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Study of density, viscosity and ultrasonic properties of Ethyl/methyl-4-(aryl)-6-methyl-2-oxo/thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-pyridimidine-5-carboxylate.

1. INTRODUCTION

A series of compounds ethyl/methyl-4-(aryl)-6-methyl-2-oxo/thioxo-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydropyridimidine-5-carboxylate under investigation for acoustical parameters in the present paper was synthesized by the previously published method [1] they were synthesized by the reaction of ethyl acetoacetate, urea /thiourea and p-chlorobenzaldehyde/Salicyldehyde/ furaldehyde by using solid supported K-10 Montmorillonite clay as a catalyst.

Pyrimidine and its derivatives are of biological significance and study of molecular interactions in solution will be helpful for understanding their biological applications. Ultrasonic deals with study and application of high frequency sound waves usually in excess of 20 KHz (20,000 cycles per second). It works on the basis of piezoelectric effect [2-4]. Ultrasound has come to play an important role in our daily life. Due to its non-destructive nature [5-7] it has wide range of application in different fields like chemical industries, consumer industries, medical field, process industries, physics, chemistry, biology etc [8-13]. Further, it is one of the most rapid and reliable technique for the characterization of materials. In medical field, ultrasound was used to detect gall stones and foreign bodies in soft tissues. It is also used for various diagnosis such as pediatrics [14], vascular diseases [15], brain diseases [16], ophthalmology [17], in urology [18], in cancer cell [19] etc. It is also useful to obtain the information about lung microstructure [20] and biological structures [21]. It is safe for both patient and operator. It is also applied for inactivation of microorganisms in food [22] and dairy industry [2325]. More recently, a lot of interest has been generated on the use of ultrasound radiation in synthetic organic chemistry, which includes decrease of reaction time, increase of yield, lower reaction temperature, avoidance of phase transfer catalysis etc [26-28]. Another area where ultrasonic is now a day being used, is to obtain the information microstructures [29]. It is reported that these ultrasonic waves provide valuable information about the structure of solids [30]. By ultrasonic velocity measurements, the molecular interactions in pure liquids [31-34], aqueous solutions [35-37] and liquid mixtures [38-39] can also be studied. However, very little work has been done for solid organic compounds [40].

Since, no work has been reported on the study of molecular interactions in ethanolic solution of Ethyl/methyl-4-(aryl)-6-methyl-2-oxo/thioxo-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydropyridimidine-5-carboxylate. Therefore, the present work is undertaken to know the sound velocities and various acoustical parameters for the said compounds in different concentrations at 313 K. The applications of these pyrimidine derivatives in different fields of science developed our interest in the measurement of their velocities and viscosities and to compute acoustical parameters to understand their interactions with organic solvent at different concentrations.

2. MATERIAL AND METHODS

The chemicals used were of analytical grade. Double distilled water was used for preparation of solutions. Pyrimidines derivatives used were recrystallized before use. IR spectra were recorded on Bruker Alpha model (make: Germany). [sup.1]H NMR at 300.13 and [sup.13]CNMR at 75.5 MHz spectra of the representative compound was recorded in CD[Cl.sub.3] on NMR instrument (Bruker DRX 300) at CDRI Lucknow using TMS as internal standard.

General procedure for the synthesis of ethyl/methyl-4-(aryl)-6-methyl-2-oxo/thioxo-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydropyridimidine-5-carboxylate A mixture of substituted aromatic aldehydes (1a-e) (0.01M), ethyl acetoacetate/methyl acetoacetate (0.01M) and urea/thiourea (0.01M) and K-10 Montmorillonite clay were taken in a round bottom flask and was shaken for two minutes. The reaction mixture was then heated in a water bath at about 90[degrees]C for about 30 to 70 minutes. With the progress of a reaction, a solid started to deposit. The solid was washed with cold water (1 mL) and then recrystallized from rectified spirit to get a colourless solid.

The compounds, which are under investigation, are as follows:

[FORMULA NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The solutions of these compounds (1a-1e) was prepared by adding accurate amount of solute in ethanol (99%) so as to prepare different concentration 0.1%, 0.05%, 0.025%, 0.0125%, 1.0%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.125%. The densities (p) of solutions were determined using specific gravity bottles of capacity 25 mL. The ultrasonic velocity measurement was carried out at different concentrations of solution by using multifrequency ultrasonic interferometer (Mittal Enterprises, model F-81) operating at the frequency of 1 MHz with the accuracy of [+ or -] 0.01 [ms.sup.-1]. The ultrasonic interferometer was calibrated with doubly distilled water. Viscosity (n) measurements was carried out by using Oswald's viscometer. The temperature was 313 K during measurements.

