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Study of forest structure in pruned (Galazani) and undisturbed stand in the Northern Zagros forest (Case study: Baneh, Kurdistan province).

INTRODUCTION

Forests cover about 12 million ha in Iran, including 5 million ha in the mountainous Zagros region [3].Most of the forests of Iran involve some kind of conventional ownership, either communal (by villages) or among families within villages. In the Zagros Mountains, especially in the northern areas, the territory of Kurdish people, this kind of conventional ownership and relationships between humans and nature are extremely strong [7]. Increasing population, low level of development and high dependence of local communities on forests for their primary livelihood needs, are the main reasons of this destruction [2, 7]. Traditional forest management is used in Zagros for the collection of foliage (fodder) for domestic animal. Individual households manage their privately owned forests as unit. The owners of each section regulate tree growth by pruning the crowns using a method called " coppicing". Harvesting is conducted solely by family members unless the family is small. Households with small families receive help from the community. This assistance is called "Gale" (Gala on Kurdish language). In the Kurdistan province the oak tree is used for livestock feed, this tree include: Quercus infectoria, Q. libani and Q.libani leaves. These oaks are used as winter fodder. Forest management is conducted via ground and canopy level cutting of newly developed branches [4]. The horizontal structure of a forest is composed of diameter size distribution of tree species considered individually or as a community (Philip, 1994). Structure includes vertical (e.g. number of tree layers, understory vegetation) and horizontal features (e.g. spatial pattern of trees, gaps) as well as species richness [9]. Vertical forest structure is an attribute of forests that is of interest to many disciplines and is consistently discussed in the Stocking (number of trees or basal area per unit area), reflects the spatial distribution of tree individuals within the forest and the distribution of different species in relation to one another [1]. Stand structure is a key factor in the growth, function, and disturbance regimes of forests. Forest restoration, and management based on natural disturbance ecology, has highlighted the value of a clearer understanding of the role of structure in mediating key ecosystem processes. The diameter distribution has also an important role in different growth and yield study. Diameter distributions have also been used for analyzing the structure of forest, e.g., in relation to forest biodiversity [12]. This several researches (forest structure) implemented in the Iran and Zagros forest in cloud:Mattaji and Namiranian (2003) [10] Investigating the structure and evolution process of Beech forests natural stands in north of Iran. The results showed that beech species was dominant with respect to height. Regarding high longevity of beech, discontinuous crown of tree, and this stand is old with two or three storied and it is far from the optimal, showing the beginning of regeneration phase and passing destruction while overlapping aggradation (increasing stage) and destruction stage. Ghazanfari et al (2004)[4] investigated the traditional forest management and its Application to encourage public participation for sustainable forest management in the northern Zagros Mountains of Kurdistan province and results showed that traditional forest management can offer sustained yield and can be prescribed for sustainable forest management in northern Zagros with some modifications.Hosseinzadehet al (2004) [6] investigated on structure of less degraded Oak forests in Illam province. Results show that, the stands are basically uneven-aged old forests among which Quercus persica with its vigorous existence outcrops as pure or original species of forest type. Other results show that, maximum forest canopy, maximum basal area, and maximum volume per hectare are 35%, 22.6m2 and 46.3m3, respectively. Some of the DBH distribution graphs in the stands indicate an uneven aged stand, but most of them are old stands of very little regeneration. Results also show that number of dead trees and amount of dry branches in canopy are very good indices for determination of degradation in forests. Heidari (2006) [5] used Hopkins index to determine spatial pattern of tree in the Zagros forests. He concluded that the trees were arranged in a clumped pattern. Safari et al (2010)[11], Investigated spatial pattern of Manna oak trees (Quercus brantii Lindl.) in Bayangan forests of Kermanshah province, Zagros forest. All of the applied indicators showed a clumped pattern for Quercus brantii. The aim of this research was Study of vertical and horizontal forest structure in pruned (Galazani) and undisturbed stand In the Baneeh region, Kurdistan province, in Northern Zagros Forest (west of Iran). Haidari et al (2013) study the effect of two Traditional Forest Management Practices (Havare khol and Blake forest) on the vertical and horizontal forest structure in Northern Zagros Forest and results showed that the Spatial pattern (horizontal structure) of Havare khol forest was clumped pattern but horizontal structure of Blake forest was uniform to random pattern. Overall results showed that Havare Khol traditional forest management practice has less negative effect on forest structure but lack of large (i.e. 30 50 cm) and very large (50 cm) diameter classes but Armardeh pattern can regulate diameter distributions as uneven-aged old stands system and could not support forest regeneration and reduced the young tree. Authorssuggested approaching the sustainableforest management used the compact of two traditional forest management practices (Armardeh and Havare Khol Pattern)[14]. The aim of this study is study of forest structure in pruned (Galazani) and undisturbed stand In the Baneh region, Kurdistan province in Northern Zagros forest (west of Iran).

MATERIAL AND METHOD

Site description:

This research was investigated in the Baneh region (Havare khol forest), northern Zagros forest, and western Iranian state of Kurdistan (Figure 1).

Methods:

This study accured in the two stands (each stands are 25 R (2.5 hectare)). Inventory methods used the perfact inverntory by used the square sample plots quarter hectare (50 x 50 m) were selected. In every sample plot the position of tree, kind of species, diameter at breast height (cm), height (m), crown height (m) and two diameters of crown were recorded. Data analyzing was done bySPSS16and SVS (Stand Visualization System) software's.

Results:

Table 1: The mean of DBH, Height and crown area in the pruned
(Galazani) stand.

N/hectare   N/sample   Standard deviation   Mean     parameter

312            78             2/04          13/3      DBH (cm)
                              1/18          3/02     Height (m)
                              1/12          2/75   crown area (m)


The results showed that the mean of forest characteristics including DBH, height and crown area (m) are 13.2, 3.02and 2.75in pruned (Galazani) stand.

