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Study & formulation of Chabahar Bay air-sea fluxes due to heat budget process.

INTRODUCTION

The heat changes stored in the upper layers of the ocean are the result of the imbalance between the incoming and outgoing heat through the sea surface. This surface heat transition is called heat flux. Heat budget involves the total heat fluxes coming into or going out of a water volume. Today a large number of research on heat budget have been undertaken and they have been computed for the various seas and oceans in the world. Among the new relevant initiatives are as follow: Kara [1] obtained the latent heat flux coefficients and the sensible ones and also the drag coefficient on the basis of wind speed and the difference between the sea and air temperature which are of a significant precision and can be applied to different areas. Also, He compared the calculation of heat fluxes and wind stress (in Arabian Sea) by using mathematical relations and oceanatmosphere models together with the satellites, indicating that how precise the formulas for calculating the heat budget are. In Bergen university of Norway, Simonsen and Hugan [2] Studied the heat budget of the North Mediterranean Sea and the surface heat flux of Nordic Sea, and they presented their paper in which they could achieve the changes occurred in each of heat hudget sentences compared to the different months during the year through making use of frequency data collected from different centers. Naoki et al [3] determined the heat budget for Japan Sea using the existing relations. Fan and Brown [4] of Massachusetts university made efforts to study the heat budget for the Mt. Hope bay (between 71 [??] 06' and 71 [??] 18'. West Longitude and 41 [??] 36' and 41 [??] 48' North Latitude) in which case the impact of rivers has been included, too, and soon. In Iran, Mehrfar et al [5], also, used the heat budget relations related to Gorgan Bay with respect to the features of the Bay. after doing the computations required for the individual parameters, He obtained each associated sentence percentage, and eventually compared the resulting values to the global average quantities and also found out how the alteration made and the factors impacting on the heat budget sentences. Since the climatic changes of any particular area are studied based on its heat budget, it becomes necessary to calculate the heat budget in a certain area including Chabahar Bay which enjoys a special strategic situation. Among the natural sight of the Bay are the rare marine and coastal beauties and the vision at the time of sunrise or sunset over the sea in addition to its spectacular situation. The position of the bay in Oman Sea which is between East Longitude (60 [??] 25' & 60 [??] 37') and North Latitude (25 [??] 17' & 25 [??] 26') in south east Iran. The entrance of the bay is 13.5 km wide and the water in this part is 14.5 m deep, but it lessens while approaching the extremes as the depth is equal to 5.5 m when we are 13.5 km away from the north and west extremes. From the north to the south, it is 17 km long while from the east to the west, at the widest point, it is 20 km wide. No significant river flows into the bay. Using the data required to determine the heat fluxes which have been obtained and collected from different sources like the meteorology Organization, the National Center for ocean studies and many others, and based on the state-of-the art formulas, we deal with determining the heat flux for the individual heat budget sentences of the Bay during the year 2005 month by month.

2.Determining short-wave radiation flux (Qsw) in Chabahar Bay:

In the heat budget flux equation, the first part is the extent of the radiant flux, and the water is uptaken in the desired place. To calculate the flux, the following formula is used.

[Q.sub.sw] =(1-[alpha])[Q.sub.c] (1-0.62C + 0.0019[[theta].sub.N]) (1)

Where [alpha] is the albedo of water surface which ranges 3-40 percent based on the radiant angle to the water surface. [[theta].sub.N] is noon solar elevation to the surface in terms of degrees, and it is obtained by the equation [[theta].sub.N] = 90 - ([phi] - [delta]) where [delta] is the sun zenith angle calculated in degrees, and [phi] is the latitude in degrees which is 25[degrees]17' or approximately 25.28 degrees in Cha-bahar Bay; C is fractional cloud cover which has been obtained from the data in the Meteorology Organization Calender book during 2005 month by month, and is included in Table.1 .

