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Study of appropriate of curriculum whit cultural globalization.

INTRODUCTION

Globalization is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture [1,2]. Advances intransportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of the telegraph and its posterity the Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities [3]. Though several scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the European age of discovery and voyages to the New World. Some even trace the origins to the third millennium BCE [4,5]. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the connectedness of the world's economies and cultures grew very quickly. The term globalization has been increasing use since the mid-1980s and especially since the mid-1990s [6]. In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people and the dissemination of knowledge [7]. Further, environmental challenges such as climate change, cross-boundary water, air pollution, and overfishing of the ocean are linked with globalization [8]. Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, economics, socio-cultural resources, and the natural environment.

Cultural globalization refers to the transmission of ideas, meanings and values across world space. This process is marked by the common consumption of cultures that have been diffused by the Internet, popular culture, and international travel. The circulation of cultures enables individuals to partake in extended social relations outside the borders. The creation and expansion of such social relations is not merely observed on a material level. Cultural globalization involves the formation of shared norms and knowledge with which people associate their individual and collective cultural identities, and increasing interconnectedness among different populations and cultures [9].

A visible aspect of cultural globalization is the diffusion of certain cuisines such as American fast food chains. McDonald's is the world's largest global food service corporation with more than 34,000 chains serving approximately 69 million people in 119 countries each day [10]. Big Macs are uniform in size and content in all countries, and consumers are able to enjoy the same burgers and nuggets regardless of their locations. The Big Mac Index, an informal measure of purchasing power parity among world currencies, is universally acknowledged due to the same experience and knowledge of McDonald's. Consumers, regardless of their nationalities, have developed a spreading taste for hamburgers, through the far-flung networks they are constantly in contact with, and they increasingly follow most of the already well-trodden paths in history.

Many writers suggest that cultural globalization is a long-term historical process. Some like Jan Pieterse conceive of cultural globalization as involving human integration and hybridization, arguing that it is possible to detect cultural mixing across continents and regions going back many centuries [11]. They refer, for example, to the movement of religious practices, language and culture brought by Spanish colonization of the Americas. The Indian experience, to take another example, reveals both the pluralization of the impact of cultural globalization and its long-term history [12]. The work of such cultural historians qualifies the lineage of writers predominantly economists and sociologists - who trace the origins of globalization to recent capitalism, facilitated through technological advances.

An alternative perspective on cultural globalization, emphasizes the transfiguration of worldwide diversity into a pandemic of Westernized consumer culture [13]. Some critics argue that the dominance of American culture influencing the entire world will ultimately result in the end of cultural diversity. This has been associated with the destruction of cultural identities, dominated by a homogenized and westernized, consumer culture. The global influence of American products, businesses and culture in other countries around the world has been referred to as Americanization. This influence is represented through that of American-based television programs which are rebroadcast throughout the world. Major American companies such as McDonald's and Coca-Cola have played a major role in the spread of American culture across the globe. Terms such as Coca-colonization have been coined to refer to the dominance of American products in foreign countries, which some critics of globalization view as a threat to the cultural identity of these nations.

In formal education, a curriculum (/ko'rikinlom/; plural: curricula /ko'rikinlo/or curriculums) is the planned interaction of pupils with instructional content, materials, resources, and processes for evaluating the attainment of educational objectives. This process includes the use of literacies and datagogies that are interwoven through the use of digital media and/or texts that address the complexities of learning.

Other definitions combine various elements to describe curriculum as follows:

* All the learning which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside the school. (John Kerr)

* Outlines the skills, performances, attitudes, and values pupils are expected to learn from schooling. It includes statements of desired pupil outcomes, descriptions of materials, and the planned sequence that will be used to help pupils attain the outcomes.

* The total learning experience provided by a school. It includes the content of courses (the syllabus), the methods employed (strategies), and other aspects, like norms and values, which relate to the way the school is organized.

* The aggregate of courses of study given in a learning environment. The courses are arranged in a sequence to make learning a subject easier. In schools, a curriculum spans several grades.