The results showed that the mean of forest characteristics including DBH, height and crown area (m) are 23.1, 4.8 and 6.8in undisturbed stand.

Figure 6 indicate spatial pattern (horizontal structure) of pruned (Galazani) stand wasrandom pattern.

Discussion:

As traditional forest management practices are rooted in the customary life of local communities, they would appear to have widespread social acceptance, are adapted to local conditions, and have the potential to solve one of the most important problems currently facing forest management in the Zagros region [4]. Zagros forests have a high characteristic in society and economics. People in the Zagros regions are dependent to forest in order to grazing and providing forage (Haidari, 2011). The vertical stratification of tree crowns is a forest attribute that influences both trees Growth and understory community structure [8]. The results showed that the pruned (Galazani) stand characteristics including DBH, height and crown area (m) are 13.2, 3.02 and 2.75, but in undisturbed stand the mean of forest characteristics including DBH, height and crown area (m) are 23.1, 4.8 and 6.8in undisturbed stand (table 1, 2). This results emphasis the negative effect of traditional utilization on forest characters. One of the serious threats to most of the Iranian ecosystems is drought, because much of Iran lies in the arid or semi-arid regions. The other threats for plants are: overgrazing, fuel wood extraction, conversion of forest and other wild lands for agriculture, road construction, overexploitation, and unscientific extraction of plant resources for medicine and food. Results showed that the spatial pattern (horizontal structure) of undisturbed stand was Clumped pattern, and this stands have a two layer (figure 2, 3 and 4).Results showed that the pattern (horizontal structure) of pruned (Galazani) stand was random pattern, and this stands have a two layer (figure 5, 6 and 7). Overall results showed that the traditional utilization have a negative effect on forest characters and forest structure (vertical and horizontal structure). Haidari et al, (2013)[14] indicate the negative effect of traditional utilization on forest structure and characters in the Northern Zagros forest.

Conclusion:

Overall results showed that the traditional utilization have a negative effect on forest characters and forest structure (vertical and horizontal structure).

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 9 September 2013

Received in revised form 24 October 2013

Accepted 29 October 2013

Available online 10 November 2013

REFERENCES

[1] Brower, J.E., J.H. Zar, Von Ende, 1990. Field and Laboratory Methods for General Ecology. Third ed., Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque.

[2] Fattahi, M., 1994. Study on Zagros oak forests and the most important their destruction causes. Institute of Forests and Rangelands Research press. Sanandaj. Iran. [Persian].

[3] Forest and Rangeland Organization, 2002. Strategies for sustainable forest management in Zagros forests. Technical Report. Forest and Rangeland Organization, Teheran. (In Persian.).

[4] Ghazanfari, H., M. Namiranian, H. Sobhani and M.R. Marvi Mohajer, 2004. Traditional forest management and its application to encourage public participation for sustainable forest management in the northern Zagros mountain of Kurdistan province, Iran. Scandinavian Journal of forest science, 19(suppl. 4): 65-71.

[5] Heidari, H., 2006. Studying different distance methods in inventory of Zagros Forest. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Tehran, Iran, 77.

[6] Hosseinzadeh, J., M. Namiranian, M. Marvi Mohajer, G.H. Zahedi Amiri, 2004. Structure of Less Degraded Oak Forests in Illam Province (Southwest Iran), Iranian J.Natural Res., 57: 74-90.

[7] Jazirehi, M.H., E.M. Rostaghi, 2003. Silviculture in Zagros. University of Tehran Press. Tehran. 520.

[8] Latham, Penelope, R. Zuuring, Coble, Dean, 1998. A method for quantifying vertical forest structure, Forest Ecology and Management, 104: 157-170.

[9] Maltamo, M., P. Packalen, X. Yu, K. Eerikainen, J. Hyyppa, J. Pitkanen, 2005. Identifying and quantifying structural characteristics of heterogeneous boreal forests using laser scanner data. Forest Ecol. Manage, 216: 41-50.

[10] Mattaji, A., M. Namiranian, 2003. Investigating the structure and evolution process of Beech forests natural stands in north of Iran (Case study: Kheyrood-kenar, Noushahr), Iranian J.Natural Res., 55: 530541.

[11] Safari, A., N. Shabanian, R.H. Heidari, S.Y. Erfanifard and M. Pourreza, 2011. Spatial pattern of Manna Oak trees (Quercus brantii Lindl.) in Bayangan forests of Kermanshah, Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 18(4): 596-608.

[12] Uuttera, J., M. Maltamo, 1995. Impact of regeneration method on stand structure prior to first thinning. Comparative study, North Karelia, Finland vs. Republic of Karelia, Russian Federation. Silva Fennica, 29(4): 267 [+ or -] 285.

[13] Haidari, M., M. Namiranian, L. Gahramani, M. Zobeiri, N. Shabanian, 2013a. Study of vertical and horizontal forest structure in Northern Zagros Forest (Case study: West of Iran, Oak forest), European Journal of Experimental Biology, 3(1): 268-278.

(1) Sorosh Zabiholahi, (2) Maziar Haidari

(1) M.Sc. Graduated of forestry, University of Tehran, Karadj, I.R.Iran

(2) Young Researchers and Elite Club, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.

Corresponding Author: Maziar Haidari, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.

Table 2: The mean of DBH, Height and crown area in the undisturbed
stand.

N/hectare   N/sample   Standard deviation   Mean     parameter

492           123             3/02          23/1      DBH (cm)
                              1/2           4/8      Height (m)
                              1/4           6/8    crown area (m)
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Author:Zabiholahi, Sorosh; Haidari, Maziar
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Oct 1, 2013
Words:1950
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