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Studies on the preparation of activated carbon sugarcane bagasse on removal of chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity and oil and grease of car wash wastewater.

INTRODUCTION

Activated carbon have been widely used as adsorbent in wastewater treatment around the world. It has been used for controlling air pollution, water pollution, odors, and for environmental protection causing its demands to increase [4]. The term of activated carbon is come from the word "carbon" and "active". Carbon defined as raw material undergoes carbonization process. Whereas, active is a material in carbon condition which undergoes an activation process to open a pore of surface area to increase adsorption rate of activated carbon [6]. In Malaysia, sugarcane bagasse is one of the primary agro-industrial wastes. Generally, sugarcane bagasse is a by product of sugarcane industries obtained for the production of sugar. Approximately 54 million bagasse wastes were produced annually worldwide [5]. From an environ-economics point of view, the disposal of the agro wastes is a waste of resources [4]. Bagasse composed of 50% cellulose, 27% polyoses, and 23% lignin. The composition of polymers have many hydroxyl functions reacted to produce materials with new properties such as activated carbon [3].Bagasse must be modified physically and chemically to increase its adsorptive properties to ensure it is more favourable towards pollutants commonly found in wastewater. Chemical activation enlarging the pores, increasing the adsorption capacity of the bagasse and ease the removal of organic matter from the wastewater [1].In this study, sugarcane bagasse were chemically activated via phosphoric acid. Thus, the objective of this study is to develop optimum conditions for preparation of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse. The conditions studied are impregnation percentage of phosphoric acid, activation temperature and time of carbonization through removal via chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity and oil and grease concentrations of real car wash wastewater. The car wash wastewater have initial concentration of COD: 457 mg/L, Alk: 132 mg/L and O&G: 87.6 mg/L.All the experiments were done in triplicate readings.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Chemically activated carbon sugarcane bagasse, acsb preparation:

The sugarcane bagasse was collected locally. The samples were initially washed under running tap water and drying under the sun and cut approximately to 2 cm, before washed with distilled water to remove the dirts. The samples were then oven dried at 105[degrees]C for 24 hours until constant weight achieved and stored in container for processing. Chemical activation was carried out using 85% purity of Bendosen H3PO4. The dried bagasse impregnated with 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% of H3PO4. in 1L of glass beaker with ratio 1g dried bagasse: 5 ml of H3PO4: 2g acsb. Distilled water were added till the mixture fully soaked and leave for 24 hours. The sample were filtered then to remove the remaining excess of H3PO4. The impregnated samples were carbonized in the furnace under different temperature at 500[degrees]C, 600[degrees]C, and 700[degrees]C for 1 hour, 2 hour and 3 hour time of carbonization and hold on for 1 hour. Then, the samples were washed with 60[degrees]C of distilled water and rinse with pure water several times until the pH was constant, between 3.98 to 4.03. The sample were mixed mechanically in 150 ml of the wastewater in 250 ml conical flask with 5g of acsb at 125 rpm of Daiki orbital shaker. The solution were filtered through a 45p Whatman filter paper. Then, the removal were analysed for COD, alkalinity and oil and grease for real car wash wastewater. At the end of this step, a ratio for optimum desired desirable for removal pollutant of car wash wastewater of impregnation percentage of H3PO4: activation temperature: time of carbonization was obtained.

Determination of chemical oxygen demand(COD), alkalinity (Alk) and oil and grease (O&G):

The organic compounds of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was followed APHA 5220 D procedure and digested using COD reactor of Hach DRB200 for 2 hours before undergoes titration method on samples. Tests of oil and grease (O&G) concentration was measured according to modified APHA 5520B. The samples were extracted by the SPE-DEX 4790 Automated Extraction System to separate oil with the water samples. The SPEED-VAP III Evaporation System provides fast evaporation of n-hexane solvent for oil and grease extractions on aluminium pans, which later be weighed and calculated based on formula, denoted the concentration of oil and greases. The determination of alkalinity on samples were analysed using titration method of APHA 2320 B.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Effect of activation time, temperature of carbonization and impregnation percentage on COD removal:

Table 1 and Figure 1 shows the COD removal by activated carbon sugarcane bagasse. The percentage removal increase from 1 hour till 2 hour time of carbonization and decrease slightly afterwards. Removal of COD at time of carbonization follows the order ratio time of carbonization 2hr > 3 hr > 1hr. COD concentration reached highest removal of 52.08% of 2 hour carbonization. The removal efficiency follows 20% > 30% > 10% > 40 % > 50% of impregnation. The decreasing removal may be due to the deterioration of pore activated carbon due to high percentage of impregnation. The best activation temperature removal of COD obtained at 500[degrees]C. There is no removal of COD occurs for sample at 600[degrees]C and 700[degrees]C of 50 % impregnation. Instead, the concentration increased beyond the initial concentration of COD, 457 mg/L. It might due to the deterioriation of pore surfaces of activated carbon itself. Hence, performing the deficiency in reming the pollutants.

Effect of activation time, temperature of carbonization and impregnation percentage on Alkalinity removal:

As seen in the Figure 2, the percentage removal increase from 10%, 20%, and 30 % but decrease after 40% and 50% for 500[degrees]C, 600[degrees]C, and 700[degrees]C of carbonization. Generally, it seem the alkalinity removal for 20% better than the other impregnation percentages studied. The optimum removal observed at 500[degrees]C, 2 hour of carbonization with 20% of impregnation phosphoric acid where, 59.09% removal following by 50.76% at 500[degrees]C, 2 hour carbonization with 30% impregnation. The increase in removal of alkalinity as time of carbonization increase is much related with the activation temperature.

Effect of activation time, temperature of carbonization and impregnation percentage on Oil and grease removal: Figure 3 shows the percentage removal increase from 10%, 20%, and 30 % but slightly decrease after 40% and 50% for 500[degrees]C, 600[degrees]C, and 700[degrees]C of carbonization where, 20% >10% > 30% > 40%> 50%. The optimum removal denoted at 500[degrees]C, 2 hour of carbonization with 20% of impregnation phosphoric acid ratio with 40.64% removal following by 38.01% at 600[degrees]C, 3 hour carbonization with 30% impregnation percentage.

Conclusion:

The optimum values obtained from the batch study were 20% impregnation of H3PO4, 500[degrees]C of carbonization for 2 hours using real car wash wastewater as sample. COD reached optimum removal of 52.08%, 59.09% of alkalinity, and 40.64% of oil and grease. The removal of COD for 600[degrees]C and 700[degrees]C for 1 hour, 2 hour and 3 hour time of carbonization of 50% impregnation were beyond the initial concentration of COD. 50% impregnation percentage and above might be not suitable due to burn off micropores and hence, lowering pollutant removals. Although the removal for the pollutant of car wash wastewater were satisfactory, further batch study by using the optimum values for preparation of activated carbon sugarcane bagasse will be explored. The study was limited by the type of furnace used Protherm which could not control the inert atmosphere resulting 600[degrees]C activation could not be achieved since the bagasse were easily oxidized forming ash. The sugarcane bagasse are potential agricultural wastes to be used as activated carbon and should be studied extensively.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 12 March 2015

Accepted 28 April 2015

Available online 24 May 2015

REFERENCES

[1] Adinaveen, T., L.J. Kennedy, J.J. Vijaya and G. Sekaran, 2013. Studies on structural, morphological, electrical and electrochemical properties of activated carbon prepared from sugarcane bagasse. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 1-7.

[2] Cooney, D.O., 1998. Adsorption design for wastewater treatment. Lewis Publishers.

[3] Karnitz, O., L.V.A. Gurgel, J.C.P. De Melo, V.R. Botaro, T.M.S. Melo, R.P. De Freitas Gill and L.F. Gil, 2007. Adsorption of heavy metal ion from aqueous single metal solution by chemically modified sugarcane bagasse. Bioresource Technology, 98(6): 1291-1297.

[4] Mutegoa, E., I. Onoka and A. Hilonga, 2014. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3(5) 327-331.

[5] Qureshi, K., I. Bhatti, R. Kazi and A.K. Ansari, 2008. Physical and chemical analysis of activated carbon prepared from sugarcane bagasse and use for sugar decolorisation. International Journal of Chemical and Biological Engineering, 1(3): 144-148.

[6] Siti Khadijah, C.O., C.O. Siti Fatimah, N.A. Misnon and F.K. Hanim, 2012. Utilization of Sugarcane Bagasse in the Production of Activated Carbon for the Groundwater Treatment. International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 1(2): 76-85.

(1) Nadzirah, Z., (2) Nor Haslina, H., (3) Mohd Adib, M.R.

(1) University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Department of Water and Environment, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environment, Box.86400. Batu Pahat, Johor. Malaysia.

(2) University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Department of Water and Environment, Faculty of Civil Engineering Technology, Box.86400. Batu Pahat, Johor. Malaysia.

(3) University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Department of Water and Environment, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environment, Box.86400. Batu Pahat, Johor. Malaysia.

Corresponding Author: Nadzirah., Z. University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Department of Water and Environment, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environment, Box. 86400. Batu Pahat, Johor. Malaysia. 019-8730420 (86400, Batu Pahat, Johor)

E-mail: nadzayadi@gmail.com

Table 1: COD removal percentage by activated carbon sugarcane bagasse
at temperature a) 500 [degrees]C b) 600 [degrees]C and c)700 [degrees]C

a) Temperature of carbonization 500[degrees]C

               Time of carbonization (hr)

               1                 2                 3

Impregnation   COD        Sd     COD        Sd     COD        Sd
ratio of       Removal           Removal           Removal
H3PO4(%)       (%)               (%)               (%)

10             20.13      0.58   28.88      0.00   30.42      0.58
20             43.11      0.00   52.08      0.58   38.51      0.58
30             34.35      0.00   50.55      0.58   37.20      0.58
40             14.88      1.00   16.85      0.58   20.13      1.00
50             5.91       1.53   3.50       0.58   1.53       2.08

b) Temperature of carbonization 600[degrees]C

               Time of carbonization (hr)

               1                 2                 3

               COD        Sd     COD        Sd     COD        Sd
               Removal           Removal           Removal
Impregnation   (%)               (%)               (%)
ratio of
H3PO4(%)

10             32.17      0.58   32.39      0.00   33.70      0.58
20             20.13      0.00   36.98      0.00   31.73      0.58
30             32.17      0.00   0.00       0.00   0.00       0.58
40             9.85       1.15   14.88      0.58   11.82      0.00
50             -2.84      0.58   -1.09      0.00   -0.44      1.15

c) Temperature of carbonization 700[degrees]C

               Time of carbonization (hr)

               1                 2                 3

Impregnation   COD        Sd     COD        Sd     COD        Sd
ratio of       Removal           Removal           Removal
H3PO4(%)       (%)               (%)               (%)

10             28.01      0.58   29.54      0.58   21.23      0.00
20             12.91      1.53   16.63      0.00   14.66      1.00
30             29.76      0.58   36.76      0.00   19.04      0.58
40             10.28      1.15   10.72      0.58   7.22       1.53
50             4.60       1.53   -1.75      1.00   -0.66      0.00

Table 2: Alkalinity removal percentage by activated carbon
sugarcane bagasse at temperature a) 500[degrees]C b) 600[degrees]C
and c) 700[degrees]C

a) Temperature of carbonization 500[degrees]C

                Time of carbonization (hr)

                1                 2                 3

Impregnation    Alk        Sd     Alk        Sd     Alk        Sd
ratio of        Removal           Removal           Removal
H3PO4(%)        (%)               (%)               (%)

10              6.06       0.64   32.58      0.20   29.55      0.15
20              31.82      0.58   59.09      0.76   24.24      0.58
30              25.00      0.25   50.76      0.58   19.70      0.58
40              9.09       0.83   28.79      0.53   24.24      1.10
50              9.09       0.76   12.12      0.15   6.82       0.06

b) Temperature of carbonization 600[degrees]C

                Tims of carbonization (hr)

                1                 2                 3

Impregnation    Alk        Sd     Alk        Sd     Alk        Sd
ratio of        Removal           Removal           Removal
H3PO4(%)        (%)               (%)               (%)

10              11.36      0.12   37.12      0.25   35.61      0.06
20              21.97      0.12   24.24      1.20   25.76      1.53
30              24.24      1.80   46.97      1.53   33.33      0.53
40              16.67      0.72   35.61      0.20   24.24      1.26
50              15.15      0.00   17.42      0.56   16.67      0.29

c) Temperature of carbonization 700[degrees]C

                Time of carbonization (hr)

                1                 2                 3

Impregnation    Alk        Sd     Alk        Sd     Alk        Sd
ratio of        Removal           Removal           Removal
H3PO4(%)        (%)               (%)               (%)

10              5.30       0.23   8.33       0.15   6.06       0.15
20              9.09       0.35   15.90      0.23   7.58       0.12
30              9.09       1.22   29.55      0.31   15.15      0.42
40              1.52       0.53   3.03       0.23   2.27       0.93
50              1.52       0.64   5.30       0.58   5.30       0.00

Table 3: Oil and grease removal percentage by activated carbon
sugarcane bagasse at temperature a) 500[degrees]C
b) 600[degrees]C and c) 700[degrees]C

a) Temperature of carbonization 500[degrees]C

                Time of carbonization (hr)

                1                 2                 3

Impregnation    O&G       Sd      O&G       Sd      O&G       Sd
ratio of        Removal           Removal           Removal
H3PO4(%)        (%)               (%)               (%)

10              20.09     0.58    29.64     0.58    29.00     0.20
20              32.65     0.58    40.64     0.46    31.51     0.29
30              35.50     0.06    37.21     0.12    38.01     0.06
40              18.72     0.20    19.06     0.06    21.23     0.29
50              856       0 06    982-      115     8.68      0.00

b) Temperature of carbonization 600[degrees]C

                Time of carbonization (hr)

                1                 2                 3

Impregnation    O&G       Sd      O&G       Sd      O&G       Sd
ratio of        Removal           Removal           Removal
H3PO4(%)        (%)               (%)               (%)

10              14.84     0.40    24.66     0.58    20.09     0.00
20              23.52     0.12    2888      0.21    20.09     0.58
30              30.48     0.50    37.21     0.10    24.66     0.58
40              13.24     0.72    17.81     0.23    16.55     0.10
50              8.11      0.50    9.82      1.00    15.53     0.58

c) Temperature of carbonization 700[degrees]C

                Time of carbonization (hr)

                1                 2                 3

Impregnation    O&G       Sd      O&G       Sd      O&G       Sd
ratio of        Removal           Removal           Removal
H3PO4(%)        (%)               (%)               (%)

10              12.56     0.46    11.99     0.10    8.68      0.00
20              10.73     0.12    13.24     0.58    13.24     0.58
30              13.13     0.10    21.23     0.00    21.23     0.58
40              9.59      0.40    7.53      0.58    7.65      0.30
50              6 30      0.79    6 39      0.00    4.34      0.20
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Article Details
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Author:Nadzirah, Z.; Nor Haslina, H.; Mohd Adib, M.R.
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Date:Jun 15, 2015
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