Printer Friendly

Studies on Orthophytum--Part XI: three new species from Bahia and Minas Gerais.

In the sequence of the studies on Orthophytum, three new species from the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais are described and illustrated: Orthophytum buranhense Leme & A. P. Fontana, from the Atlantic Forest domain, O. erigens Leme, from the "Campos Rupestres" of Chapada Diamantina region, both belonging to the complex of scapose inflorescences, and O. roseum Leme, also from the "Campos Rupestres" of the same region, which is related to the complex of sessile inflorescences, "subcomplex amoenum".

Orthophytum buranhense Leme & A. P. Fontana, sp. nov. Type: Brazil, Bahia, Guaratinga, road Buranhen to Santo Antonio do Jacinto, near the border with Minas Gerais, 363 m. elev., 16[degrees]35.08'S 40[degrees]09.43'W, 22 Apr. 2009, E. Leme 7775, L. Kollmann, A. P. Fontana & C. Esgario (Holotype: RB; Isotype: MBML).
   A O. lymanianum E. Pereira & Penna, cui affinis, sed laminis
   foliorum utrimque perdense lepidotis, lepidibus suberectis,
   marginibus prope basin perdense spinosis, inflorescentia breviora,
   bracteis primariis medianis altitudinem fasciculorum distincte
   superantibus, bracteis floriferis utrimque manifeste
   albo-lepidotis, sepalis dense albo-lepidotis et ovulis apiculatis
   differt; A O. lanuginosum Leme & Paula, affinis, sed foliis et
   fasciculis plus numerosis, bracteis floriferis utrimque manifeste
   albo-lepidotis minoribusque, floribus brevioribus et sepalis etiam
   petalis brevioribus differt; A O. magalhaesii L. B. Smith, affinis,
   sed foliis per anthesim plus numerosis, laminis foliorum utrimque
   perdense lepidotis, bracteis floriferis utrimque manifeste
   albo-lepidotis, sepalis dense albo-lepidotis et petalis viridibus
   differt.


