Studies with callus induction of Vitex negundo: an aromatic medicinal plant.
Vitex negundo Linn. (syn: V. inesia Lam.), locally termed as Nishinda (in Bengali) is a deciduous, woody aromatic and multipurpose medicinal shrub belonging to the Verbenaceae family. It is usually found in South-Asian countries. (Watt, 1972; Nasir and Ali, 1974; Wealth of India, 1976). The major form of healthcare in the rural parts of developing countries is traditional medicine, which is mostly plant-based (Jager and van Staden 2000). V. negundo have diverse medicinal uses in the folk medicinal system of Bangladesh (Rahmatullah et al., 2010; Khan and Rashid, 2006).
Along with the utilization in traditional medicine by local practitioners and healers, this plant also reportedly showed diverse pharmacological properties including analgesic (Zheng et al., 2009); antinociceptive (Zheng et al., 2010); antiinflammatory (Yunos et al., 2005; Jana et al., 1999; Dharmasiri et al., 2003, Tandon, 2006a); anti-fertility (Das et al., 2004); anti-feedant (Chandramu et al., 2003; Sahayaraj, 1998); anti-histamine (Dharmasiri et al., 2003; Tiwari and Tripathi, 2007); antioxidant (Vishal and Gupta, 2005; Rooban et al., 2009); antihyperglycemic effect (Villasenor and Lamadrid, 2006); cytotoxicity for human cancer cell line (Diaz et al., 2003); hepatoprotective activity against liver damage induced by d-galactosamine (Yang et al., 1987), commonly used tubercular drugs (Tandon et al., 2008) and carbon tetrachloride (Tasduq et al., 2008, Raj et al., 2008); laxative activity (Adnaik et al., 2008); immunomodulatory effect (Ravishankar and Shukla, 2007); and mosquito repellant effect (Karunamoorthi et al., 2008; Hebbalkar et al., 1992).
The plant parts are reported to have anti-microfilarial (Sahare et al., 2008a; Sahare et al., 2008b); anti-viral (Woradulayapinij et al., 2005; Nguyen-Pouplin et al., 2007); anti-bacterial (Samy et al., 1998); anti-fungal (Guleria and Kumar, 2006; Sathiamoorthy et al., 2007; Aswar et al., 2009); insecticidal (Paneru and Shivakoti, 2001; Raja et al., 2000; Rajendran, and Sriranjini, 2008; En-shun, 2009); larvicidal (Nathan et al., 2006; Kamaraj et al., 2008; Karmegam et al., 1997; Kannathasan et al., 2007; Kannathasan et al., 2008; Rahuman et al., 2009; Pushpalatha and Muthukrishnan, 1995; Yuan et al., 2006); as well as significant effect on antagonizing the Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal activity in both in vitro and in vivo studies (Alam and Gomes, 2003). The plant is reported to contain potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite (Jagetia and Baliga, 2004). Administration of V. negundo extracts also potentiated the effect of commonly used antiinflammatory drugs (Tandon et al., 2006b); analgesics (Gupta et al., 2005); sedative-hypnotic drugs (Gupta et al., 1997; Gupta et al., 1999); and anti-convulsive agents (Tandon and Gupta, 2005). Inhibitory effect of V. negundo against active enzymes has also been observed for lipoxygenase and butyryl-cholinesterase (Azhar-Ul-Haq et al., 2004); a-chymotrypsin (Lodhi et al., 2008); xanthine-oxidase (Umamaheswari et al., 2007a), and tyrosinase (Azhar-Ul-Haq et al., 2006).
Callus is a de-differentiated state of tissue through the exogenous application of plant growth hormones in vitro. This callus can solve the problem of unavailable plant materials for in vitro studies. Different physiological and morphogenic responses can also be observed through callus culture like somaclonal variations, somatic embryogenesis, organogenesis; it can also pave the way for isolating economically valuable phytochemicals, which can avoid the collection of plant materials from natural sources (Flick et al., 1983; Raghavan, 1986; Larkin and Scowcraft, 1981; Ogita et al., 2009; Berkov et al., 2009). In the areas of plant biotechnology, callus and cell culture carries a special role for producing medicinal and bioactive compounds in large-scale from plants (Taha et al., 2008; Rao and Ravishankar, 2002). Phytochemicals are serving as a major source of pharmaceuticals, flavors, agrochemicals, colors, biopesticides, and food additives (Bourgaud et al., 2001). In this perspective, callus culture already has been studied for different medicinal plants like Artemisia annua for artemisinin (Baldi and Dixit, 2008), Aspidosperma ramiflorum for ramiflorin (Olivira et al., 2001), Camellia chinensis for flavones (Nikolaeva et al., 2009), Capsicum annum for capsaicin (Varindra et al., 2000; Umamaheswari and Lalitha, 2007b), and Centella asiatica for asiaticoside (Kiong et al., 2005). We intended to develop a suitable protocol for studying the callus culture of V. negundo through this research. Our objective was to investigate the effects of phytohormones for callus induction and to observe how the plant materials perform after the exogenous application of plant growth regulators in the culture medium on this species.