The ultrasonic waves of known frequency are produced by a quartz crystal fixed at the bottom of the cell. The measuring cell is connected to the output terminal of the high frequency generator through the spherical cable. A movable metallic plate kept parallel to the quartz crystal reflects these waves. If the separation between these two plates is exactly a whole multiple of the sound wavelength, standing waves are formed in the medium. This acoustic resonance gives rise to an electrical reaction on the generator, driving the quartz crystal and anode current of the generator becomes a maximum. The high frequency generator is designed to excite the quartz crystal fixed at the bottom of the measuring cell at its resonant frequency to generate ultrasonic waves in the experimental liquid filled in the measuring cell. The least count of micrometer used for measuring the wavelength is 0. 001 mm. The ultrasonic velocity is obtained if the wavelength is known. With the help of measurements of ultrasonic velocity, density, viscosity, and various acoustical parameters were calculated by using the following expressions.

1. Ultrasonic velocity (u): The relation used to determine the ultrasonic velocity is given by,

u = f[lambda] [ms.sup.-1]

Where, f--Frequency of ultrasonic waves, [lambda]--Wave length

2. Adiabatic compressibility (k): Adiabatic compressibility, which is defined as,

[kappa] = (1/[upsilon]2 [rho]) [kg.sup.-1] [ms.sup.2]

Where, u--Ultrasonic velocity, [rho]--Density of the solution.

3. Free volume (Vf): Free volume in terms of the ultrasonic velocity (u) and the viscosity of the liquid ([eta]) as

Vf = [(M u/k[eta]).sup.3/2] [m.sup.3]

Where, M is the molecular weight and 'k' is a temperature independent constant equal to 4.28 x [10.sup.9] for all liquids.

4. Acoustic impedance (Z): The acoustic impedance is computed by the formula

Z = u x [rho] kg [m.sup.-2] [s.sup.-1]

5. Free length (Lf): It is calculated by using formula, Lf = (K/u [[rho].sup.1/2]) m

K--Jacobson temperature dependent constant defined as K = (93.875 + 0.345T) x [10.sup.-8]

6. Absorption coefficient ([alpha]/[f.sup.2]): It is calculated by, [alpha]/[f.sup.2] = 8[[pi].sup.2][eta]/3[rho][u.sup.3]

7. Viscous relaxation time (X): It is calculated using the relation, T = 4[eta]/3[rho][u.sup.2]

8. Rao's Constant (R): Rao's constant is calculated by using formula,

R = V x [v.sup.1.sub.3] or R = (M/[rho]) [v.sup.1.sub.3]

M = Molecular Weight.

9. Surface Tension (S): Surface tension is calculated formula given below,

v = [(S/6.3 x [10.sup.-4] [rho]).sup.2/3]

10. Internal pressure (ni): Internal pressure is calculated by formula given below,

[[PI].sub.i] = b RT [[k [eta]/v].sup.1/2] [[rho].sup.2.sub.3]/[M.sup.7.sub.6]

11. Molar volume: It is the ratio of density verses molecular weight.

Vm = M/[rho]

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

[sup.1]H NMR and [sup.13]C NMR data of representative compound is as follows,

Ethyl 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4 tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate (1a): M.Pt. 135[degrees]C: IR ([cm.sup.-1]): 3100-3500 (2 N-H stretching vibration); 1568 (C=C of aromatic ring); 1280 (N-C=S stretching vibration of thioamides); 1087 (s-m; C=S stretching vibration); 711 (C-Cl): [sup.1]H NMR (300.13 MHz, 5): 9.989 (N-H); 7.099-8.411 (Ar-H); 5.379 (NH); 4.111 (CH); 2.198 (C[H.sub.2]); 1.287 (C[H.sub.3]); [sup.13]C NMR (75.5 MHz, 5): 191.21 (C=O); 174.57 (C=S); 128.39-143.31 (Ar-C); 60.78 (CH); 55.06 (CH); 18.49 (C[H.sub.2]); 14.31 (C[H.sub.3]).