Plant saxicolous, stemless, 32-60 cm high at anthesis, shoots on the inflorescence not observed. Leaves 15 to 18 in number, subspreading-arcuate to distinctly recurved, densely rosulate and forming a distinct rosette before the anthesis and afterwards; sheaths inconspicuous; blades narrowly triangular, long attenuate-caudate, 30-58 cm long, 3-4.5 cm wide at base, ca. 2 mm thick near the base, strongly coriaceous, distinctly channeled, green but the color completely obscured by a coarse and dense layer of cinereous-white trichomes abaxially and adaxially, trichomes with margins suberect, irregularly and shortly lacerate, giving a scurfy appearance to the blades, inconspicuously nerved abaxially, margins straight to slightly recurved, densely to subdensely spinose, spines narrowly triangular, flattened, straight to antrorse-uncinate, densely white-lepidote except for the castaneous glabrous apex, 2-4 mm long, 1.5-2.5 mm wide at base, 2-10 mm apart. Scape erect, densely cinereous-white-lanate, green but color completely obscured by the trichomes, 0.8-1.5 cm in diameter; scape bracts foliaceous and not distinguishable from the leaves, slightly reduced in size toward the apex, subspreading-arcuate to distinctly recurved. Inflorescence bipinnate to inconspicuously tripinnate at base, cylindrical, erect, 13-21 (-30) cm long, fascicles subdensely (toward the base) to densely (near the apex) arranged, 1-3 cm apart, bearing 3 to 5 fascicles densely aggregated at extreme apex, rachis 0.6-1.3 cm in diameter, straight or nearly so, smooth, terete, densely cinereous-white-lanate with trichomes obscuring its green color; primary bracts subspreading-recurved (basal ones) to distinctly reflexed (the upper ones), canaliculate, the basal ones foliaceous and resembling the upper scape bracts, many times longer than the fascicles, the median ones subfoliaceous, 4 to 7 times longer than the fascicles, the upper ones reduced in size toward the inflorescence apex, slightly shorter to 3 times longer than the fascicles, triangular to ovate, acuminate-caudate, 3-7 x 2 cm, strongly coriaceous, distinctly exceeding to shorter than the fascicles, densely cinereous-white-lepidote on both sides, green but color completely obscured by the trichomes, nerved abaxially, laxly (toward the apex) to densely (near the base) spinose, spines triangular, 1-2 mm long, 0.5-1 mm wide at base, the basal ones 1-2 mm apart, retrorse-uncinate to spreading; fascicles 10 to 16 in number, polystichously disposed, suberect, sessile, subglobose-capitate to subcylindric in late anthesis, strobilate, densely rosulate, 2.5-5 cm long, 2.5-3 cm in diameter (including the floral bracts), 10 to 30-flowered; floral bracts ovate, acuminate and apiculate, pungent, coriaceous, the basal ones carinate the upper ones slightly if at all carinate toward the apex, v-shaped, slightly exceeding the sepals but strongly recurved toward the apex and exposing them, green, finely nerved, coarsely and densely cinereous-white-lepidote on both sides, 19-20 x 11-14 mm, margins densely spinulose, spines 0.5-0.7 mm long. Flowers ca. 20 mm long (with extended petals), sessile, densely arranged, odorless; sepals symmetrical or nearly so, ovate, 12-13 x 4-5 mm, free, entire, green, rigid, densely and coarsely white-floccose-lepidote except for the glabrous margins, apex acuminate-caudate, pungent, the adaxial ones carinate with keels decurrent on the ovary, the abaxial obtusely carinate; petals narrowly sublinear-spatulate, rounded and inconspicuously cucullate, ca. 15 x 3-3.5 mm, free, erect at anthesis or nearly so, green except for the paler green apical margins, bearing 2 densely and prevailing downwardly-oriented, fimbriate-lacerate appendages 3-4 mm above the base, as well as 2 conspicuous longitudinal callosities nearly equaling the anthers; filaments terete, greenish-white, the antepetalous ones 7-8 mm long, adnate to the petals for 4-5 mm, the antesepalous ones ca. 10 mm long, free; anthers ca. 2 mm long, base sagittate, apex acute and apiculate, dorsifixed at 1/3 of its length above the base; stigma conduplicate, ca. 1 mm in diameter, whitish, blades broadly ovate, suberect, scaloped; ovary ca. 4 mm long, ca. 5 mm in diameter at apex, subtrigonous, densely white-floccose-lepidote mainly toward the apex, greenish; epigynous tube inconspicuous; placentation apical; ovules apiculate. Fruits globose, ca. 9 x 8 mm, green.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

Paratype: Brazil, Bahia, Guaratinga, road Buranhen to Santo Antonio do Jacinto, near the border with Minas Gerais State, 363 m. elev., 16[degrees]35.08'S 40[degrees]09.43'W, 22 Apr. 2009, E. Leme 7778, L. Kollmann, A. P. Fontana & C. Esgano (RB); ibid., 407 m. elev. 16[degrees]35'04.1"S 40[degrees]09'27.9"W 22 Apr. 2009, A. P. Fontana 5900, E. Leme, L. Kollmann & C. Esgario (MBML); Minas Gerais, Santa Maria do Salto, road to Santo Antonio do Jacinto, Piaui, 483 m. elev., 16[degrees]22.79'S 40[degrees]11.27'W, 25 Apr. 2010, E. Leme 8255 & L. Kollmann (RB).

Orthophytum buranhense is an attractive new species due to the showy cinereous-white color of its leaves and inflorescence (except for the petals), the first ever observed for a member of this genus. It is a typical member of the "scapose complex", "disjunctum subcomplex" and the closest relative is O. lymanianum. However, this new species can by distinguished from it by the leaf blades that are densely and coarsely cinereous-white-lepidote (vs. glabrous or glabrescent adaxially), trichomes with suberect blades (vs. trichomes strongly adpressed and forming a membrane), leaf blades with densely spinose basal margins (vs. subdensely to laxly spinose near the base), a comparatively shorter inflorescence [13-21(-30) cm vs. ca. 30 cm long], median primary bracts distinctly exceeding the fascicles (vs. about equaling the fascicles), , floral bracts distinctly cinereous-white-lepidote on both sides (vs. glabrous at least adaxially), densely cinereous-white-lepidote sepals (vs. glabrescent) and by the apiculate ovules.

