li, Z. Y., J. Y. Chen, and H. Huang. 2006. "Experimental Study on Machining Engineering Ceramics Using Brazing Diamond Tools." Tools Technology 40 (9): 10-12.
Pecat, O., R. Rentsch, and E. Brinksmeier. 2012. "Influence of Milling Process Parameters on the Surface Integrity of CFRP." Procedia CIRP 1: 466-470. doi:10.1016/j.procir.2012.04.083.
Rubio, J. C. C., L. J. Silva, W. O. Leite, T. H. Panzera, S. L. R. Filho, and J. P. Davim. 2013. "Investigations on the Drilling Process of Unreinforced and Reinforced Polyamides Using Taguchi Method." Composites Part B: Engineering 55: 338-344. doi:10.1016/j.compositesb.2013.06.042.
Slamani, M., S. Gauthier, and J. F. Chatelain. 2015. "A Study of the Combined Effects of Machining Parameters on Cutting Force Components during High Speed Robotic Trimming of CFRPs." Measurement 59: 268-283. doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2014.09.052.
Zhang, Q. H., J. H. Zhang, D. M. Sun, and G. D. Wang. 2002. "Study on the Diamond Tool Drilling of Engineering Ceramics." Journal of Materials Processing Technology 122 (2-3): 232-236. doi:10.1016/S0924-0136(02)00016-X.
Zheng, L., J. T. Yuan, and S. H. Li. 2007. "Performances of Diamond Impregnated Bit in Hole Drilling of Engineering Ceramics." Journal of Nanjing University of Science and Technology: Natural Science Edition 31 (5): 574-578. http://njlgdxxb.paperopen.com/oa/darticle.aspx?type=view&id=200705009
Chao Gao, Sheng Wang and Guorong Wu
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, China
CONTACT Chao Gao email@example.com
Received 29 November 2016
Accepted 9 March 2017
Table 1. Sintering diamond tool manufacturing parameters. Binder compo- Sintering Holding time Sintering sition (wt%) temperature ([degrees]C) (min) pressure (MPa) Cu50Co25Sn- 600 2 14.7 18Ti7 Table 2. Property parameters of [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] ceramic. Density (g/[cm.sup.3]) Modulus of elasticity (GPa) 3.90 350 Density (g/[cm.sup.3]) Flexural strength (MPa) (25 [degrees]C) 3.90 370 Density (g/[cm.sup.3]) Vickers hardness (GPa) 3.90 24 Density (g/[cm.sup.3]) Fracture toughness ([(MPa.m).sup.1/2]) 3.90 4.4 Table 3. Property parameters of glass fibre-reinforced plastic. Tensile modulus of Density (g/[cm.sup.3]) Tensile strength (MPa) elasticity (GPa) 1.8 439-503 22-35.6 Bending strength Bending modulus of Density (g/[cm.sup.3]) (MPa) elasticity (GPa) 1.8 530-705 21.7-25.0 Density (g/[cm.sup.3]) Barcol hardness(HB) 1.8 70-80 Table 4. The table of orthogonal experiment factors and levels. Spindle speed Milling depth Levels, factors Feed force (N) (r [min.sup.-1]) (mm) 1 600 1800 3 2 650 2200 5 3 700 2600 7 Table 5. The results of orthogonal experiment. Spindle Milling Test results Feed force speed depth Milling Test number (N) (r [min.sup.-1]) (mm) time (s) 1 600 1800 3 662 2 600 2200 5 671 3 600 2600 7 698 4 650 1800 5 672 5 650 2200 7 684 6 650 2600 3 615 7 770 1800 7 623 8 770 2200 3 483 9 770 2600 5 435 Table 6. Range analysis. B. Spindle A. Feed force speed (r C. Milling Factors (N) [min.sup.