[Q.sub.c] is the incoming solar radiation flux in W[m.sup.-2] which reaches the water surface when the sky is clear; its Value can be achieved by the equation [Q.sub.c] = 0.7[Q.sub.I] sin[[theta].sub.N] and depends on the radiant angle, atmosphere conductivity coefficient in a clear sky (equal to 0.7), and the extent of the incoming radiation to atmosphere. In the above equation, [Q.sub.I] is the incoming radiant flux to the atmosphere in the related latitude, and its Values during 2005 month by month in Cha-bahar Zone have been presented in Table.1 [11].

3.Calculating net long-wave radiation flux ([Q.sub.LW]) in Cha-bahar Bay:

According to the radiation Law (Stephan-Boltsman), any object whose temperature is above the absolute zero will radiate. Therefore, the sea surface, due to its temperature, sends out the radiant energy in the form of electromagnetic waves with long wave length, for the atmosphere, also, sends long-wave radiation, part of which called returning radiation reaches the ocean surface. Consequently, another important factor in heat budget is the difference between the long-wave radiation of sea water and the atmospheric returning radiation, which is known as net long-wave radiation. To calculate the net long-wave radiant flux for Cha-bahar Bay, the following formula is used:

[Q.sub.LW] = [epsilon][[sigma].sub.SB] [T.sup.4.sub.s] (0.39 - 0.05[e.sup.1/2])(1-[KC.sup.2])+ [epsilon][[sigma].sub.SB][T.sup.3.sub.s] ([T.sub.s] -[T.sub.a]) (2)

Where [epsilon] is the transmittancy of sea surface which equals approximately to 0.98; [[sigma].sub.SB] is the constant (Stephan-Boltsman) which equals to 5.67 x[10.sup.-8] w[m.sup.-2] [k.sup.-4]; e is vapor pressure in milibars which has been calculated for each month during 2005 in Cha-bahar Bay (Table.2) based on the data in the Meteorology organizations calendar book (2005). K is the cloud cover coefficient which is equal to approximately 0.64 for the area based on Cha-bahar Latitude.

[T.sub.s] is the water surface temperature in Kelvin for Cha-bahar Bay which has made use of the data from the National Center for ocean studies and the Meteorology Organization for each month during 2005. [T.sub.a] is the air temperature at 10-meter reference level which is calculated in Kelvin and the data from the Meteorology Organization's calendar book (2005) for each month in 2005 have ben used.

4.Calculation of sensible heat flux (QS) in Cha-bahar Bay:

One of the other important sentences in heat budget flux is called sensible heat flux which is exchanged through the molecular conduction between the sea and the atmosphere. Because sea surface temperature is generally higher than that of the environment, the sensible heat usually flows from the sea to the air. As a result, the sentence is usually minus but when the air temperature is higher than the surface one, heat flows from the atmosphere to the sea. Therefore, under these conditions, the sensible heat flux sentence will become positive. To compute the sensible heat flux for each month in 2005 in Cha-bahar Bay, the following formula is used.

[Q.sub.S] =[[rho].sub.a][C.sub.s][C.sub.p][U.sub.10] ([T.sub.a] -[T.sub.s]) (3)

Where [[rho].sub.a] is the density of the air surrounding the sea surface (kg /[m.sup.3]) which has been measured from the equation (4) with regard to the pressure and the temperature in each month, and the result was presented in Table.3 ; [C.sub.p] is the specific air heat with a constant pressure equal to 1012 J [kg.sup.-1] [K.sup.-1] ; [C.sub.s] is sensible heat flux coefficient which has been measured in terms of the temperature difference (sea-air) and the wind speed in a ten-meter altitude for all the year months.

[U.sub.10] is the wind blowing speed in m/s at 10-meter level that has been reckoned on the basis of the data from the Meteorology Organization's Calendar book (2005) for the different months in 2005, and the values are given in Table.3 .

[T.sub.a] is the air temperature at 10-meter reference level in Kelvin or Celcius.

[T.sub.s] is the water surface temperature in Cha-bahar Bay calculated in Celcius or Kelvin.