Experimentally measured values of ultrasonic velocity (U) and density (p) and calculated values of various acoustical parameters for ethanolic solution of 1a-1e at different concentrations are reported in Table 1 to Table 10.

The variation of Density, Viscosity, Velocity, adiabatic compressibility (Pad), intermodular free length (Lf), relaxation time (X), free volume (Vf), internal pressure (ni), acoustical impedance (Z),constant (W), ultrasonic attenuation ([alpha]/f2), Rao's constant (R), molar volume (Vm), and cohesive energy (CE) of pyrimidine derivatives at 313 K in different concentrations are shown in Figures 1 to 13.

Ultrasonic velocity and density of the binary mixtures along with thermodynamic values such as adiabatic compressibility, free length, and impedance at different concentration were determined. Decreases in density (figure-1) with increase in concentration indicates the structure-making and breaking property of solvent due to the formation and weakening of H-bonds. Figure 2 depicts that viscosity of the liquid increases with the increase in concentration. It is observed from figure-3 that the ultrasonic velocity increases with increase in concentration, and this is probably due to solute-solvent interactions. The opposite trend of ultrasonic velocity (figure-3) and adiabatic compressibility indicates the association among interacting pyrimidine derivatives and water molecules. The adiabatic compressibility (figure-4) increases with an increase in concentration shows that there is a strong solute solvent interaction. In the present system of pyrimidine derivatives, free length(figure-5) varies nonlinearly with increase in molar concentration which suggests the significant interaction between solute and solvent due to which structural arrangement is also affected. The free volume decreases (figure-6) and internal pressure increases (figure-8) with an increase in molar concentration, indicating that there is a weak interaction between solute and solvent molecules. Rao's constant (figure-7) decrease with increasing concentration, which indicates that there is a weak interaction between solute and solvent molecules. Acoustical impedance (figure-9) shows a nonlinearly increasing variation with an increase in molar concentration. This indicates the complex formation and intermolecular weak association which may be due to hydrogen bonding. Thus complex formation can occur at these molar concentrations between the component molecules. Relaxation time increases (figure-10) with an increase in concentration. On the other hand ultrasonic attenuation is directly proportional (as shown in fig. 11) to concentration studied. It was observed that there is significant solute solvent interaction in the solutions studied. Figure-12 shows that surface tension is inversely proportional to the concentration of solution. Cohesive energy (as shown in fig. 13) increases with increase in concentration.

4. CONCLUSION

In the present paper, we have reported the ultrasonic velocity (v), density (p) and viscosity (n) for the solutions of ethyl/methyl-4-(aryl)-6-methyl-2-oxo/thioxo -1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridimidine-5-carboxylate (1a-1e) in ethanol as a solvent in different concentrations. The results obtained in this study on ultrasonic velocity, density, viscosity and calculated acoustical parameters viz. adiabatic compressibility(Pad), intermolecular free length(Lf), relaxation time (X)), free volume (Vf), internal pressure (R), acoustic impedance (Z), surface tension(S), attenuation(a/f2), Rao's constant(R), molar volume (Vm), cohesive energy(CE) showed that there are presence of specific molecular interactions in ethanol and ethyl/methyl-4-(aryl)-6-methyl-2 oxo/thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridimi-dine-5-carboxylate molecules, which are responsible to increase absorption and transmission. It may be concluded that the solute solvent interaction seems to be significant in system studied.

Article history: Received: 16 March 2014; revised: 28 August 2014; accepted: 30 October 2014. Available online: 29 December 2014.

5. ACKNOWLEDMENTS

The authors are very thankful to faculties, Department of Chemistry, Jankidevi Bajaj College of Science, Wardha for their kind support in the present research work.

6. REFERENCES AND NOTES

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Sonal D. Bajaj, Pradip V. Tekade *, Om A. Mahodaya

Department of Chemistry, Jankidevi Bajaj College of Science, Jamnalal Bajaj Marg, Civil lines, Wardha, India-442001(MS)

* Corresponding author. E-mail: pradiptekade@gmail.com

Table 1. Ultrasonic velocity, Density, viscosity, Adiabatic
compressibility, Intermolecular free length, Free volume, Rao's
constant of different % concentration of Solution of Ethyl 4-(4-
chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-
carboxylate (1a) in ethanol at 313 K.