-1]) depth (mm) Milling time [k.sub.1] 2031 1957 1760 [k.sub.2] 1971 1838 1778 [k.sub.3] 1541 1748 2005 [k.sub.1] 677 652.3 586.7 [k.sub.2] 657 612.7 592.7 [k.sub.3] 513.7 582.7 668.3 R 163.3 69.6 81.6 Table 7. The table of orthogonal experiment factors and levels. Levels, factors Spindle speed Milling depth Feed speed n (r/min) [a.sub.p] (mm) [V.sub.f] (mm/min) 1 1800 3 3 2 3200 4 5 3 4500 5 7 Table 8. the results of orthogonal experiment. Spin- Cut- Experiment results dle ting Feed speed edge speed Milling force Test [V.sub.f] Tangential Normal Resultant num- n (r/ [a.sub.p] (mm ber min) (mm) /min) [F.sub.x] [F.sub.y] [F.sub.max] 1 1800 3 3 75.6 218.5 231.2 2 1800 4 5 81.3 265.4 277.6 3 1800 5 7 90.2 285.7 299.6 4 3200 3 5 70.3 246.2 256.0 5 3200 4 7 85.6 253.7 267.7 6 3200 5 3 69.3 237.9 247.8 7 4500 3 7 73.7 240.9 251.9 8 4500 4 3 60.4 226.4 234.3 9 4500 5 5 68.8 248.7 258.0 Experiment results Milling force Test num- Time ber T (s) 1 23.3 2 14 3 10 4 14 5 10 6 23.3 7 10 8 23.3 9 14 Table 9. Range analysis results. A: Spindle B: Milling C: Feed speed depth speed n (r/min) [a.sub.p] (mm) [V.sub.f] (mm/min) Tangential Fx1 82.36 73.2 68.43 milling force Fx2 75.07 75.77 73.47 ([F.sub.x]) Fx3 67.6 76.1 83.17 R 14.76 2.90 14.74 Normal milling Fy1 256.63 235.2 227.6 force ([F.sub.y]) Fy2 245.93 248.6 253.53 Fy3 238.67 257.43 260.1 R 17.97 22.23 32.5 Resultant F1 269.46 246.36 237.76 milling force F2 257.16 259.86 263.86 ([F.sub.max]) F3 248.06 268.46 273.06 R 21.40 22.10 35.3 Table 10. Variance analysis results. Sum of square of Degree F - devia- of free- critical Significance Factor tions dom F ratio value level Tangen- A 325.616 2 1.442 5.14 ** tial B 15.109 2 0.067 5.14 milling C 336.496 2 1.491 5.14 ** force D 677.22 6 Normal A 490.096 2 0.488 5.14 milling B 751.909 2 0.748 5.14 * force C 1771.909 2 1.764 5.14 ** ([F.sub.y]) D 3013.91 6 resultant A 692.06 2 0.602 5.14 * milling B 744.62 2 0.648 5.14 force C 2011.94 2 1.75 5.14 ** ([F.sub.max]) D 3448.62 6 Note: Remarks: A: spindle speed, n (r/min); B: Milling depth, [a.sub.p] (mm); C: Feed speed, [V.sub.f] (mm/min); D: Error. Table 11. [mu]-value calculation results. Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Results 5387 4853 4194.4 5973.3 4684.8 3464.2 5877.7 4094.4 Number 9 Results 3612 Table 12. Single-factor test results of spindle speed. Experiment number 1 2 3 4 5 6 Spindle speed n 1800 2200 2600 3200 3600 4500 (r/min) Milling Normal 265.4 253.7 250.1 247.5 242.7 236.7 force ([F.sub.n]) Tangential 81.3 79.8 76.3 72.3 67.2 62.4 ([F.sub.t]) Table 13. Single-factor test results of milling depth. Experiment number 1 2 3 4 5 6 Milling depth [a.sub.p] 1 2 3 4 5 6 (mm) Milling Normal 210.8 237.4 246.2 251.3 272.3 281.3 force ([F.sub.n]) Tangential 62.7 68.2 70.3 74.2 78.5 80.2 ([F.sub.t]) Table 14. Single-factor test results of feed speed. Experiment number 1 2 3 4 5 6 Feed speed n 1 2 3 5 7 9 (r/min) Milling Normal 178.5 197.6 207.2 237.2 253.7 295.4 force ([F.sub.n]) Tangential 48.6 57.2 60.1 72.3 85.6 92.5 ([F.sub.t])
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Gao, Chao; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Guorong|
|Publication:||Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2018|
|Previous Article:||Turning of structural steel while supplying cooled ionized air to the cutting zone.|
|Next Article:||Dimensional synthesis of a planar five-bar mechanism for motion between two extreme positions.|