Materials and methods
Explant source and preparation:
Donor V. negundo plants (4 years old), grown in the Garden of Medicinal Plant at the Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Development Alternative were used in the study. Plant was taxonomically identified by Bangladesh National Herbarium. For callus initiation, young leaves (YL) and internodal segments (IN) of young vegetative stem with a size of 1.5-2 cm were excised from the ex vitro plant and washed under running tap water for 30 minutes and then with Tween-80. All the explants were cultured on basal Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium (Murashige, T. and F. Skoog, 1962) containing different concentrations (see detail in Results section) of phytohormones including 6-benzylaminupurine (BAP); 2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D), a-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA); sucrose (3%) and agar (7%) after surface sterilization with 0.1% HgCl2 and rinsing four times in sterile distilled water. The pH of all media was adjusted to 5.8 before autoclaving and media was sterilized by autoclaving for 20 min at 121[degrees]C and 1.05 kg/cm2.
Culture of explants
Cultures were maintained at 26 [+ or -] 2[degrees]C with a photoperiod of 16/8 h under an illumination of 20 imol m-2s- 1 provided by cool white fluorescence lamps.
Data recording and analysis
The percentage of explants (%) creating a calli, its structure, color and texture was determined for 4 weeks and tabulated for detailed study.
Results and discussion
Effect of 2,4-D:
Within two weeks of culture period, 100% callogenic response was achieved when the medium was fortified with 2,4-D [2.0 mg/l] for both types of explants, leaves and internodes (Table 1), (Figure 1). Other treatments with this synthetic hormone showed at least 60% responses. All the hormonal concentrations in this experiment formed whitish friable calluses. Each responded explant with a concentration range of [2.0 mg/l] to [3.0 mg/l] of 2,4-D developed calli faster than others and the callus was vigorous in growth. Results from this experiment revealed that both types of explants responded equally in every medium composition.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Effect of NAA:
Good callogenic response was found in MS + NAA [1.5 mg/l] (Figure 2). All treatments with NAA resulted in formation of friable and embryonic callus with greenish white color in the medium composition as described in Table 2. Quick callus growth was obtained with concentrations of NAA at [2.0 mg/l] and [2.5 mg/l]. No further morphogenic response was observed when the cultures were maintained up to eight weeks in the medium.
Synergistic Effect of 2,4-D and NAA:
White colored callus appeared when the explants were cultured in MS medium supplemented with combinations of 2,4-D and NAA. Good growth of calluses were seen when the concentrations of both the auxins were high. Fastest callogenic response was observed when 2,4-D [3.0 mg/l] and NAA [1.0 mg/l] was added to MS medium (Table 3), (Figure 3). The noticeable characteristic of the responded callus was the variation of texture in callus along with changes of hormonal combinations. It varied from compact to loose, and then to loose with wet surfaces. Leaf and nodal explants did not show any appreciable differences.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
Synergistic effect of 2, 4-D and BAP:
Only higher combinations of both 2,4-D and BAP formed better calli but turned brownish within three weeks of culture (Figure 4). The texture was loose with wet surfaces. Callus growth was not prominently increased or showed variations along with the change of concentrations. The best medium found from these synergistic experiments was 2, 4-D [1.0mg/l] and BAP [2.0 mg/l] fortified MS medium (Table 4).