Concentration (%)   Density (Kg [m.sup.-3])   Viscosity x [10.sup.3]
                                                  (Ns[m.sup.-2])

0.125                        807.0                    3.549
0.25                         803.2                    4.094
0.5                          801.1                    4.154
1.0                          800.4                    4.291

Concentration (%)   Ultrasonic Velocity   Adiabatic compressibility
                           (m/s)               x [10.sup.-11]
                                                ([m.sup.2]/N)

0.125                      1230                    8.1871
0.25                       1196                    8.7009
0.5                        1168                    9.1416
1.0                        1150                    9.4388

Concentration (%)    Intermolecular     Free Volume     Rao's
                     free length x     x [10.sup.-2]   constant
                    [10.sup.-11] (m)    ([m.sup.3]
                                       [mol.sup.-1]

0.125                   1.82648           2.6471        4.339
0.25                    5.95435           2.2307        4.312
0.5                     6.10326           2.1476        4.296
1.0                     6.20169           2.0466        4.278

Table 2. Ultrasonic velocity, Density, viscosity, Adiabatic
compressibility, Intermolecular free length, Free volume, Rao's
constant of different % concentration of Solution of Ethyl-4-(4-
chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-
carboxylate (1b) in ethanol at 313 K.

Concentration (%)   Density (Kg[m.sup.-3])   Viscosity x [10.sup.3]
                                                 (Ns[m.sup.-2])

0.125                       876.96                   2.993
0.25                        876.56                   3.022
0.5                         876.36                   3.086
1.0                         836.56                   3.136

Concentration (%)   Ultrasonic Velocity    Adiabatic compressibility
                           (m/s)          x [10.sup.-10] ([m.sup.2]/N)

0.125                      1093                      9.5450
0.25                       1062                     10.1150
0.5                        1050                     10.3499
1.0                         875                     15.6130

Concentration (%)    Intermolecular      Free Volume     Rao's
                       free length      x [10.sup.-2]   constant
                    x [10.sup.-11](m)    ([m.sup.3]
                                        [mol.sup.-1)

0.125                    6.2364            2.6511        3.651
0.25                     6.4199            2.5516        3.617
0.5                      6.4941            2.3198        3.605
1.0                      7.9761            2.1302        3.539

Table 3. Ultrasonic velocity, Density, viscosity, Adiabatic
compressibility, Intermolecular free length, Free volume, Rao's
constant of different % concentration of Solution of Ethyl 4-(furan-
2-ylmethyl)-6-methyl-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-
carboxylate (1c) in ethanol at 313 K.

Concentration (%)   Density (Kg[m.sup.-3])   Viscosity x [10.sup.3]
                                                 (Ns[m.sup.-2])

0.125                       812.2                    3.998
0.25                        809.2                    4.068
0.5                         804.2                    4.128
1.0                         800.4                    4.136

Concentration (%)   Ultrasonic Velocity   Adiabatic compressibility
                           (m/s)               x [10.sup.-10]

0.125                      1213                    8.3580
0.25                       1197                    8.6187
0.5                        1187                    8.8191
1.0                        1148                    9.4705

Concentration (%)    Intermolecular      Free Volume    Rao's constant
                       free length      x [10.sup.-2]
                    x [10.sup.-11](m)    ([m.sup.3]
                                        [mol.sup.-1])

0.125                    5.8358            1.9874          3.68167
0.25                     5.9261            1.9274          3.67872
0.5                      5.9946            1.8836          3.66925
1.0                      6.2121            1.8184          3.66787

Table 4. Ultrasonic velocity, Density, viscosity, Adiabatic
compressibility, Intermolecular free length, Free volume, Rao's
constant of different % concentration of Solution of Ethyl 4-(furan-
2-ylmethyl)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-
carboxylate(1d) in ethanol at 313 K.