[[rho].sub.a] = 100[p.sub.a]/[[R.sub.gas]([T.sub.a] + 273.16)] (4)

[P.sub.a] : Atmospheric pressure at sea surface (mb), [R.sub.gas] : Gas constant (287.1 J [kg.sup.-1] [K.sup.-1])

5.Calculating vaporization latent heat flux (QL) in Cha-bahar Bay:

Ocean and seas are frequently vaporized. This vaporization which results from the molecules going out of the free water surface is called surface vaporization. Due to the surface vaporization, the liquid loses its latent Vaporization heat so that the temperature decreases. Thus, the decrease in sea water temperature is because of the surface vaporization. Therefore, the transmition tone of vaporization latent heat takes place generally from the sea to the atmosphere. To calculate the vaporization latent heat flux in Cha-bahar Bay, the following formula is used:

[Q.sub.L] = [[rho].sub.a][C.sub.L][L.sub.E][U.sub.10] ([q.sub.a] -[q.sub.s])

Where [C.sub.L] is the Vaporization latent heat flux coefficient which has been measured with regard to wind speed and temperature difference (sea-air) in all the year months.; [L.sub.E] is vaporization-specific latent heat with a constant pressure equal to (2.5 x[10.sup.6] J[kg.sup.-1]) [q.sub.a] is the specific humidity at 10-meter reference level in terms of kg/kg which has been measured using the formulas (6), (8) & (9) for the different months during 2005 in Chabahar Bay and has been included in Table-4.

[q.sub.s] is the specific humidity at the sea level in terms of kg/kg which has been measured based on the equations (7), (8) & (9) for the different months in 2005, and has been included in Table-4.

[q.sub.a] = RH[q.sub.sat] ([T.sub.a]) (6)

[q.sub.s] = 0.98[q.sub.sat] ([T.sub.s]) (7)

[q.sub.sat] (T) = 0.622[e.sub.s] (T)/[p.sub.a]-0.378[e.sub.s](T) (8)

[e.sub.s] (T) = 6.1112 (1 + 3.46 x [10.sup.-6] [p.sub.a]) exp [17.50/ (240.97 +T)] (9)

RH : Relative humidity (%) The factor of 98% for saturation humidity over sea water compensates for the salinity. [e.sub.s] : saturated water vapor pressure (mb)

6. Advective heat flux ([Q.sub.V]) in Cha-bahar Bay:

The heat going into or out of a marine basin or a certain area in the sea through ocean currents or precipitation (rainfall) is called advective heat. In order to calculate its flux, no exact operating formula was found. Therefore, it was impossible to measure its value in Cha-bahar Bay; but, from the studies and measurements done in the project, it was found that the sign of the flux in the Bay is minus, meaning that it has to exit the Bay. Since the impact of the extent of flux in the world wide on the heat budget flux is slight, it has been ignored but such an impact cannot be neglected in a limited area. If the heat balance in Cha-bahar Bay is to be realized, the advective heat flux should be equal to (-47.49) w/[m.sup.2] in the Bay in 2005.

7. Calculating heat budget flux ([Q.sub.T]) in Cha-bahar Bay:

This flux is the arithmetic sum of short-wave radiant flux, net long-wave radiant flux, sensible heat flux, vaporization latent heat flux, and advective heat flux.

[Q.sub.T] = [Q.sub.SW] + [Q.sub.LW] + [Q.sub.S] + [Q.sub.L] + [Q.sub.V] (10)

Since there is no exact operational equation to compute advective heat flux ([Q.sub.V]), it is for now impossible to calculate precisely the heat budget flux in a specific marine area. However, the advective heat flux has been disregarded in almost all the calculations on a world scale, and the sum of four resulting quantities was considered as heat budget flux. In this study, the sign of ([Q.sub.V]) related to Cha-bahar Bay was found negative. Thus, ocean currents and precipitation should bring water body with a temperature lower than the Bay water into the area so that the heat can be taken out of the Bay. Regardless of advective heat flux, heat budget flux resulting from the other four sentences in the above formula related to Cha-bahar Bay has been specified in 2005 as equal to (+47.49) w/[m.sup.2]. This very quantity of heat as advective heat flux should leave the Bay if a heat balance is to be kept in the area. Other wise, it can be claimed that the value for ([Q.sub.T] - [Q.sub.V]) in the Bay in 2005 is (+47.49) w/[m.sup.2].