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
Though 2,4-D is a synthetic auxin, its role in callus induction was particularly observed in our experiment. Efficacy of exogenous 2, 4-D has also been reported with other medicinal plants. Results described by Rani et al. (2003), Thomas and Maseena (2006), Hassan et al. (2009) were also in agreement with our result for using this synthetic plant growth regulator in the culture medium for Withania somnifera, Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn and Abrus precatorious, respectively. We have noted that the effect of 2,4-D was explant independent for V. negundo, whereas Hassan et al. (2009) found the best response only from young leaves with same textures of calluses. Use of single auxin for induction of calli was also confirmed in our experiment when the medium was enriched with NAA alone in MS. Such finding has also been reported by Nurazah et al. (2009) when MS medium was fortified with NAA [3.0 mg/l] within 4 weeks of Cananga odorata culture. Both Nurazah et al. (2009) with C. odorata, and Sirchl et al. (2008) with Garcinia mangostana observed no callus formation in absence of NAA. Synergism of 2,4-D and NAA found by the authors also agree with results obtained by Nikolaeve et al. (2009) with Camellia chinensis. However, effectiveness of auxin-cytokinin combination for callus induction found in this present study differ from the findings of Olivira et al. (2001), Kiong et al. (2005), and Baldi and Dixit (2008).
In conclusion, the following points may be mentioned--the effectiveness of callus induction depends on the type of growth regulators used and explants source; the characteristics of the callus (color and texture) depend on culture medium; and the protocol of callus induction of V. negundo opens new vistas that could facilitate phytochemical production and extraction of pharmaceuticals from the callus without harvesting the plant itself.
Adnaik, R.S., P.T. Pai, S.N. Mule, N.S. Naikwade and C.S. Magdum, 2008. Laxative Activity of Vitex negundo Linn. Leaves. Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences, 22: 159-160.
Alam, M.I. and A. Gomes, 2003. Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants (Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis) root extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 86: 75-80.
Aswar, P.B., S.S. Khadabadi, B.S. Kuchekar, R.M. Rajurkar, S.S. Saboo and R.D. Javarkar, 2009. In vitro evaluation of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity of Vitex nigundo (Verbenaceae). Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 13: 962-967.
Azhar-Ul-Haq, A. Malik, I. Anis, S.B. Khan, E. Ahmed, Z. Ahmed, S.A. Nawaz and M.I. Choudhary, 2004. Enzyme inhibiting lignans from Vitex negundo. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 52: 1269-1272.
Azhar-Ul-Haq, A. Malik, M.T.H. Khan, S.B. Khan, Anwar-Ul-Haq, A. Ahmad and M.I. Choudhary, 2006. Tyrosinase inhibitory lignans from the methanol extract of the roots of Vitex negundo Linn. and their structure-activity relationship. Phytomedicine, 13: 255-260.
Baldi A. and Dixit V.K., 2008. Enhanced artemisinin production by cell cultures of Artemisia annua. Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacology, 2: 341-348.
Berkov, S., A. Pavlov, V. Georgiev, J. Bastida, M. Burrus, M. Ilieva and C. Codina, 2009. Alkaloid synthesis and accumulation in Leucojum aestivum in vitro cultures. Natural Product Communications, 4(3): 359-64.
Bourgaud, F., A. Gravot, S. Milesi and E. Gontier, 2001. Production of plant secondary metabolites: a historical perspective. Plant Science, 161: 839-851.
Chandramu, C., D.M. Rao, D.G.L. Krupanandam and D.V. Reddy, 2003. Isolation, characterization and biological activity of betulinic acid and ursolic acid from Vitex negundo L.. Phytotherapy Research, 17: 129-134.
Das, S., S. Parveen, C.P. Kundra and B.M.J. Pereira, 2004. Reproduction in male rats is vulnerable to treatment with the flavonoid-rich seed extracts of Vitex negundo. Phytotherapy Research, 18:8-13.
Dharmasiri, M.G., J.R.A.C. Jayakody, G. Galhena, S.S.P. Liyanage, S.S.P. and W.D. Ratnasooriya, 2003. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of mature fresh leaves of Vitex negundo. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 87: 199-206.
Diaz, F., D. Chavez, D. Lee, Q. Mi, H.B. Chai, G.T. Tan, L.B. Kardono, S. Riswan, C.R. Fairchild, R. Wild, N.R. Farnsworth, G.A. Cordell, J.M. Pezzuto and A.D. Kinghorn, 2003. Cytotoxic flavone analogues of vitexicarpin, a constituent of the leaves of Vitex negundo. Journal of Natural Products, 66: 865-67.
En-shun, J., X. Ming, L. Yu-qing and W. Yu-feng, 2009. Toxicity of Vitex negundo extract to aphids and its co-toxicity with imidacloprid. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 20: 686-690.