Concentration (%)   Density (Kg[m.sup.-3])   Viscosity x [10.sup.3]
                                                 (Ns[m.sup.-2])

0.125                       850.04                   4.291
0.25                         847                     4.323
0.5                         846.4                    4.359
1.0                         835.6                    4.363

Concentration (%)   Ultrasonic Velocity    Adiabatic compressibility
                           (m/s)          x [10.sup.-10] ([m.sup.2]/N)

0.125                      1128                      9.2457
0.25                       1120                      9.4119
0.5                        1103                      9.7112
1.0                        1092                     10.0358

Concentration (%)     Intermolecular      Free Volume     Rao's
                       free length       x [10.sup.-2]   constant
                    x [10.sup.-11] (m)    ([m.sup.3]
                                         [mol.sup.-1])

0.125                     6.1379            1.62275      3.23627
0.25                      6.1928            1.60043      3.24018
0.5                       6.2905            1.56203      3.22599
1.0                       6.3948            1.54504      3.25679

Table 5. Ultrasonic velocity, Density, viscosity, Adiabatic
compressibility, Intermolecular free length, Free volume, Rao's
constant of different % concentration of Solution of Ethyl 4-(2-
hydroxyphenyl)-6-methyl-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-
carboxylate (1e) in ethanol at 313 K.

Concentration (%)   Density (Kg[m.sup.-3])   Viscosity x [10.sup.3]
                                                 (Ns[m.sup.-2])

0.125                       836.6                    4.349
0.25                        832.2                    4.345
0.5                         804.2                    4.227
1.0                         800.6                    4.306

Concentration (%)   Ultrasonic Velocity    Adiabatic compressibility
                           (m/s)          x [10.sup.-10] ([m.sup.2/N)

0.125                      1182                     8.5541
0.25                       1178                     8.6475
0.5                        1069                     10.8812
1.0                        1060                     11.1166

Concentration (%)    Intermolecular      Free Volume    Rao's constant
                       free length      x [10.sup.-2]
                    x [10.sup.-11](m)    ([m.sup.3]
                                        [mol.sup.-1])

0.125                    5.90295           1.87371         3.69509
0.25                     5.93603           1.85145         3.71094
0.5                      6.65871           1.72704         3.71704
1.0                      6.73039           1.68108         3.72325

Table 6. Internal pressure, Acoustic Impedance, Relaxation time,
Ultrasonic attenuation, Surface tension, Cohesive energy and Molar
volume of Solution of Ethyl 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-2-thioxo-
1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate (1a) at 313 K.

Concentration (%)   Internal pressure     Acoustic Impedance
                      (N[m.sup.-2])     ([Kg.sup.-1] [m.sup.2]
                                             [S.supp.-1])

0.125                    58440.2                992869
0.25                     63457.7                960787
0.5                      64564.3                936155
1.0                      66096.4                920688

Concentration (%)    Relaxation time     Ultrasonic attenuation x
                    x [10.sup.-12] (S)   [10.sup.-10] ([s.sup.2]
                                               [m.sup.-1])

0.125                     3.8730                  6.2083
0.25                      4.7495                  7.8296
0.5                       5.0632                  8.5400
1.0                       5.4002                  9.2611

Concentration (%)     Surface      Cohesive energy    Molar volume
                    tension(N/m)      (KJ/Mole)      ([m.sup.3]/mol)

0.125                  85.004         23666.41           0.40496
0.25                   83.241         25822.49           0.40692
0.5                    81.867         26339.68           0.40796
1.0                    80.980         26990.28           0.40834

Table 7. Internal pressure, Acoustic Impedance, Relaxation time,
Ultrasonic attenuation, Surface tension, Cohesive energy and Molar
volume of Solution of Ethyl-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-2-oxo-
1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate (1b) at 313 K.

Concentration (%)   Internal pressure     Acoustic Impedance
                      (N[m.sup.-2])     ([Kg.sup.-1] [m.sup.2]
                                             [S.sup.-1])

0.0125                   63815.2                958517
0.025                    65033.0                930906
0.05                     66050.3                920178
0.1                      70720.8                731990

Concentration (%)    Relaxation time         Ultrasonic
                    x [10.sup.-12] (S)       attenuation
                                            x [10.sup.10]
                                         ([s.sup.2[m.sup.-1])

0.0125                    3.8091                6.877
0.025                     4.0530                7.567
0.05                      4.2545                7.990
0.1                       6.5283                14.71

Concentration (%)   Surface tension   Cohesive enrgy   Molar volume
                         (N/m)          (KJ/Mole)      ([m.sup.3]/
                                                           mol)

0.0125                  81.5121          22619.5         0.35445
0.025                   79.9473          23061.7         0.34461
0.05                    79.3359          23427.5         0.35469
0.1                     68.8194          26277.83        0.37157

Table 8. Internal pressure, Acoustic Impedance, Relaxation time,
Ultrasonic attenuation, Surface tension, Cohesive energy and Molar
volume of Solution of Ethyl 4-(furan-2-ylmethyl)-6-methyl-2-thioxo-
1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate(1c) at 313 K.