* Curriculum can refer to the entire program provided by a classroom, school, district, state, or country. A classroom is assigned sections of the curriculum as defined by the school. For example, a fourth grade class teaches the part of the school curriculum that has been designed as developmentally appropriate for students who are approximately nine years of age

As an idea, curriculum came from the Latin word which means a race or the course of a race (which in turn derives from the verb "currere" meaning to run/to proceed). As early as the seventeenth century, the University of Glasgow referred to its "course" of study as a curriculum, and by the nineteenth century European universities routinely referred to their curriculum to describe both the complete course of study (as for a degree in Surgery) and particular courses and their content. By the beginning of the twentieth century, the related term curriculum vitae ("course of one's life") became a common expression to refer to a brief account of the course of one's life [14]. A curriculum is prescriptive, and is based on a more general syllabus which merely specifies what topics must be understood and to what level to achieve a particular grade or standard. Curriculum has numerous definitions, which can be slightly confusing. In its broadest sense a curriculum may refer to all courses offered at a school. This is particularly true of schools at the university level, where the diversity of a curriculum might be an attractive point to a potential student.A curriculum may also refer to a defined and prescribed course of studies, which students must fulfill in order to pass a certain level of education. For example, an elementary school might discuss how its curriculum, or its entire sum of lessons and teachings, is designed to improve national testing scores or help students learn the basics. An individual teacher might also refer to his or her curriculum, meaning all the subjects that will be taught during a school year [15]. On the other hand, a high school might refer to a curriculum as the courses required in order to receive one's diploma. They might also refer to curriculum in exactly the same way as the elementary school, and use curriculum to mean both individual courses needed to pass, and the overall offering of courses, which help prepare a student for life after high school [16].

The purpose of the curriculum is not usually significant, but their preparation is time consuming and somewhat complicated. Aimes indicate needs, deficiencies and gaps and are determined to meet them. It is said that if you don't conside the necessary scientific accuracy in choosing the goals, educational needs are not meet [17]. The purpose of each curriculum has different levels. Each of these levels anlayze goals of higher levels. Determining the accuracy of these goals is important, because on the one hand ensures achieving the ultimate goal and on the other hand is used in content selection, teaching methods and evaluation methods [17]. Before planners select and organize the content of the curriculumregarding ultimate goal, they should acquire general goals and learning objectives from the relevant sources to formulate goals. It aims to distinguish and classify them according to different classifications. It is not meant to separate and break them apart, but it's to plan and determine the kinds of learning activities ([18]. In other words, carefully and acuity in defining and explaining curriculum goals decides desireability of other components of the program. So defining and explaining of the goals and stating them as a mission statement, is one of the most important responsibilities of the top managers of any organization [19] and is considered essential for curriculum planners. Basically in any plan or amendment, revision of curriculum, innovation or any change in the relation of the objectives is essential. Clear goals, are of the fundamental aspects of program planning, because enables us in reasonably choosing the content of teaching--learning and in designing an authentic evaluation [20]

Methodology:

The study is a descriptive survey; the population included 15 professors who are all men. And the population is also graduate students in the program planning courses over two semesters in district 13 of Azad universities over 97 people. For sampling professors, census and for sampling students classification manner is used in accordance with the sample size of 80. To evaluate the basic components researcher's questionnaire based on a Likert of five-point scale is used. The students and teachers were asked to comment on any question based on Likert five-point scale. Categories of curriculum objectives are measured with 40 questions, to evaluate the validity of the questionnaire; face and content validity are used. Reliability of the aspects of curriculum objectives is achieved through the implementation of pilot study and calculation with Cronbach's alpha of 0.98, respectively.

Results:

The appropriate of curriculum whit cultural globalization is average:
Table 1: T test results of appropriate of curriculum whit cultural
globalization

t       df    Sig. (2-tailed)   Mean Difference   Mean    S      N

-0.78   14    .0.448            0.187             2.813   0.92   15


Data analysis was based on the table (1) showed that the average of curriculum appropriate with cultural globalization regard to professors is 2.81 with an S of 0.92. A comparison with the Test value (3), showed that significance level is higher than t= 0.05. Therefore, the appropriate of curriculum whit cultural globalization is average.

Conclusion:

When developing curriculum, the most important and difficult decisions must be made in determining goals. Because wide range of views about the purpose of educational institutions. Educational goals can also change over time, they are affected by many factors including the rapidly changing nature of society and predicting future needs. In addition, they are are related to learner needs and the changing nature of the subject. However in planning terms goals are critical elements which identifying and determining them are essential in shaping and orienting other elements including content, teaching methods and materials. The purpose of the curriculum is so important that without it in none of the stages of curriculum development right decision can be made. Therefore, the first, most important and most critical element criterion of curriculum development is objectives and all activities and program planning processess are in light of goals. For the purposes of developing goals a wide range of resources are considered including: self and colleagues analyzing the knowledge, skills and attitudes, ways of thinking and problem solving that should be fulfilled, interests, needs and characteristics of students'; lesson subject to in a waythe published in technical texts (Specially appropriate to courses); needs of society, the requirements of professional bodies using educational services of graduate students, or faculty.