Flick, C.E., D.A. Evans and W.R. Sharp, 1983. Organogenesis, In Handbook of plant Cell Culture, vol. 1 (Evans, D. A., Sharp, W. R., Amrnitato, P. V., and Yamada, Y. eds.), MacMillan, New York, pp: 13-81.
Guleria, S. and A. Kumar, 2006. Antifungal activity of some Himalayan medicinal plants using direct bioautography. Journal of Cell and Molecular Biology, 5: 95-98.
Gupta, M., U.K. Mazumder, S.R. Bhawal and S.M.K. Swamy, 1997. CNS activity of petroleum ether extract of Vitex negundo Linn in mice. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 59: 240-245.
Gupta, M., U.K. Mazumder and S.R. Bhawal, 1999. CNS activity of Vitex negundo Linn. in mice. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 37: 143-146.
Gupta, R.K. and V.R. Tandon, 2005. An experimental evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of Vitex negundo. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 49: 163-172.
Hassan, M.M., F.M. S. Azam, M.H. Chowdhury and M. Rahmatullah, 2009. Callus Induction of Abrus precatorius: Screening of Phytohormones, American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3(3): 512518.
Hebbalkar, D.S., G.D. Hebbalkar, R.N. Sharma, V.S. Joshi and V.S. Bhat, 1992. Mosquito repellant activity of oils from Vitex negundo Linn. Leaves. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 95: 200-203.
Jager, A.K. and J.Van Staden, 2000. The need for cultivation of medicinal plants in Southern Africa. Outlook on Agriculture, 29: 283-284.
Jagetia, G.C. and M.S. Baliga, 2004. The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: a preliminary study. Journal of Medicinal Foods, 7: 343-48.
Jana, U., R.N. Chattopadhyay, and B.P. Shaw, 1999. Preliminary studies on anti-inflammatory activity of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Vitex negundo Linn. and Tinospora cordifolia (Willid) Miers in albino rats. Indian journal of pharmacology, 31: 232-233.
Kamaraj, C., A. Rahuman and A. Bagavan, 2008. Antifeedant and larvicidal effects of plant extracts against Spodoptera litura (F.), Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Parasitology Research, 103: 325-331.
Karmegam, N., M. Sakthivadivel, V. Anuradha, and T. Daniel, 1997. Indigenous plant extracts as larvicidal agents against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Bioresource Technology, 59: 137-140.
Kannathasan, K., A. Senthilkumar, M. Chandrasekaran and V. Venkatesalu, 2007. Differential larvicidal efficacy of four species of Vitex against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Parasitology Research, 101: 1721-1723.
Kannathasan, K., A. Senthilkumar, V. Venkatesalu and M. Chandrasekaran, 2008. Larvicidal activity of fatty acid methyl esters of Vitex species against Culex quinquefasciatus. Parasitology Research, 103: 999-1001.
Karunamoorthi, K., S. Ramanujam and R. Rathinasamy, 2008. Evaluation of leaf extracts of Vitex negundo L. (Family: Verbenaceae) against larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and repellent activity on adult vector mosquitoes. Parasitology Research, 103: 545-550.
Khan, N. and Rashid, A, 2006. A study on the indigenous medicinal plants and healing practices in Chittagong Hill tracts (Bangladesh). African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 3: 37-47.
Kiong, A.L., M. Mahmood, N.M. Fodzillan, S.K. Daud, 2005. Effects of precursor supplementation on the production of triterpenes by Centella asiatica callus culture. Pakistan Journal Biological Science, 8: 1160-1169.
Larkin, P.J. and W. R. Scowcraft, 1981. Somaclonal variation-a novel source of variability from cell culture for plant improvement. Theoretical Application Genetics, 60: 197-214.
Lodhi, A., M.I. Choudhary, A. Malik and S. Ahmad, 2008. a-Chymotrypsin inhibition studies on the lignans from Vitex negundo Linn, Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, 23: 400-405.
Murashige, T. and F. Skoog, 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum, 15: 473-497.
Nasir E. and S.I. Ali, 1974. Flora of West Pakistan, No. 77, Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan, p: 1.
Nathan, S.S., K. Kalaivani and K. Murugan, 2006. Behavioural responses and changes in biology of rice leaf folder following treatment with a combination of bacterial toxins and botanical insecticides. Chemosphere, 64: 1650-1658.
Nguyen-Pouplin, J., H. Tran, H. Tran, T.A. Phan, C. Dolecek, J. Farrar, T.H. Tran, P. Caron, B. Bodo and P. Grellier, 2007. Antimalarial and cytotoxic activities of ethnopharmacologically selected medicinal plants from South Vietnam. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 109: 417-427.