Concentration (%)   Internal pressure    Acoustic Impedance
                      (N[m.sup.-2])         ([Kg.sup.-1]
                                        [m.sup.2] [S.sup.-1])

0.125                    75020.6               985778
0.25                     75999.7               968958
0.5                      76562.8               954929
1.0                      77676.8               919316

Concentration (%)    Relaxation time     Ultrasonic attenuation
                    x [10.sup.-12] (S)       x [10.sup.-10]
                                         ([s.sup.2] [m.sup.-1])

0.125                    4.45539                7.23866
0.25                     4.67482                7.69847
0.5                      4.85406                8.06086
1.0                      5.22271                8.96646

Concentration (%)   Surface   Cohesive energy    Molar volume
                    tension      (KJ/Mole)      ([m.sup.3]/mol)
                     (N/m)

0.125               84.4784      25893.30           0.34514
0.25                83.5834      26328.48           0.34642
0.5                 82.8887      26688.64           0.34858
1.0                 80.9000      27205.35           0.35023

Table 9. Internal pressure, Acoustic Impedance, Relaxation time,
Ultrasonic attenuation, Surface tension, Cohesive energy and Molar
volume of Solution of Ethyl 4-(furan-2-ylmethyI)-6-methyl-2-oxo-
1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate(1d) at 313 K.

Concentration (%)   Internal pressure     Acoustic Impedance
                    in (N[m.sup.-2])    ([Kg.sup.-1] [m.sup.2]
                                             [S.sup.-1])

0.125                   89026.38                958845
0.25                    89431.31                948640
0.5                     90480.96                933579
1.0                     89480.59                912475

Concentration (%)    Relaxation time      Ultrasonic attenuation
                    x [10.sup.-12] (S)   x [10.sup.-10] ([s.sup.2]
                                                [m.sup.-1])

0.125                    5.28980                  9.2474
0.25                     5.42129                  9.5449
0.5                      5.64415                  9.8803
1.0                      5.83821                  10.5435

Concentration (%)   Surface tension   Cohesive     Molar volume
                         (N/m)         energy     ([m.sup.3]/mol)
                                      (KJ/Mole)

0.125                   82.0976       27677.52       0.310891
0.25                    81.5789       27903.20       0.312007
0.5                     80.7259       28250.71       0.312228
1.0                     79.7319       27086.41       0.316263

Table 10. Internal pressure, Acoustic Impedance, Relaxation time,
Ultrasonic attenuation, Surface tension, Cohesive energy and Molar
volume of Solution of Ethyl 4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methyl-2-thioxo-
1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate(1e) at 313 K.

Concentration (%)   Internal pressure     Acoustic Impedance
                      (N[m.sup.-2])     ([Kg.sup.-1] [m.sup.2]
                                             [S.sup.-1])

0.0125                  76640.42                989099
0.025                   76824.33                981066
0.05                    77751.12                859689
0.1                     78571.39                848636

Concentration (%)    Relaxation time     Ultrasonic attenuation
                    x [10.sup.-12] (S)       x [10.sup.-10]
                                         ([s.sup.2] [m.sup.-1])

0.0125                   4.91307                8.20000
0.025                    5.00980                8.37912
0.05                     6.13269                11.3126
0.1                      6.38242                9.05972

Concentration (%)   Surface    Cohesive energy    Molar volume
                    tension       (KJ/Mole)      ([m.sup.3]/mol)
                     (N/m)

0.0125              84.11296      26478.50          0.349450
0.025               83.75458      26987.56          0.351289
0.05                77.28159      28264.78          0.363528
0.1                 76.69414      28691.41          0.365163
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Title Annotation:Full Paper
Author:Bajaj, Sonal D.; Tekade, Pradip V.; Mahodaya, Om.A.
Publication:Orbital: The Electronic Journal of Chemistry
Article Type:Report
Date:Oct 1, 2014
Words:4215
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