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Figure-1 is obtained by drawing the diagram for fluxes (short-wave radiation, long-wave radiation, sensible heat and vaporization latent heat) based on the months in 2005. It shows that the average short-wave radiant flux is higher than the other three fluxes and the average sensible heat flux is lower than the average for each of the other three fluxes in Cha-bahar Bay. From Figure-1 the conclusion can be made that the short-wave radiant flux uptaken by the Bay water on May 2005 was the highest and on December was the lowest. The average of this quantity in this year was +227.57 w/[m.sup.2]. It is noteworthy that the world average of this quantity in an area with the same latitude as the Bay was measured as approximately equal to +200 w/[m.sup.2]. The difference between two measurements could be due to an error in the computation (albedo, fractional cloud cover, sun zenith angle, sun radiant angle and sun incoming radiation). The maximum net long-wave radiation flux on January and its minimum quantity on June in 2005 in the Bay transmitted from the sea to the atmosphere. The annual average of the quantity in the same year in this Bay was equal to -59.91 w/[m.sup.2]. comparing this value with the world average in an area with the same latitude as the Bay, which is approximately -50 w/[m.sup.2], indicates a difference equal to 2.91 w/[m.sup.2].

The difference can be the result of any error in measuring such influential parameters on the flux as water surface temperature, air temperature, vapor pressure, fractional cloud cover and cloud cover coefficient. Also, in 2005, the maximum sensible heat flux on February and its minimum value on August transmitted from the sea to the atmosphere, and the highest sensible heat flux on July was from the atmosphere to the sea in Cha-bahar Bay. Except for July, April and June during which the transmission was from the atmosphere to the sea, in the other months of the same year the sensible heat was transmitted from the sea to the atmosphere.

With regard to the calculations, the annual average sensible heat flux was -8 w/[m.sup.2] Cha-bahar Bay in 2005. It is noteworthily that the world average of the quantity in an area with the same latitude as the Bay was measured at nearly -10w/[m.sup.2]. Therefore, the difference between two calculations is equal to 2 w/[m.sup.2], and it is indicative of a very slight difference between the results obtained, which could result from the error in measuring such influential quantities on the flux as the water surface temperature, air temperature, wind speed, air density and the air-specific heat. Vaporization latent heat transmitted from the sea to the atmosphere during all the months in 2005, in which case the maximum transmission on February and its minimum on September were taken place. According to the calculations, the annual average vaporization latent heat flux for the Bay in this year was equal to -112.16 w/[m.sup.2]. It is necessary to add that the world average value for this quantity in an area with the same latitude as the Bay was calculated at about -110 w/[m.sup.2]. Comparing two measurements results in a difference equal to 2-16 (w/[m.sup.2]). Consequently, the results Coming out of the measurements are too close, and the resulting difference is probably produced by an error in determining the quantities haring influence on the flux Value.

Conclusion:

In this study, the following were obtained:

1. In Cha-bahar, Sun radiation angle, one of the effective important factors in heat budget, is high, and it is even close to 90 degrees in some months. In this case, the annual average radiation angle in this area is 65.22 degrees.

2. Both latent and sensible heat flux coefficients are dimension-free small numbers depending on wind speed and temperature difference (sea-air), and it is necessary to use them in determining heat budget. In this study, the annual average coefficients in the Bay were: [C.sub.S] = 1.40 x[10.sup.3] & [C.sub.L] = 1.04 x[10.sup.-3]

3. To calculate the heat budget flux in any area an the basis of the theories presented to date, we need five elements or quantities including short-wave radiant flux, net long-wave radiant flux, sensible heat flux, vaporization latent heat flux and advective heat flux, in which various Closely-related formulas have been prepared, arranged and presented for the first four, and the latest have been employed in the study even through no precise formula was available for advective heat flux. It is hoped that the scientists can diligently calculate the quantity in the coming future.