Nikolaeva, T.N., N.V. Zagoskina and M.N. Zaprometov, 2009. Production of phenolic compounds in callus cultures of tea plant under the effect of 2, 4-D and NAA. Russ. Journal of Plant Physiology, 56: 45-49.
Nurazah, Z., M. Radzali, A. Syahida and M. Maziah, 2009. Effects of plant growth regulators on callus induction from Cananga odorata flower petal explants. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(12): 2740-2743.
Ogita, S., J. Miyazaki, T. Godo and Y. Kato, 2009. Possibility for selective accumulation of polyphenolics in tissue cultures of Senno (Lychnis senno Siebold et Zucc.). Natural Product Communications, 4(3): 377-80.
Olivira, A.J.B., L. Koika, F.A.M. Reis, S.L. Shepherd, 2001. Callus culture of Aspidosperma ramiflorum Muell.-Arg. Growth and alkaloid production. Acta Scientia, 23: 609-612.
Paneru, R.B. and G.P. Shivakoti, 2001. Use of botanicals for the management of pulse beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus F.) in lentil. Nepal Agriculture Research Journal, 4-5: 27-30.
Pushpalatha, E. and J. Muthukrishnan, 1995. Larvicidal activity of a few plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi. Indian Journal of Malariology, 32: 14-23.
Raghavan, V., 1986. Embryogenesis in Angiosperms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Rahuman, A., A. Bagavan, C. Kamaraj, M. Vadivelu, A. Zahir, G. Elango and G. Pandiyan, 2009. Evaluation of indigenous plant extracts against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitology Research, 104: 637-643.
Rahmatullah, M., A.A.B. Tajbilur Kabir, M.M. Rahman, M.S. Hossan, Z. Khatun, M.A. Khatun, R. Jahan, 2010. Ethnomedicinal Practices among a Minority Group of Christians Residing in Mirzapur Village of Dinajpur District, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Science, 4(1): 45-51.
Raja, N., S. Albert and S. Ignacimuthu, 2000. Effect of solvent residues of Vitex negundo Linn. and Cassia fistula Linn. on pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. and its larval parasitoid, Dinarmus vagabundus (Timberlake). Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 38: 290.
Rajendran, S. and V. Sriranjini, 2008. Plant products as fumigants for stored-product insect control. Journal of Stored Products Research, 44: 126-135.
Raj, P.V., H.R. Chandrasekhar, P. Vijayan, S.A. Dhanaraj, C.M. Rao, J.V. Rao and K. Nitesh, 2008. In vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective effect of Vitex negundo leaves. Pharmacology Online, 3: 281-295.
Rani, G., G.S. Virk and A. Nagpal, 2003. Callus induction and plantlet regeneration in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. In vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology--Plant, 39(5): 468-474.
Rao, R.S. and G.A. Ravishankar, 2002. Plant tissue cultures; chemical factories of secondary metabolites. Biotechnology Advance, 20: 101-153.
Rooban, B., Y. Lija, P. Biju, V. Sasikala, V. Sahasranamam, and A. Abraham, 2009. Vitex negundo attenuates calpain activation and cataractogenesis in selenite models. Experimental Eye Research, 88: 575.
Ravishankar, B. and V. Shukla, 2007. Indian Systems of Medicine: A Brief Profile. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 4: 319-337.
Sahare, K.N., V. Anandhraman, V.G. Meshram, S.U. Meshram, D. Gajalakshmi, K. Goswami and M.V. Reddy, 2008a. In vitro effect of four herbal plants on the motility of Brugia malayi microfilariae. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 127: 467-471.
Sahare, K.N., V. Anandhraman, V.G. Meshram, S.U. Meshram, M.V. Reddy, P.M. Tumane, and K. Goswami, 2008b. Anti-microfilarial activity of methanolic extract of Vitex negundo and Aegle marmelos and their phytochemical analysis. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 46(2): 128-131.
Sahayaraj, K., 1998. Antifeedant effect of some plant extracts on the Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius). Current Science, 74: 523.
Samy, R.P., S. Ignacimuthu and A. Sen, 1998. Screening of 34 Indian medicinal plants for antibacterial properties', Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 62: 173-182.
Sathiamoorthy, B., P. Gupta, M. Kumar, A.K. Chaturvedi, P.K. Shukla and R. Maurya, 2007. New antifungal glycoside from Vitex negundo. Bioorganic and Medical Chemistry Letters, 17: 239-242.
Sirchl, M.H.T., M.A. Kadir, M.A. Aziz, A.A. Rashid, A. Rafat and M.B. Javadi, 2008. Amelioration of mangosteen micro propagation through leaf and seed segments (Garcinia mangostana L.). African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(12): 2025-2029.
Taha H.S., M.K. El-Bahr and M.M. Seif-El-Nasr, 2008. In vitro studies on Egyptian Catharanthus Roseus (L.) G. Don: calli production, direct shootlets regeneration and alkaloids determination. Journal of Applied Science and Research, 4(8): 1017-1022.
Tandon, V.R. and R.K. Gupta, 2005. An experimental evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of Vitex negundo. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 49: 199-205.
Tandon, V.R. and R.K. Gupta, 2006a. Anti-inflammatory Activity and Mechanism of Action of Vitex negundo Linn. International Journal of Pharmacology, 2: 303-308.
Tandon, V.R, and R.K. Gupta, 2006b. Vitex negundo Linn (VN) leaf extract as an adjuvant therapy to standard anti-inflammatory drugs. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 124(4): 447-50.
Tandon V.R., V. Khajuria, B. Kapoor, D. Kour, and S. Gupta, 2008. Hepatoprotective activity of Vitex negundo leaf extract against anti-tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity. Fitoterapia, 79(7-8): 533-38.
Tasduq, S.A., P.J. Kaiser, B.D. Gupta, V.K. Gupta and R.K. Johri, 2008. Negundoside, an irridiod glycoside from leaves of Vitex negundo, protects human liver cells against calcium-mediated toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 14: 3693-3709.
Tiwari, O.P. and Y.B. Tripathi, 2007. Antioxidant properties of different fractions of Vitex negundo Linn. Food Chemistry, 100: 1170-1176.
Thomas, T.D. and E.A. Maseena, 2006. Callus induction and plant regeneration in Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. An important medicinal plant. Scientia Horticulturae, 108(3): 332-336.
Umamaheswari, M., K.A. Kumar, A. Somasundaram, T. Sivashanmugam, V. Subhadradevi and T.K. Ravi, 2007a. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of some Indian medical plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 109: 547-551.
Umamaheswai, A., V. Lalitha, 2007b. In vitro effect of various growth hormones in Capsicum annum L. on the callus induction and production of Capsiacin. Journal of Plant Science, 2: 545-551.
Varindra., S., R. Saikia, S. Sandhu, S.S. Gosal, 2000. Effect of nutrient limitation on capsaicin production in callus culture derived from pericarp and seedling explants of Capsicum annum L. varieties. Plant Tissue Culture, 10: 9-16.
Villasenor, I.M. and M.R.A. Lamadrid, 2006. Comparative anti-hyperglycemic potentials of medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 104: 129-131.
Vishal, T. and R.K. Gupta, 2005. Effect of Vitex negundo on oxidative stress. Indian journal of pharmacology, 37.
Watt G., 1972. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of India. 1st ed., Vol. VI, Part IV, Cosmo Publications, Delhi-6. India, pp: 248-249.
Wealth of India, 1976. A dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products. V.X (sp-w). CSIR, New Delhi, pp: 522-524.
Woradulayapinij, W., N. Soonthornchareonnon, C. Wiwat and Worad, 2005. In vitro HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities of Thai medicinal plants and Canna indica L. rhizomes. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 101: 84-89.
Yang, L., K. Yen, Y. Kiso, and H. Hikino, 1987. Antihepatotoxic actions of formosan plant drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 19: 103-110.
Yuan, L., M. Xue, Y. Liu, and H. Wang, 2006. Toxicity and oviposition-deterrence of Vitex negundo extracts to Plutella xylostella. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, 17: 695-8.
Yunos, N.M., R.M. Ali, O.B. Kean and R. Abas, 2005. Cytotoxicity Evaluations on Vitex negundo Anti inflammatory Extracts. Malaysian Journal of Science, 24: 213-217.
Zheng C.J., W.Z. Tang, B.K. Huang, T. Han, Q.Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, and L.P. Qin, 2009. Bioactivity-guided fractionation for analgesic properties and constituents of Vitex negundo L. seeds. Phytomedicine, 16(6-7): 560-67.