This new species may also be related to Orthophytum lanuginosum (see figures 17 & 18 in Leme & Paula, 2005), being distinguished from it by more numerous leaves (15 to 18 vs. 5 to 7 in number), the numerous fascicles (10 to 16 vs. 5 to 6 in number), smaller (19-20 x 11-14 mm vs. 20-30 x 11-20 mm) and cinereous-white-lepidote floral bracts with trichomes completely obscuring its color (vs. reddish-bronze colored toward the apex with trichomes not at all obscuring its color), shorter flowers (ca. 20 mm vs. ca. 30 mm long), shorter sepals (12-13 mm vs. 17-20 mm long), and shorter petals (ca. 15 mm vs. 23-26 mm long).

When compared to Orthophytum magalhaesii, this new species differs by the following features: leaves more numerous at anthesis (15 to 18 vs. 3 to 9 in number), leaf blades densely and coarsely cinereous-white-lepidote on both sides with trichomes completely obscuring leaf color (vs. sublanate with unifilamentous to multifilamentous trichomes not completely obsturing blades color), floral bracts densely cinereous-white lepidote on both sides (vs. glabrous or nearly so), densely white-lepidote sepals (vs. inconspicuously and sparsely white-lepidote to glabrous sepals) and by the green petals (vs. white with a greenish central-apical portion).

Orthophytum buranhense grows on shallow organic material accumulated in crevices and depressions in very steep and dark granitic surfaces in the domain of the Atlantic Forest in southern Bahia and adjacent areas of Minas Gerais. It forms dense, sometimes large groups of plants, mostly full exposed to sunlight, strikingly contrasting the cinereous-white color of their leaves and bracts with the very dark rock surface.

Orthophytum erigens Leme, sp. nov. Type: Brazil, State of Bahia, Seabra, Sept. 1994, E. E. Pereira E-417, fl. cult. May 2009, E. Leme 2705. (Holotype: RB; Isotypes: HB, SEL).
   A O. leprosum (Mez) Mez, Leme, cui affinis, sed planta subduplo
   breviore, foliis subtus apicem versus glabris, fasciculis distincte
   minoribus, bracteis floriferis altitudinem sepalorum brevioribus
   vel aequantibus, modice recurvatis et sepalis glabris vel fere
   differt; a O. falconii Leme, cui proxima, sed laminis foliorum
   longioribus, subtus apicem versus glabris, bracteis floriferis et
   sepalis viridibus differt; a O. alvimii W Weber, affinis, sed
   laminis foliorum manifeste brevioribus, bracteis floriferis
   minoribus, floribus brevioribus, et sepalis petalisque brevioribus
   differt.