4. According to the measurements in the present study, the average short-wave radiation flux was computed at +226.56 w/[m.sup.2], the average net long-wave radiant flux -59.91 w/[m.sup.2], vaporization latent-heat flux -112.16 w/[m.sup.2], and sensible heat flux -8 w/[m.sup.2] in Cha-bahar Bay for the year 2005. Regarding these four parameters, the heat budget flux in the Bay will be +47.49 w/[m.sup.2]. To ensure the heat balance, this very value of the quantity has to exit the Bay through water exchange between the Bay and Oman Sea, and through precipitation. In this case, advective heat flux in the Bay keeps the heat balance. It is noteworthy that the resulted quantities of the fluxes are within the world limits determined for the oceans.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 25 June 2014

Received in revised form

8 July 2014

Accepted 10 August May 2014

Available online 30 August 2014

REFERENCES

[1] Kara, A.B., 1999. Efficient and Accurate Bulk Parameterizations of Air-Sea Fluxes for Use in General Circulation Models, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 17: 1421-1438.

[2] Simonsen Kund, M., Haugan, 1996. Heat Budgets of the Arctic Mediterranean and sea surface heat flux parameterizations for the Nordic Seas, Journal of Geophysical Research, 101(C3): 6533-6576.

[3] Naoki Hirose, C. Kim, J.H. Yoon, 1996. Heat Budget in the Japan Sea, Journal of Oceanography, 52: 553-574.

[4] Fan, Y., W. Brown, 2003. The Heat Budget for Mt. Hope Bay, The School for Marine Science and Technology, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, www.smast.umassd.edu.

[5] Mehrfar, H., H. Morovvati, M. Torabi Azad, 2007. Study & Formulation of Heat Budget in Gorgan Bay in Fastest Wind Situation Journal of Sciences, Islamic Azad University, 17(63): 19-31.

[6] Emery, J.W., L.D. Talley and G.L. Pickard, 2005. Descriptive physical oceanography (chapter 5), Water, Salt and Heat Budget of the Ocean Elsevier.

[7] Stewart, R.H., 2005. Introduction to Physical Oceanography, Department Of Oceanography (chapter 5), The Oceanic Heat Budget, Texas A&M University. http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/ocng_textbook/contents.html

[8] Wunsch Carl, 2005. The Total Meridional Heat Flux and Its Oceanic and Atmospheric Partition, Journal of Climate, 18: 4374-4380.

[9] Kara, A.B., 2004. Notes and Correspondence Stability-Dependent Exchange Coefficient for Air-Sea Fluxes, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 22: 1080-1094.

[10] Tomczak, M., 2000. The Global Oceanic Heat Budget, http://www.es.flinders.edu.au/~mattom/IntroOc/notes/lecture04.html.

[11] www.aom.giss.nasa.gov/solar.

(1) Hesam Mehrfar, (2) Dr. Masoud Torabi Azad, (3) Amin Raeisi, (4) Iman chaharmahali, (5) Zohreh Mohammadi Pasand

(1,4) Young Researchers and Elite Club, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran

(2) Department of Physical Oceanography, Collage of Marine Science & Technology, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

(3) Sama Technical and Vocational Training Collage, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

(5) Department of Electrical Engineering, college of Engineering, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran

Corresponding Author: Hesam Mehrfar, Young Researchers and Elite Club, borujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, borujerd, Iran
Table 1: The quantities required to determine short wave
radiation flux in Chabahar Bay (2005).

Month
parameter                     JAN      FEB      MAR      APR

[delta] (degree)               -21     -13       -2       10
[[theta].sub.N] (degree)     43.7     51.7     62.7     74.7
[alpha] (%)                  11.4     10.0      9.5      5.8
C                            0.25      0.0      0.0     0.12
[Q.sub.I] (w/[m.sup.2])       280      330      338      435
[Q.sub.SW] (w/[m.sup.2])    111.7      179      245      295

Month
parameter                     MAY      JUN      JUL      AUG

[delta] (degree)               19     23.5       21     14.5
[[theta].sub.N] (degree)     83.7     88.2     85.2     79.2
[alpha] (%)                   5.4      4.7      4.8      5.5
C                            0.12     0.25     0.25     0.37
[Q.sub.I] (w/[m.sup.2])       461      468      442      430
[Q.sub.SW] (w/[m.sup.2])      321      316    309.7    263.3

Month
parameter                     SEP      OCT      NOV      DEC

[delta] (degree)              3.5       -8      -18      -23
[[theta].sub.N] (degree)     68.2     56.7     46.7     41.7
[alpha] (%)                   5.9      8.5     10.5     10.8
C                            0.25      0.0      0.0     0.25
[Q.sub.I] (w/[m.sup.2])       402      347      292      264
[Q.sub.SW] (w/[m.sup.2])    239.8    203.1      145    101.5

Table 2: The quantities required to calculate the net
long wave radiation flux in Chabahar Bay (2005).

Month parameter    JAN      FEB      MAR      APR

[T.sub.a] (K)     293.5    294.1    297.1    299.8
[T.sub.s] (K)     294.4    295.2    298.5    299.2
e (mb)             14.2     19.6     25.5     27.2
C                  0.25      0.0      0.0     0.12
[Q.sub.LW]        -85.7    -77.8    -68.0    -53.2
(w/[m.sup.2])

Month parameter    MAY      JUN      JUL      AUG

[T.sub.a] (K)     302.2    304.0    302.3    301.8
[T.sub.s] (K)     303.4    303.2    301.2    302.0
e (mb)             33.1     37.8     33.5     32.5
C                  0.12     0.25     0.25     0.37
[Q.sub.LW]        -55.6    -33.3    -38.8    -37.5
(w/[m.sup.2])

Month parameter    SEP      OCT      NOV      DEC

[T.sub.a] (K)     301.8    300.7    298.0    295.5
[T.sub.s] (K)     302.7    301.2    298.8    296.5
e (mb)             32.3     28.6     21.1     17.3
C                  0.25      0.0      0.0     0.25
[Q.sub.LW]        -53.1    -59.1    -75.7    -80.6
(w/[m.sup.2])

Table 3: The quantities required to calculate sensible
heat flux in Chabahar Bay (2005).

Month parameter      JAN       FEB       MAR       APR

[T.sub.a] (K)       293.5     294.1     297.1     299.8
[T.sub.s] (K)       294.4     295.2     298.5     299.2
[p.sub.a] (mb)     1017.0    1015.0    1012.4    1010.3
[[rho].sub.a]        1.21      1.20      1.19      1.17
  (kg/[m.sup.3])
[U.sub.10] (m/s)      8.2      11.8       9.7       8.2
[C.sub.S] x          1.40      1.58      1.58      1.30
  [10.sup.3]
[Q.sub.S]           -12.6     -27.1     -25.8       7.5
  (w/[m.sup.2])

Month parameter      MAY       JUN       JUL       AUG

[T.sub.a] (K)       302.2     304.0     302.3     301.8
[T.sub.s] (K)       303.4     303.2     301.2     302.0
[p.sub.a] (mb)     1006.0     999.1     999.1    1008.2
[[rho].sub.a]        1.16      1.14      1.15      1.15
  (kg/[m.sup.3])
[U.sub.10] (m/s)      8.2       8.2       8.2       8.7
[C.sub.S] x          1.51      1.30      1.12      1.38
  [10.sup.3]
[Q.sub.S]           -17.4       9.8     11.76     -2.79
  (w/[m.sup.2])

Month parameter      SEP       OCT       NOV       DEC

[T.sub.a] (K)       301.8     300.7     298.0     295.5
[T.sub.s] (K)       302.7     301.2     298.8     296.5
[p.sub.a] (mb)     1000.6    1004.8    1014.9    1016.7
[[rho].sub.a]        1.16      1.17      1.19      1.20
  (kg/[m.sup.3])
[U.sub.10] (m/s)      6.2       6.2       8.2       8.2
[C.sub.S] x          1.40      1.40      1.40      1.40
  [10.sup.3]
[Q.sub.S]            -9.1      -5.1     -11.1     -13.9
  (w/[m.sup.2])

Table 4: The quantities required to calculate vaporization
latent heat flux in Chabahar Bay (2005).