Zheng C.J., B.K. Huang, T. Han, Q.Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, K. Rahman, and L.P. Qin, 2010. Antinociceptive activities of the liposoluble fraction from Vitex negundo seeds. Pharmaceuticals Biology, 48(6): 651-58.
Farzana Begum Chowdhury, F.M. Safiul Azam, Md. Maruf Hassan, Farhana Israt Jahan, Anita Rani Chowdhury, Syeda Seraj, Zubaida Khatun, Mohammed Rahmatullah
Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.
Corresponding Author: Mohammed Rahmatullah, University of Development Alternative Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka1205, Bangladesh.
Pon: 88-02-9136285; Fax: 88-02-8157339
Table 1: Effect of 2,4/D (mg/l) in MS medium for callus induction of V. negundo. MS + Hormone Source of Number of Percentage (mg/l) 2, 4-D explants explants inoculated of response (%) 0.5 Leaf 5 60 Internodes 5 60 1.0 Leaf 5 80 Internodes 5 80 1.5 Leaf 5 60 Internodes 5 60 2.0 Leaf 5 100 Internodes 5 100 2.5 Leaf 5 60 Internodes 5 60 3.0 Leaf 5 80 Internodes 5 80 MS + Hormone Source of Callogenesis Time required (mg/l) 2, 4-D explants for response (day) 0.5 Leaf 0 14 Internodes 0 14 1.0 Leaf 0 12 Internodes 0 12 1.5 Leaf 0 8 Internodes 0 8 2.0 Leaf +++ 8 Internodes +++ 8 2.5 Leaf 0 11 Internodes 0 11 3.0 Leaf 0 11 Internodes +++ 11 MS + Hormone Source of Color Texture (mg/l) 2, 4-D explants 0.5 Leaf White Friable Internodes White Friable 1.0 Leaf White Friable Internodes White Friable 1.5 Leaf White Friable Internodes White Friable 2.0 Leaf White Friable Internodes White Friable 2.5 Leaf White Friable Internodes White Friable 3.0 Leaf White Friable Internodes White Friable -No response, + Poor response, ++ Good response, +++ Better response Table 2: Effect of NAA (mg/l) in MS medium for callus induction of V. negundo. MS+ Hormone Source of Number of Percentage of (mg/L) explants explants inoculated response (%) 0.5 Leaf 5 00 Internode 5 60 1.0 Leaf 5 60 Internode 5 100 1.5 Leaf 5 100 Internode 5 100 2.0 Leaf 5 60 Internode 5 60 2.5 Leaf 5 100 Internode 5 100 3.0 Leaf 5 60 Internode 5 80 MS+ Hormone Source of Callogenesis Time required (mg/L) explants for response (day) 0.5 Leaf - 28 Internode 0 12 1.0 Leaf 0 20 Internode 0 18 1.5 Leaf 0 14 Internode +++ 11 2.0 Leaf 0 10 Internode 0 10 2.5 Leaf 0 10 Internode 0 10 3.0 Leaf 0 10 Internode 0 8 MS+ Hormone Source of Color TextureNAA (mg/L) explants 0.5 Leaf ---- ---- Internode Green Friable 1.0 Leaf Greenish white Friable Internode Green Friable 1.5 Leaf Greenish white Friable Internode Greenish white Friable, embryonic 2.0 Leaf Green Friable Internode Green Friable 2.5 Leaf Green Friable Internode Greenish white Friable 3.0 Leaf Greenish white Friable Internode Greenish white Friable -No response, + Poor response, ++ Good response, +++ Better response. Table 3: Effect of 2,4/D + NAA (mg/l) in MS medium for callus induction of V. negundo. MS+ Hormone Source of Number of Percentage (mg/l) 2, 4-D explants explants of response (%) + NAA inoculated 0.5+1.0 Leaf 5 80 Internode 5 80 0.5+1.5 leaf 5 60 Internode 5 80 1.0+1.0 leaf 5 80 Internode 5 100 1.0+1.5 Leaf 5 80 Internode 5 100 1.5+1.0 leaf 5 60 Internode 5 60 1.5+1.5 Leaf 5 100 Internode 5 80 2.0+1.0 Leaf 5 60 Internode 5 60 2.0+1.5 Leaf 5 60 Internode 5 80 2.5+0.5 Leaf 5 100 Internode 5 100 2.5+1.0 Leaf 5 100 Internode 5 100 2.5+1.5 Leaf 5 80 Internode 5 60 2.5+2.0 Leaf 5 60 Internode 5 60 3.0+0.5 Leaf 5 60 Internode 5 80 3.0+1.0 Leaf 5 60 Internode 5 60 3.0+1.5 Leaf 5 60 Internode 5 80 3.0+2.0 Leaf 5 80 Internode 5 80 MS+ Hormone Source of Callogenesis Time required (mg/l) 2, 4-D explants for response (day) + NAA 0.5+1.0 Leaf +++ 9 Internode +++ 9 0.5+1.5 leaf 0 10 Internode +++ 10 1.0+1.0 leaf +++ 10 Internode +++ 10 1.0+1.5 Leaf +++ 10 Internode +++ 9 1.5+1.0 leaf 0 9 Internode +++ 9 1.5+1.5 Leaf 0 9 Internode 0 9 2.0+1.0 Leaf 0 7 Internode 0 8 2.0+1.5 Leaf +++ 7 Internode 0 8 2.5+0.5 Leaf 0 8 Internode +++ 7 2.5+1.0 Leaf 0 8 Internode +++ 8 2.5+1.5 Leaf 0 9 Internode +++ 9 2.5+2.0 Leaf 0 13 Internode 0 13 3.0+0.5 Leaf 0 8 Internode +++ 8 3.0+1.0 Leaf +++ 7 Internode +++ 7 3.0+1.5 Leaf 0 8 Internode +++ 8 3.0+2.0 Leaf 0 10 Internode +++ 10 MS+ Hormone Source of Color Texture (mg/l) 2, 4-D explants + NAA 0.5+1.0 Leaf White Loose Internode White Compact 0.5+1.5 leaf White Loose Internode White Compact 1.0+1.0 leaf White Loose Internode White Loose 1.0+1.5 Leaf White Loose and wet Internode White Loose and wet 1.5+1.0 leaf White Loose and wet Internode White Loose and wet 1.5+1.5 Leaf White Loose and wet Internode White Loose and wet 2.0+1.0 Leaf White Loose and wet Internode White Loose 2.0+1.5 Leaf White Loose Internode White Loose 2.5+0.5 Leaf White Loose Internode Yellowish Loose 2.5+1.0 Leaf White Loose Internode White Loose and wet 2.5+1.5 Leaf White Loose Internode Greenish white Loose and wet Loose and wet 2.5+2.0 Leaf White Loose Internode White Loose 3.0+0.5 Leaf White Loose Internode White Loose and wet 3.0+1.0 Leaf White Loose and wet Internode White Loose and wet 3.0+1.5 Leaf White Loose and wet Internode White Loose and wet 3.0+2.0 Leaf White Loose and wet Internode White Loose and wet -No response, + Poor response, ++ Good response, +++ Better response. Table 4: Effect of 2,4/D (mg/l) and BAP combination in MS medium for callus induction of V. negundo. MS + Hormone Source of Number of Percentage (mg/l) 2,4-D+ BAP explants explants included of response (%) 1.0+0.5 Leaf 5 60 Internodes 5 80 1.0+1.0 Leaf 5 80 Internodes 5 80 1.0+1.5 Leaf 5 80 Internodes 5 100 1.0+2.0 Leaf 5 100 internodes 5 100 MS + Hormone Source of Callogenesis Time required (mg/l) 2,4-D+ BAP explants for response (day) 1.0+0.5 Leaf 0 12 Internodes 0 10 1.0+1.0 Leaf 0 12 Internodes 0 7 1.0+1.5 Leaf 0 10 Internodes 0 11 1.0+2.0 Leaf 0 11 internodes 0 11 MS + Hormone Source of Color Texture (mg/l) 2,4-D+ BAP explants 1.0+0.5 Leaf Yellow Loose and wetly Internodes Yellow Loose and wetly 1.0+1.0 Leaf Brown Loose and wetly Internodes Brown Loose and wetly 1.0+1.5 Leaf Brown Loose and wetly Internodes Brown Loose and wetly 1.0+2.0 Leaf Yellow Loose and wetly internodes Yellow Loose and wetly + Poor response, ++ Good response
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||Original Articles|
|Author:||Chowdhury, Farzana Begum; Azam, F.M. Safiul; Hassan, Maruf; Jahan, Farhana Israt; Chowdhury, Anita R|
|Publication:||American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2011|
|Previous Article:||A survey of non-conventional plants consumed during times of food scarcity in three adjoining villages of Narail and Jessore districts, Bangladesh.|
|Next Article:||A survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi Upazila in Barisal district,...|