Plant terrestrial, long-caulescent, 43-55 cm high, propagating by rhizomes 3-7 cm long, 0.8-1 cm in diameter, main stem without distinction from the scape, dark red, densely white-lanate, 1-1.5 cm in diameter. Leaves indistinguishable from the scape bracts, forming a lax rosette before anthesis but rosette soon disappearing due to the early elongation of the stem and absent at anthesis; sheaths inconspicuous; blades narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, ending in an acicular and pungent spine, 11-18 cm long, 2.2-3.3 cm wide at base, suberect-recurved to subspreading, coriaceous, canaliculate, densely and coarsely adpressed white-lepidote near the base and glabrous toward the apex on both sides, but adaxially sometimes completely glabrous, abaxially nerved, greenish-red to dark red, margins laxly spinose, spines subtriangular, complanate, distinctly antrorse-uncinate, 1.5-2.5 mm long, 1-2 mm wide at base, 7-15 mm apart. Scape not distinguishable from the main elongate stem, 0.6-1 cm in diameter, densely white-lanate to glabrescent with age, dark reddish near the base and greenish toward the apex; scape bracts not distinguishable from the leaves, spreading to reflexed and gradually reduced in size upwardly. Inflorescence bipinnate, cylindrical, erect, 6-15 cm long, fascicles laxly (toward the base) to densely (near the apex) arranged, 1-3.5 cm apart, bearing 4 to 6 fascicles densely aggregated at extreme apex, rachis ca. 0.6 cm in diameter, straight to slightly flexuous, smooth, terete, densely white-lanate to glabrescent, greenish; primary bracts subspreading (basal ones) to distinctly reflexed (the upper ones), canaliculate, the basal ones subfoliaceous and resembling the upper scape bracts, 4 to 6 times longer than the fascicles, the upper ones reduced in size toward the inflorescence apex, slightly exceeding to 3 times longer than the fascicles, ovate-triangular, acuminate and ending in a long acicular, pungent spine, 2-4.5 x 1.5 cm, coriaceous, subdensely white-lepidote at base on both sides and glabrous toward the apex, greenish-red near the base to bronze colored toward the apex, nerved abaxially, laxly spinose, spines triangular, 1.5-2 mm long, ca. 1 mm wide at base, the basal ones 3-10 mm apart, antrorse (upper ones) to retrorse (basal ones) uncinate; fascicles 7 to 11 in number, polystichously arranged, suberect, sessile, globose-capitate, strobilate, densely rosulate, 12-15 mm long (excluding the petals), 14-17 mm in diameter, 7 to 12-flowered; floral bracts broadly triangular-ovate, acuminate, slightly carinate toward the apex, equaling to slightly shorter than the sepals, but recurved and distinctly exposing them, green, nerved, inconspicuously and sparsely white-lepidote but soon glabrous, 10-13 x 8-10 mm, subdensely spinulose, spines irregularly curved, 0.5-1 mm long. Flowers 16-17 mm long (including the petals), sessile, densely arranged, odorless; sepals ovate-lanceolate, apex acuminate-caudate, ca. 8 x 4 mm, free, entire, green, glabrous or nearly so, the adaxial ones carinate with keels decurrent on the ovary, the abaxial one ecarinate; petals sublinear-spatulate, obtuse to subagute and minutely apiculate, 11-12 x 3 mm, free, erect at anthesis except for the suberect apex, the basal 2/3 greenish and the apical 1/3 white, bearing 2 digitate-lacerate to irregularly scalloped appendages ca. 3.5 mm above the base, as well as 2 conspicuous longitudinal callosities about equaling the anthers; filaments terete, greenish toward the apex, the antepetalous ones ca. 5 mm long, adnate to the petals for ca. 3 mm, the antesepalous ones ca. 7 mm long, free; anthers ca. 2.5 mm long, base obtuse and apex distinctly apiculate, fixed near the middle; pollen sulcate, ellipsoidal, reticulate to microreticulate toward polar areas, lumina polygonal, muri thickened; stigma simple-erect, white, lobes obovate, suberect-recurved; ovary ca. 3 mm long, ca. 4 mm wide at apex, subtrigonous, greenish, inconspicuously white-lanate to glabrous; epigynous tube inconspicuous; placentation apical; ovules obtuse to obtusely apiculate. Fruits unknown.

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]

The establishment of Orthophytum erigens as a new species is not an easy task since the closest relatives are imperfectly known (except for O. falconii). In the "scapose inflorescence" complex, it belongs to the " leprosum subcomplex ", because their leaves neither form a rosette at anthesis (due to the early elongation of the stem and scape), nor can be distinguished from the scape bracts.

The closest relative, Orthophytum leprosum, is only known from the lectotype specimen (Pohl 5229) designated by Smith (1955) and available at herbarium of the Museum of Natural History in Vienna (W; photo examined), Austria (Till, 1994), and by two specimens (Glaziou 14035) also cited in the protologue (Mez, 1891-1892) and deposited in the herbarium of Paris Museum, France (specimens examined). In both cases, the basal portion of the specimens is unknown and it is not possible to determine if this species ever forms a leaf rosette at anthesis. Even so, comparing O. erigens with it, the new species can be differentiated by its apparently smaller size when in bloom (43-55 cm vs. 90-100 cm high), leaves glabrous toward the apex abaxially (vs. abaxially densely white-lepidote throughout), fascicles distinctly smaller (12-15 x 14-17 mm vs. 17-20 x 25-35 mm), floral bracts slightly shorter to equaling the sepals (vs. equaling to distinctly exceeding the sepals), moderately recurved (vs. strongly recurved), and by the glabrous sepals (vs. sepals barbate-lanate at apex).