Month parameter               JAN       FEB       MAR       APR

[T.sub.a] ([degrees]C)       20.5      21.1      24.1      26.8
[T.sub.s] ([degrees]C)       21.4      22.2      25.5      26.2
[p.sub.a] (mb)             1017.0    1015.0    1012.4    1010.3
[[rho].sub.a]                1.21      1.20      1.19      1.17
  (kg/[m.sup.3])
[U.sub.10] (m/s)              8.2      11.8       9.7       8.2
RH (%)                         58        77        84        77
[e.sub.s]                   24.19     25.10     30.11     35.35
  ([T.sub.a]) (mb)
[e.sub.s]                   25.56     26.84     32.73     34.12
  ([T.sub.s]) (mb)
[q.sub.a] (g/kg)             8.87     12.32     16.09     17.30
[q.sub.s] (g/kg)            15.41     16.28     19.95     20.85
[C.sub.L] x [10.sup.3]       0.46      1.65      1.65      1.36
[Q.sub.L] (w/[m.sup.2])     -74.6    -231.3    -183.8    -115.8

Month parameter               MAY       JUN       JUL       AUG

[T.sub.a] ([degrees]C)       29.2      31.0      29.3      28.8
[T.sub.s] ([degrees]C)       30.4      30.2      28.2      29.0
[p.sub.a] (mb)             1006.0     999.1     999.1    1008.2
[[rho].sub.a]                1.16      1.14      1.15      1.15
  (kg/[m.sup.3])
[U.sub.10] (m/s)              8.2       8.2       8.2       8.7
RH (%)                         81        84        82        82
[e.sub.s]                   40.66     45.08     40.75     39.73
  ([T.sub.a]) (mb)
[e.sub.s]                   43.56     43.06     38.36     40.19
  ([T.sub.s]) (mb)
[q.sub.a] (g/kg)            21.19     24.52     21.60     20.96
[q.sub.s] (g/kg)            26.83     27.25     23.75     24.86
[C.sub.L] x [10.sup.3]       1.58      1.36      1.17      1.44
[Q.sub.L] (w/[m.sup.2])    -211.9     -86.7     -59.3    -140.4

Month parameter               SEP       OCT       NOV       DEC

[T.sub.a] ([degrees]C)       28.8      27.7      25.0      22.5
[T.sub.s] ([degrees]C)       29.7      28.2      25.8      23.5
[p.sub.a] (mb)             1000.6    1004.8    1014.9    1016.7
[[rho].sub.a]                1.16      1.17      1.19      1.20
  (kg/[m.sup.3])
[U.sub.10] (m/s)              6.2       6.2       8.2       8.2
RH (%)                         82        77        67        64
[e.sub.s]                   39.73     37.26     31.78     27.34
  ([T.sub.a]) (mb)
[e.sub.s]                   41.85     38.37     33.32     29.04
  ([T.sub.s]) (mb)
[q.sub.a] (g/kg)            20.68     18.13     13.24     10.84
[q.sub.s] (g/kg)            25.79     23.45     20.26     17.60
[C.sub.L] x [10.sup.3]       0.46      0.46      0.46      0.46
[Q.sub.L] (w/[m.sup.2])     -42.2     -44.4     -78.7     -76.5
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Author:Mehrfar, Hesam; Azad, Masoud Torabi; Raeisi, Amin; Chaharmahali, Iman; Pasand, Zohreh Mohammadi
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Jun 1, 2014
Words:4858
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