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Studies on the genus Onesia (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from China, with the descriptions of two new species.

Onesia is a genus of Calliphoridae (Diptera) and most of Onesia species are distributed in the Australasian/Oceanian and Palaearctic Regions. According to current data, there are 61 species of Onesia in the world, including 28 Palaearctic, 23 Australasian/Oceanian species, and 7 Oriental. In addition 2 species are common to the Palaearctic and Oriental regions, and one to the Oriental and Australasian/Oceanian regions (Rognes 1991, 1997, 1998; Schumann 1964, 1974, 1986; Verves 2004, 2005; Verves & Khrokalo 2006). Most Australasian/Oceanian species were listed by Kurahashi (1989), and most East Palaearctic and oriental species have been reported by Kano & Shinonaga (1968), Kurahashi (1986, 1989); Kurahashi & Jayasekera (1989); Fan (1992, 1997); Xue (2005); Xue & Chao (1998); and Xue & Wang (2006).

A faunistic analysis of the Onesia species from China is reported herein for the first time. The majority of the Chinese species are found in the Hengduan Mountains which are located between 27[degrees]-35[degrees]N and 99[degrees]-105[degrees]E (Fig. 23).

METHODS AND MATERIALS

Absolute measurements in millimeters (mm) are used for body length. Abbreviations have the following meaning: acr = acrostichal setae; dc = dorsocentral setae; ial = intra-alar setae; pra = prealar setae; p = posterior setae; v = ventral setae; ad = anterodorsal setae; pd = posterodorsal setae; av = anteroventral setae; pv = posteroventral setae. The distribution map was made with the software of ArcView GIS 3.2.

General Characteristics of Genus Onesia and Key to Chinese Species

Onesia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 365. Type species: Onesia floralis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, by subsequent designation (Townsend, 1916: 8).

Macrophallus Mueller, 1922: 62. Type species: Onesia austriaca Villeneuve, 1920, by subsequent designation (Townsend, 1935: 170). Synonymized by Schumann, 1964: 915.

Macronesia Villeneuve, 1926: 130. Type species: Onesia hendeli Villeneuve, 1926 [= Onesia kowarzi Villeneuve, 1920], by subsequent designation (Townsend, 1935: 170). Synonymized by Schumann, 1964: 915.

Onesioides Schumann, 1973: 338. Type species: Melinda hokkaidensis Baranov, 1939, by original designation. Synonymized by Rognes, 1991: 97.

Pellonesia Lu & Fan, 1981 in: Wang et al. (1981): 255, 256, 258. Type species: Onesia pterygoides Lu & Fan, 1981, by monotypy. Synonymized by Rognes, 1991: 97.

Diagnosis (Figs. 1-8)

Medium-sized flies (5.0-12.0 mm). Male frons narrow, frontal vitta brown to black, with longitudinal crinkle, fronto-orbital plate and parafacial with gleamy yellowish-white and silver pruinosity, all with small hairs, fronto-orbital plate with transverse strip, parafacial and gena broad, frontal angle and vibrissa angle all projecting, gena about 1/2 of eye in height, antenna scape and pedicel red-brown to black, most of first flagellomere red-brown, first flagellomere at least 2.0 times as long as pedicel, the longest hair shorter than width of first flagellomere, palpus yellow-brown, without facial carina; thorax black and green, with white pruinosity, with outer posthumeral seta, acr (1-2) + (2-4), dc (2-3) + (3-4), ial (0-1) + (3-4) (expect O. dynatophallus sp. nov, O. franzaosternita sp. nov and O. occidentalis Feng, 2003, with 2 post intra-alar setae), distance between acr rows narrow, scutum usually with 3 indistinct vittae, vein with angulated katepisternum 2+1; [m.sub.1+2] bend, lower calypter with sparse dark ciliae, halter yellow-brown; legs black; abdomen with light pruinosity, only tergite 5 with many discal setae, epandrium and basal parts of surstyli red-brown, paraphallus short, distiphallus long. Female oviscapt short.

[FIGURES 1-8 OMITTED]
KEY TO CHINESE SPECIES OF THE GENUS ONESIA (MALES)

1. Abdomen with shifting patches 2
 distinctly

1a. Abdomen without or with shifting 5
 patches indistinctly

2. In profile, cercus very broad, about O. megaloba (Feng 1998)
 6.0 times of surstylus in width

2a. In profile, cercus at most 3
 about 3.0 times of surstylus in width

3. Inner margin of lateral lobe of O. franzaosternita Xue &
 sternite 5 with thin fringe (Fig. 14), Dong sp. nov
 apical half of cercus proclinate
 distinctly in profile (Fig. 16)

3a. Sternite 5 without fringe, apical 4
 half of cercus at most proclinate
 indistinctly in profile (Fig. 1)

4. Antennae black, parafacial about 2.0 O. erlangshanensis Feng 1998
 times of first flagellomere in width;
 acr 2+3, dc 3+3, posthumeral setae
 2+1, katepisternal setae 3+1;
 in profile view the whole
 length of cercus mostly hidden
 by the surstylus (Fig. 1)

4a. Apical part of first O. hokkaidensis
 flagellomere and pedicel mostly (Baranov 1939)
 red-brown, parafacial about 3.0
 times of first flagellomere
 in width; acr 3+3, dc 2+3,
 posthumeral setae 1+0,
 katepisternal setae 2+1; in
 profile view cercus clearly
 visible, not hidden by
 surstylus (Fig. 2)

5. 5th abdominal sternite about O. pterygoides Lu et Fan in
 2.0 times as broad as long, Wang et al. (1981)
 with a membranous connexion
 between the apical parts
 of lateral lobes (Fig. 3);
 basal part of surstylus with
 large aliform processes,
 projecting over tips of cerci
 (Fig. 4)

5a. 5th abdominal sternite about 6
 1.5 times as broad as long,
 without a membranous connexion
 between the apical parts of
 lateral lobes (Fig. 9); basal
 parts of surstylus without
 aliform process

6. Basicosta mostly black or 7
 blackish brown

6a. Basicosta yellow or brown yellow 15

7. acr 1+2O. abaensis Chen et Fan in
Chen et al. (1992)

7a. acr 2+3 8

8. Fore tibia with 1 v O. batangensis Chen et Fan
 in Chen et al. (1992)

8a. Fore tibia without v 9

9. Hind tibia with 1 pv, mid tibia O. dynatophallus Xue & Bai,
without pd sp. nov

9a. Hind tibia without pv, 10
 mid tibia with pd

10. Mid tibia with pv 11

10a. Mid tibia without pv 13

11. Surstylus about 3.0 times as broad O. curviloba (Liang et Gan
 as circus 1986)

11a. Surstylus subequals with 12
 cercus in width

12. Mid tibia with 2 pv, anterior O. jiuzhaigouensis Chen et
 spiracle dark, first flagellomere Fan in Chen et al. (1992)
 mostly black, only the area adjacent
 with pedicel red, the former
 3.0 times as long as the latter

12a. Mid tibia with 3 pv, anterior O. sinnensis Villeneuve 1936
 spiracle brown, apical part of first
 flagellomere entirely black, the
 former 2.5 times as long as pedicel

13. Mid tibia with 1 ad O. chuanxiensis Chen et Fan
 in Chen et al. (1992)

13a. Mid tibia with 2 ad at least 14

14. Mid tibia with 1 pd, hind tibia with O. songpanensis Chen et Fan
4 ad; frons about 2.0 times as wide as in Chen et al. (1992)
anterior ocellus

14a. Mid tibia with 2 pd, hind tibia O. hongyuanensis Chen et
with 3 ad; the width of frons equals to Fan in Chen et al. (1992)
the width of anterior ocellus

15. Cercus distinctly longer than O. ganzeensis Chen et Fan
surstylus in Chen et al. (1992)

15a. Cercus equals in length or shorter 16
than surstylus

16. Cercus subequals with surstylus in 17
length (Fig. 5)

16a. Cercus distinctly shorter than 18
surstylus in length (Fig. 6)

17. dc 2+3, ial 0+2; only tergite 6 with O. occidentalis Feng 2003
posterior marginal setae

17a. dc 3+3, ial 0+3; tergite 3-6 with O. huaxiae Feng et Xue 2000
posterior marginal setae

18. 15 pairs of frontal setae, first O. flora Feng 1998
flagellomere about 3.0 times as long as
pedicel; epandrium extending backwards,
a large part of surstylus hidden by
epandrium in profile (Fig. 7)

18a. 8-9 pairs of frontal setae, first O. wolongiensis Chen et Fan
flagellomere about 3.5 times as long as in Chen et al. (1992)
pedicel; epandrium not extending
backwards (Fig. 8)


Onesia dynatophallus Xue & Bai Sp. Nov (Figs. 9-13)

Male: Body length 9.0-9.5 mm.

Head. Eye bare; width of frons equals in width or broader than the distance between outer margins of posterior ocelli, frontal vitta black, slightly narrower than fronto-orbital plate, at its narrowest point, 14-15 pairs of frontal setae, without orbital setae; fronto-orbital plate and parafacial with cuprum-grey pruinosity, parafacial about 2.5 times as wide as first flagellomere, more than 1/2 length of one eye, antennae black, first flagellomere about 2.5 times as long as pedicel, basal 1/4 of arista becoming thick, basal 3/4 of arista plumose, most of aristal hairs about 1.2-1.3 times as wide as first flagellomere, without facial carina, lower 1/3 of facial ridge with small setae, lower parafacial brown, epistoma distinctly situated behind frontal angle in profile, gena black, with grey pruinosity, gena about 3/5 of eye in height, genal hairs black, and postgena setae light-yellow, prementum without pruinosity, slightly shining, about 2.5 times as long as broad, palpi brown yellow, longer than prementum distinctly.

Thorax. Ground color dark black and slightly dark green, with grey pruinosity, presutural area of scutum with 4 black vittae, postsutural area of scutum with 5 black vittae, and the median vitta reaching scutoscutellar suture; acr 2+3, dc 3+3, ial 0+2, posthumeral setae 1+1, pra about 1.2 times as long as posterior notopleural setae; notopleuron and lateral and ventral margins of scutellum with black hairs, prosternum, propleuron and anepimeron all with hairs, katepimeron bare, meron with row of setae; anterior and posterior spiracles dark brown, katepisternal setae 2+1.

Wing. Base slightly brown; basicosta black, without costal spine, both surfaces of radial node with setae, m-m crossvein S-shaped, calypteres dark brown, lower calypter with small lobule, inside it with few setae in the middle; with anterior paracalyptral tuft, but without posterior paracalyptral tuft; halteres brownish-yellow.

Legs. Entirely black; ventral surface of fore tarsus without tenant hairs, fore tibia with 5-6 ad, 1 ad distinct, 1 pv; mid femur av distinct, becoming short apically, with a complete pv row, strong; mid tibia with 1 v, 1 ad, 2 p; hind femur with a complete av row, and a row of strong pv in basal 3/5; hind tibia with 1 av, 2 ad, 3 pd, 1 short preapical pv.

Abdomen. Olive green, ovum-shaped, with few grey pruinosity, without distinct shifting patches, tergites 3-5 with distinct black median vittae, posterior marginal setae of tergite 3-6 complete; sternite 1 with hairs, sternite 5 trapezia-shaped, and its lateral lobe with 2-3 long setae. Female: Unknown.

Holotype: Male, P.R. China: Sichuan Province: Kangding: Mt. Zheduo, 4200 m altitude, 7-VI-2006, collected by Chun-tian Zhang. Paratype: 1 male, same data as holotype.

Etymology: The species name is from the Greek words dynat meaning muscular and phall meaning aedeagus, referring to the thick and strong aedeagus of the species. (Figs. 12-13)

Remarks: This new species resembles Onesia jiuzhaigouensis Chen et Fan in Chen et al. (1992), but it differs from the latter in male body length 9.0-9.5 mm, frons equals in width or broader than the distance between outer margins of posterior ocelli, fronto-orbital plate and parafacial with cuprum-grey pruinosity, parafacial about 2.5 times as wide as first flagellomere, excess 1/2 the length of one eye, lower 1/3 of facial ridge with small setae, genal height about 3/5 of eye height, ial 0+2, posthumeral setae 1+1, mid tibia without pd, hind tibia with 1 av; surstylus triangle-shaped in profile, middle section of paraphallus broad and large, distal part of it with hamulus.

Distribution--Kangding, Sichuan, China.

Onesia franzaosternita Xue & Dong Sp. Nov (Figs. 14-22)

Male: Body length 5.5-8.2 mm.

Head. eye bare; width of frons equal to or larger than the distance between outer margins of posterior ocelli, frontal vitta black, its narrowest point about 1/3 as wide as one fronto-orbital plate, 11-12 pairs of frontal setae, without orbital setae; ocellar seta subequal to inner vertical seta and frontal setae, fronto-orbital plate and parafacial with light-grey pruinosity, parafacial about 1.8-2.0 times as wide as first flagellomere, about 1/3 eye in length, on basal half of parafacial with 4-5 rows short hairs, antennae black-brown mostly, apical part of pedicel and basal part of first flagellomere red- brown, first flagellomere about 2.2 times as long as pedicel, the basal 1/4 of arista becoming thick, the basal 3/4 of arista plumose, the longest hairs subequal to first flagellomere in width, facial carina lower and narrow, lower 1/3 of facial ridge with small setae, lower of parafacial brown, epistoma distinctly situated behind frontal angle in profile, gena black, with grey pruinosity, genal height about 1/3 of eye height, genal hairs black, and postgena with sparse light-yellow hairs, occiput lateral area with hairs, prementum without pruinosity, shining, about 2.5 times as long as broad, palpi brown yellow, and equal to or longer than prementum.

Thorax. Ground color black, with light grey pruinosity, scutum with 4 black vittae, acr 1+3, dc 3+3, ial 0+2, posthumeral setae 1+1, pra about 1.3 times as long as posterior notopleural seta; notopleuron and lateral and ventral margins of scutellum with black hairs, ventral surface of distal part bare, prosternum, propleuron and anepimeron all with hairs, katepimeron bare, meron with row of setae; anterior and posterior spiracles dark brown, katepisternal setae 1+1.

Wing. Wing base light brown, vein brownish, basicosta dark brown, costal spine short and small, both surfaces of radial node with setulae, m-m cross vein lightly S-shaped, calypteres light brown, lower calypter with small lobule, inside it with 3-4 setulae in the middle; with anterior paracalyptral tuft, but without posterior paracalyptral tuft; halteres light brown.

Legs. Entirely black; ventral surface of fore with few tenant hairs, fore tibia with 2-3 medial ad, slightly longer than body hairs, 1-2 medial pv; mid femur av rows short and thin, hairs-like, with a complete pv row, mid tibia with 1 submedial ad, strong, 2 medial v, 1 submedial p; hind femur with a complete but sparse av row, and a row of strong pv in basal half, ventral surface of basal part with setae, fringe-like, hind tibia with 1 av, 2-3 ad, 2-3 pd; tarsi slightly shorter than tibiae, claw and pulvilli developed, subequal to the length of 5th tarsomere.

Abdomen. Black, ovum-shaped, with dense light grey pruinosity, each tergite with narrow median stripe, 2 sides with shifting patches, sternite 1 with hairs, distal part and lateral of abdomen with slightly long setae.

Female: Body length 7.8-8.2 mm. Frons about 0.36 times as wide as head, frontal vitta about 1.7 times as wide as 1 fronto-orbital plate, frontal triangle reach to 1/3 of upper half of frons, without distinct interfrontal seta, but with 2-3 pairs of small setae, 7-8 pairs of intilted frontal setae, reach to 2 sides of anterior ocellus, 2 pairs of proclinate orbital setae, 1 pair of upper orbital setae, inner vertical seta about 2 times as long as ocellae seta, ocellae seta subequal to frontal setae in length, lower half of fronto-orbital plate and upper half of parafacial with many small hairs, parafacial about 2.5 times as wide as first flagellomere, genal height about 1/2 of eye height; ventral surface of front legs without tenant hairs, basal part of hind femur with 2-3 fringes, claw and pulvilli slightly short, about 2/3 of fifth tarsomere in length; others characteristic the same as male's.

Holotype: Male, P.R. China: Ningxia Autonomous Region: Jingyuan: Lvyuan Forestry centre, 1700-1800 m altitude, 30-VI-2008, collected by Jiayu Liu. Paratype: 2 females, same data as holotype; 1 male, Jingyuan: Hongxia Forestry centre, 2100 m altitude, 14-VII-2008, collected by Zhi-yuan Yao; 1 male, Jingyuan: Heshangpu Forestry centre, 2100-2300 m altitude, 26-VI-2008, collected by Jiayu Liu; 1 female, Jingyuan: Qiuqianjia Forestry centre, 1800 m altitude, 3-VII-2008, collected by Jia-yu Liu; 2 males, Longde: Sutai Forestry centre, 2140-2200 m altitude, 25-VI-2008, Jia-yu Liu, 1 male, collected by Zhi-yuan Yao.

Etymology: The species name is from the Greek words franza meaning fringe and sternita meaning sternite, referring to inner margin of lateral lobe of sternite 5 with thin fringe.

Remarks: The male genitalia of this new species resembles Onesia huaxiae Feng et Xue 2000, but it differs from the latter in inner margin of lateral lobe of sternite 5 with thin fringe, in profile, surstyli bend distinctly, distal part of cerci slightly flat, in dorsal view, surstyli becoming thin.

Distribution--Jingyuan and Longde, Ningxia Autonomous Region, China.

The Faunistic Analysis of Onesia From China

The majority of the species of Onesia in China are distributed in the Hengduan Mountains Region (Fig. 23), an area between the Oriental and Palaearctic regions, with some species distributed in the north regions of China, Far Eastern region of Russia, the Korea peninsula, and Japan. Species are known from south China, Malaysia, Philippines and Sri Lanka of the Oriental region.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This study was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 30870330), and the Foundation of Experimental Centre of Shenyang Normal University (No. SY200609). Special thanks are due Dr. Yuriy G. Verves, Department of Entomology, Institute of Plant Protection of Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Vasyl'kivs'ka vul. 33, Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine for valuable suggestions and offering references; and thanks to Jia-yu Liu, Zhi-yuan Yao, and Chun-tian Zhang for providing the examined materials.

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WAN-QI XUE, WEN-XIU DONG AND SHU-CHONG BAI

Institute of Entomology, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034, China
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