This new species can be also compared morphologically to Orthophytum falconii, differing by the longer leaf blades (11-18 cm vs. 8-13 cm long) that are glabrous toward the apex abaxially (vs. densely white-lepidote abaxially), and by the green floral bracts and sepals (vs. red). Finally, another possible relative is the mysterious O. alvimii, but O. erigens differs from it by the distinctly shorter leaf blades (11-18 cm vs. ca. 60 cm long), smaller floral bracts (10-13 x 8-10 mm vs. ca. 18 x 11 mm), shorter flowers (1617 mm vs. ca. 25 mm long), sepals (ca. 8 mm vs. ca. 15 mm long) and petals (11-12 mm vs. ca. 20 mm long).

The name chosen for this new species is based on the Latin word "erigens, tis", meaning something that arise erect from the ground, portraying the typical, prominent erect habit of Orthophytum erigens, which is a terrestrial species forming large group of plants in the "Campos Rupestres", Cerrado domain, of the Chapada Diamantina region.

Orthophytum roseum Leme, sp. nov. Type: Brazil, Bahia State, Chapada Diamantina, Palmeira, near Caete-Acu, Riachinho, leg. R. de Oliveira s. n., fl. cult. Febr. 2008, E. Leme 3439 (Holotype: HB; Isotype: RB).
   A O. burle-marxii L. B. Sm. & Read, cui affinis, laminis foliorum
   basi angustioribus (1.3-1.5 cm vs. 1.5-2.5 cm wide), marginibus
   spinis brevioribus (0.5-1 mm vs. 1-2 mm long), bracteis floriferis
   roseis (vs. rubris), sepalis minoribus (11-12 x 3.5-4 mm vs. 17-20
   x 4-6 mm), roseis (vs. rubris), petalis etiam minoribus (15-16 x 4
   vs. 18-25 x 6 mm long), antheris brevioribus (ca. 3 mm vs. 4.5 mm
   long) differt.


Plant saxicolous, stemless, propagating by short basal shoots. Leaves ca. 36 in number, spreading, coriaceous, forming a dense round rosette; sheaths inconspicuous but broader than the blades, very densely spinulose, inconspicuously and sparsely punctulate-lepidote, greenish-white toward the base; blades narrowly sublinear-triangular, long acuminate-caudate, 25-40 cm long, 1.3-1.5 cm wide at base, not at all canaliculate, ca. 2 mm thick near the base, green throughout before anthesis and rose at base at anthesis, opaque, abaxially densely and coarsely white-lepidote with trichomes slightly obscuring leaf color, adaxially subdensely to sparsely and inconspicuously white-lepidote, margins densely to sparsely spinulose, spines subtriangular-uncinate, antrorse, yellowish, 0.5-1 mm long, 2-7 mm apart. Inflorescence bipinnate in its outer portion, simple in its central portion, subumbellate, sessile, densely many-flowered, ca. 4 cm in diameter; primary bracts the outer ones foliaceous, rose near the base and green toward the apex, the inner ones narrowly subtriangular, ca. 40 x 18 mm, distinctly exceeding the fascicles, suberect, reddish-rose and inconspicuously whitelepidote toward the apex and whitish-green and glabrous at base, margins densely to sparsely and inconspicuously spinulose, spines to 0.5 mm in length; fascicles ca. 14 in number, flabellate, complanate, shortly pedunculate, 23 x 11-15 mm (excluding the petals), 2- to 3-flowered; floral bracts triangular, rose toward the apex, inconspicuously and sparsely pilose-glandulose, triangular, acuminate, those of the fascicles distinctly carinate, margins densely and inconspicuously spinulose, ca. 20 x 10 mm, about equaling the sepals, thinly coriaceous toward apex and membranous near the base, erect; Flowers 21-24 mm long (including the petals), sessile, densely arranged, odorless; sepals subsymmetrical, narrowly lanceolate, acuminate-apiculate, 11-12 x 3.5-4 mm, free, entire, rose, inconspicuously and sparsely pilose-glandulose, the posterior ones alatecarinate, the anterior one carinate at least at base; petals narrowly subspatulate, apex rounded and slightly emarginated to remotely apiculate, 15-16 x 4 mm, free, white, at anthesis erect except for the subspreading distal portion, bearing 2 laminate, cupulate, obtuse, irregularly crenulate, upwardly to downwardly oriented appendages 5-6 mm above the base, as well as 2 conspicuous longitudinal callosities slightly shorter than the anthers; filaments terete, white, the antepetalous ca. 7 mm long, adnate to the petals for 5-6 mm, the antesepalous ones ca. 11 mm long, free; anthers ca. 3 mm long, base obtuse, apex obtuse and minutely apiculate, fixed at 1/3 of its length above the base; stigma conduplicate, blades ca. 1 mm long, erect, margins remotely crenulate; ovary ca. 6 mm long, ca. 4.5 mm in diameter at apex, trigonous, greenish-white, glabrous; epigynous tube crateriform, ca. 1 mm long; placentation median to apical; ovules obtuse. Fruits unknown.