The results of this study are aligning with Hosseini (2009) regarding the objectives of the curriculum moderately meet their needs and expectations of professors and findings of Fathi vajargah and Shafiee are aligning with findings of this study regarding the average quality of curriculum and low levels of skills and information literacy of students. The findings of this study are aligning with Fathi vajargah , Wang and comparative studies and innovative of research organizations and higher education planning (1999) regarding that in the present study professors and students partly satisfied with the knowledge presented and creating skills required to perform research and services. In other words, professors and students consider existing curriculum to help authentication necessary job capabilities and presenting practical knowledge and compatibility with market needs and providing critical thinking and creativity by allowing partially successful and unsuccessful. Findings of the present study are in aligning with findings of Dalvsteel and WHO in issues such as: lack of scientific assessment of the program planning carried, lack of curriculum planning specialists and lack of consideration in scientific standards in curriculum development. Findings of the present study are in aligning with findings of Dirsel and Mihio in cases including lack of openness and transparency in curriculum goals and the lack of balance between the goals. Findings of the present study are not in aligning with findings Rabie et al ;Pezeshkirad and Mohtasham in cases including desirablity of the quality of the curriculum in terms of objectives element and desirablity of goals and course missions [4,5,21,8,12].

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 11 June 2014

Received in revised form 21 September 2014

Accepted 25 November 2014

Available online 29 December 2014

REFERENCES

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[2] Albrow, Martin and E. King, 1990. Globalization, Knowledge and Society London: Sage. ISBN 9780803983243 p. 8. "...all those processes by which the peoples of the world are incorporated into a single world society."

[3] Stever, H. Guyford, 1972. "Science, Systems, and Society."Journal of Cybernetics, 2(3):13.doi: 10.1080/01969727208542909

[4] Andre Gunder, F., 1998. ReOrient: Global economy in the Asian age. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520214743

[5] " Globalization and Global History (p.127)". Retrieved 3 July 2012.

[6] Google Books Ngram Viewer: Globalization

[7] International Monetary Fund, 2000. "Globalization: Threats or Opportunity." 12th April 2000: IMF Publications.

[8] Bridges, G., 2002. "Grounding Globalization: The Prospects and Perils of Linking Economic Processes of Globalization to Environmental Outcomes". Economic Geography, 78(3): 361-386. doi:10.2307/4140814.

[9] Inda, J., R. Rosaldo, 2002. "Introduction: A World in Motion". The Anthropology of Globalization. WileyBlackwell.

[10] McDonald Corporation. "Corporate Info"

[11] Pieterse, Jan N., 2003 . Globalization and Culture. Rowman & Littlefield.

[12] Ghosh, B., 2011. "Cultural changes in the era of globalisation". Journal of Developing Societies, 27(2): 153-175.

[13] Kraidy, M., 2005. Hybridity, or the Cultural Logic of Globalization. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. pp: 1-23.

[14] Oxford English Dictionary, "Curriculum," 152

[15] Bilbao et al., 2008. Curriculum Development. Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing, Inc.

[16] Jackson, Philip, W., 1992. "Conceptions of Curriculum and Curriculum Specialists." In Handbook of Research on Curriculum: A Project of the American Educational Research Association, edited by Philip W. Jackson, 3-40. New York: Macmillan Pub. Co.

[17] Akker, J.J.H., Vanden, 2003. Curriculum Persectives: An Introduction. In j. Vanden Akker, W. Kuiper and U. Hameyer (Eds.) Curriculum Landscapes and trends. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

[18] Bandyopadhyay, K. and R. Lichtman, 2007 Six Sigma Approach to Quality and Productivity Improvement in an Institution. International Journal of Management, 24(4): 802-807.

[19] Tyler, R., 1949. Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

[20] Taba, H., 1962. Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

[21] Wiles, J., J. Bondi, 2002. Curriculum Development; A Guide to practice. New Jersey, Merrill and prentice hall, 6thed.

(1) Rogayieh Harzandi, (2) Shahram Ranjdoust, (3) Behnam Talebi

(1) Department of Educational Sciences, Marand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marand, Iran.

(2) Department of Educational Sciences, Marand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marand, Iran.

(3) Department of Educational Sciences, College of Humanities and Educational Sciences, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

Corresponding Author: Shahram Ranjdoust., Department of Educational Sciences, Marand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marand, Iran.

E-mail: Sh.ranjdoust@yahoo.com
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Author:Harzandi, Rogayieh; Ranjdoust, Shahram; Talebi, Behnam
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Date:Oct 1, 2014
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