[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 9 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10 OMITTED]

Orthophytum roseum is closely related to O. burle-marxii, differing by narrower leaf blades (1.3-1.5 cm vs. 1.5-2.5 cm wide) and shorter marginal spines (0.5-1 mm vs. 1-2 mm long). The adaxial surface of the leaf blades of O. roseum is subdensely to sparsely and inconspicuously white-lepidote and the floral bracts are rose, as well as the sepals, inspiring its name. In contrast, the photographs provided in the protologue of O. burle-marxii show a densely lepidote-leafed specimen with the basal portion of the inner leaves and the primary bracts bright red, as well as the floral bracts and sepals (Smith & Read, 1979). Other differences of the new species are the smaller sepals (11-12 x 3.5-4 mm vs. 17-20 x 4-6 mm), petals (15-16 x 4 mm vs. 18-25 x 6 mm long), and anthers (ca. 3 mm vs. ca. 4.5 mm long).

This new species was found growing as a rupicolous in vertical sandstones rocks, along rivers, in the "Campos Rupestres" of Caete-Acu, Palmeiras, in more or less shaded places. It is quite prolific vegetatively, forming dense clumps, which is also observed in cultivation.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the botanists Ludovic Kollmann and Clara Esgario for their support during field studies in Bahia and valuable suggestions, as well as Rafael de Oliveira for providing living specimens of O. roseum.

Literature Cited

Leme, E. M. C. and C. C. de Paula (2005). "Studies on Orthophytum--Part III: Three New Long-Scapose Species." J. Bromeliad Soc. 55(4): 156-165.

Mez, C. (1892). Bromeliaceae. Flora Brasiliensis Vol. 3, part 3. C. P. Martius, A. W. Eichler and I. Urban. Leipzig, Miichen, Wien.

Smith, L. B. (1955). "The Bromeliaceae of Brazil." Smithsonian Misc. Collect. 126(1): 290.

Smith, L. B. and R. W. Read (1979). "Orthophytum burle-marxii." J. Bromeliad Soc. 29(4): 164-165.

Till, W. H. (1994). "The type specimens of Bromeliaceae in the Herbarium of the Museum of Natural History in Vienna, Austria." Selbyana 15(1): 94-111.

Authors

Elton M. C. Leme: Herbarium Bradeanum, C. Postal 15005, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 20.031-970, Brazil. E-mail: leme@tj.rj.gov.br

Andre Paviotti Fontana: Associated Biologist, Museu de Biologia Professor Mello Leitao/ IPHAN-MinC, Av Jose Ruschi, 4, Santa Teresa, Espmto Santo, 29.650-000, Brazil.

Elton M. C. Leme & Andre Paviotti Fontana. Illustrations by E.M.C. Leme.
COPYRIGHT 2010 Bromeliad Society International
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2010 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Scientific
Author:Leme, Elton M.C.; Fontana, Andre Paviotti
Publication:Journal of the Bromeliad Society
Geographic Code:3BRAZ
Date:Mar 1, 2010
Words:3457
Previous Article:A new grey Vriesea from Northern Peru.
Next Article:Low genetic diversity in Tillandsia recurvata (Bromeliaceae), the most ubiquitous epiphyte species of the semiarid and arid zones of North America.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters