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Studies on Orthophytum--Part VIII: two new species from Grao-Mogol State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

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Grao-Mogol State Park is a 33,325 hectare public conservation unit established in 1998 and maintained by the Instituto Estadual de Florestas of Minas Gerais State (IEFMG). It is situated at the northern region of Minas Gerais State, in the mountainous terrain of Serra Geral (Espinhaco range) and under the hydrological influence of the Jequitinhonha River, with the predominance of "Campos Rupestres" (grasslands on rocky soils) vegetation. The park shelters a peculiar bromeliad flora, including unusual endemic species originally described from the area (i.e., type locality), like Encholirium invinii L. B. Sm., Orthophytum humile L. B. Sm. and Dyckia granmogulensis Rauh.

The first botanist to highlight the Bromeliaceae of Grao-Mogol was Alvaro Astolpho da Silveira (1867-1945) with the description of Tillandsia graomogolensis Silveira (Silveira 1931), now considered a synonym of Tillandsia streptocarpa Baker (Leme and iqueira-Filho 2006). However, the first floristic survey of the family was provided by Wanderley and Forzza (2003), listing 18 species from eight genera.

An official systematic survey was initiated in August 2007 with the purpose of verifying the identity of some bromeliad species portrays (2003) whose identity was not in accordance with the respective protologue. This paper is the first result of the field expedition carried out in the period of August 9 to 12, 2007.

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The two new species proposed here are members of the "subcomplex mello-barretoi" of the "complex with scapose inflorescence", which was originally conceived with two species, (Leme 2004), i. e., O. mello-barreroi L. B. Sm. and O. eddie-estevesii Leme, but the total number was recently raised to three species with the inclusion of O. schulzianum Leme & M. Machado. With the new taxa presented in this paper, "subcomplex mellobarretoi" now comprises five species, which reinforces the importance of this subcomplex and suggests the need of a carefull evaluation in order to verify whether it deserves a formal status (e.g., subgenus status) inside Orthophytum.

Orthophytum graomogolense Leme & C. C. Paula, sp. nov. Type: Brazil, State of Minas Gerais, Grao-Mogol, near the intersection with the road to Cristalia, margin of It acambiracu river, near the bridge, terrestrial on sandy soil among quartzite outcrops of Campos Rupestres, 16[degrees]35'54"S, 42[degrees]54'11"W, 650 m elev., 9 Aug. 2007, E. Leme 7175 & C. C. Paula (Holotype, HB. Isotype, RB).

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
 A O. mello-barretoi L. S. Sm., cui affinis, laminis foliorum
 longioribus, scapo 25-28 cm longo, inflorescentia prope basin
 subdense florida, bracteis floriferis longioribus altitudinem
 sepalorum sub aequantibus, floribus longioribus, sepalis anguste
 lanceolato-triangularibus longioribusque, petalis longioribus et
 antheris longioribus differt.


Plant terrestrial, stemless to short caulescent before anthesis, ca. 40 cm high at anthesis, propagating by basal rhizomes, but without shoots originated from the inflorescence. leaves 6 to 10, laxly rosulate and forming a distinct rosette before anthesis and afterwards, the upper leaves not distinguishable from the scape bracts; sheaths inconspicuous, subreniform, ca. 5.5 x 1.5 cm, strongly corrugate; blades sublinearattenuate, long-caudate, 38-90 cm long, 3-4 cm wide at the base, ca. 2 mm thick near the base, coriaceous, suberect-arcuate, distinctly channeled toward the base mainly under water stress, nearly flat toward the apex, dark red, densely adpressed and coarsely white-lepidote abaxially to glabrescent, nerved, adaxially glabrous, margins strongly revolute mainly under water stress, subdensely to laxly spinose, spines narrowly-triangular, acicular, prevailingly spreading, castaneous toward the apex, glabrous, 3-4 mm long, ca. 2 mm wide at the base, 5-12 mm apart. Scape erect, greenish to bronze colored, densely white-lanate, 25-28 cm long, 0.8-1 cm in diameter, sulcate; scape bracts foliaceous and not distinguishable from the leaves, not covering the scape. Inflorescence bipinnate except for the inconspicuously simple extreme apex, subellipsoid to capitate, erect, ca. 9 x 4 cm (not including the primary bracts), fascicles subdensely (basal ones) to densely arranged (upper ones), 1-1.5 cm apart (basal ones), rachis ca. 0.8 cm in diameter, slightly flexuous, sulcate, terete, green, densely white-lanate; primary bracts strongly spreading or nearly so, many times longer than the fascicles but reduced in size toward the inflorescence apex, the basal ones foliaceous to subfoliaceous and resembling the scape bracts, the upper ones narrowly ovate-triangular, long acuminate-caudate, 8-16 x 2.8-3.2 cm, densely and coarsely white-lepidote on both sides to glabrescent, greenish toward the base and dark red toward the apex, distinctly nerved abaxially, densely to laxly spinulose, spines narrowly triangular, acicular, 2-4 mm long, ca. 1.5 mm wide at base, 2-10 mm apart, prevailing spreading; fascicles ca. 7, polystichously disposed, suberect, sessile, subflabellate-pulvinate, 35 x 15-20 mm (excluding the petals), 3- to 4-flowered; floral bracts of the fascicles narrowly ovate-triangular, acuminate and ending in a short, acicular mucron, distinctly carinate mainly toward the apex, slightly shorter than the sepals, suberect, apple green, finely nerved, glabrous except for the densely white-lanate apex and apical keel, 28-30 x 10-15 mm, thinly coriaceous toward the apex and along the keel and membranaceous toward the base and the margins, margins densely spinulose at the middle, spines ca. 0.6 mm long; flowers 38-40 mm long (including the petals), sessile, densely arranged, odorless; sepals narrowly triangular-lanceolate, subsymmetrical, apex acuminate and shortly acicular-mucronulate, 23-25 x 4-5.5 mm, free, margins entire, pale green except for the hyaline membranaceous margins, glabrous except for the densely white-lanate apex, the posterior ones alate-carinate, with keels decurrent on the ovary, keels irregularly spinulose to crenulate toward the apex, the anterior one ecarinate; petals sublinear-subspathulate, obtuse-cucullate, 27-31 x 4.5-5 mm, free, erect at anthesis and forming a tubular corolla, green except for the white apex, bearing 2 irregularly and broadly laminate, irregularly laciniate-crenulate appendages ca. 4 mm above the base, as well as 2 conspicuous longitudinal callosities nearly equaling the antepetalous filaments; filaments terete, green, the antepetalous ones ca. 18 mm long, adnate to the petals for ca. 14 mm, the antesepalous ones ca. 20 mm long, free; anthers linear, ca. 5 mm long, slightly laterally complanate, the base obtuse, apex obtuse and inconspicuously and finely apiculate, dorsifixed at the middle; pollen subelliptic, sulcate, exine broadly reticulate at the middle with polygonal lumina, muri narrowed, near the poles the exine is microreticulate to perforate, muri thickened; stigma weakly conduplicate, ca. 1.5 mm in diameter, white, blades obtuse, slightly recurved, margins densely papilose; ovary ca. 8 mm long, ca. 7 mm in diameter at the apex, trigonous, glabrous, green; epigynous tube inconspicuous; placentation central; ovules obtuse, numerous. Fruits unknown.

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Despite the generally much larger stature of Orthophytum graomogolense which puts it apart from all known members of "subcomplex mello-barretoi", it represents a closer morphological affinity with O. mello-barretoi. However, this new species differs from O. mello-barretoi by the following features: much larger size when in bloom (ca. 40 cm high vs. 14-18 cm high, not including the extended leaves); many times longer leaf blades (38-90 cm vs. 12-14); longer scape (25-28 cm vs. 6-8 cm); inflorescence subdensely flowered at the base, with the flower fascicles slightly apart from each other (vs. densely flowered throughout); floral bracts nearly equaling sepals length (vs. equaling the middle of the sepals) and longer (28-30 mm vs. 12-15 mm); flowers longer (38-40 mm vs. 28-31 mm); sepals narrowly triangular-lanceolate (vs. suboblong) and longer (23-25 mm vs. 13-15 mm); petals longer (27-31 mm vs. 23-26 mm), and by the longer anthers (ca. 5 mm vs. 2-2.5 mm).

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Orthophytum graomogolense was identified by Wanderley & Forzza (2003) as O. compactum L. B. Sm., which is a clearly distinct species from the region of Nanuque, Minas Gerais, close to the boarder with Bahia. In contrast to O. graomogolense, which forms comparatively small scattered populations in the domain of the "Campos Rupestres" on sandstone outcroppings or on sandy soils, O. compactum is observed forming large compact populations on shallow soils on granite surfaces of the inselbergs relatively close to the coast in the domain of the Atlantic Forest. The leaf and floral morphogoly of O. compactum is even more distinct, mainly due to the rosulate fascicles with polystichously disposed flowers (vs. subflabellate fascicles), larger number of flowers per fascicle (8 to 12 flowers vs. 3 to 4 flowers), smaller flowers (ca. 30 mm vs. 38-40 mm long), smaller sepals (ca. 16 mm vs. 23-25 mm long), smaller petals (ca. 23 mm vs. 27-31 mm long), completely white (vs. green toward the base), with a subobtuse and distinctly apiculate apex (vs. obtuse-cucullate apex), forming a narrow campanulate corolla (vs. tubular, clavate corolla), with basal bladeless cupulate appendages (vs. distinctly laminate appendages).

The preliminary observations on field populations of O. graomogolense suggest it is a quite variable species in its general vegetative appearance. Sometimes, the typical red-leafed plants can be seen growing side by side with green-leafed specimens. Specimens with very densely white-lepidote leaves, scape bracts and primary bracts were also observed, but in all cases the floral details consistently show the typical morphological pattern indicated in the description. The same pattern of leaf variation has been observed in other Orthophytum species like O. macroflorum Leme & M. Machado (Leme and Machado 2005), which suggest the need of precaution in the evaluation of taxa delimitation.

Paratype: Brazil, State of Minas Gerais, Grao-Mogol State Park, Trilha do Vau, right margin of Ribeirao do Inferno, terrestrial on sandy-rocky quartzite soil of Campos Rupestres, 16[degrees]34'77"S, 42[degrees]53'47"W, 745 m elev., 11 Aug. 2007, E. Leme 7191 & C. C. Paula (HB).

Orthophytum piranianum Leme & C. C.Paula, sp. nov. Type: Brazil, State of Minas Gerais, Grao Mogol, Trilha do Barao toward the Pico do Pagao, terrestrial on sandy soil among quartzite outcrops of the Campos Rupestres, 16[degrees]33'18"S, 42[degrees]53'42"W, 919 m elev., 10 Aug. 2007, E. Leme 7189 & C. C. Paula. Holotype: HB. Isotype: RB.
 A O. mello-barretoi L. B. Sm., cui affinis, laminis foliorum
 utrinque dense et grosse albo-lepidotis, bracteis floriferis dense
 et grosse albo-lepidotis sed apice haud lanato, manifeste
 suberectorecurvatis, altitudinem sepalorum aequantibus, longioribus
 et latioribus, sepalis anguste lanceolato-triangularibus apice haud
 lanatis et ovario dense albo-sublanato differt.


[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]

Plant terrestrial, stemless, ca. 19 cm high at anthesis, propagating by basal rhizomes, but without shoots originated from the inflorescence. Leaves ca. 12, laxly rosulate and forming a distinct rosette before anthesis and afterwards, the upper leaves not distinguishable from the scape bracts; sheaths inconspicuous, strongly corrugate; blades narrowly triangular-attenuate, long-caudate, 15-16 cm long, ca. 3 cm wide at the base, ca. 1 mm thick near the base, coriaceous, subspreading-recurved, distinctly channeled throughout mainly under water stress, completely covered on both sides by coarse cinereous trichomes which obscure the pale bronze color of the leaves, nerved abaxially, margins upright, straight, subdensely to densely spinose, spines narrowly-triangular acicular, prevailingly spreading-retrorse, yellowish at the apex, densely white-lepidote at base, 2-3 mm long, ca. 1.5 mm wide at the base, 3-7 mm apart. Scape erect, pale bronze colored, densely and finely white-lanate, ca. 9 x 0.6 cm in diameter, slightly sulcate; scape bracts foliaceous and not distinguishable from the leaves, not covering the scape. Inflorescence bipinnate except for the simple extreme apex, capitate, erect, ca. 4 x 3.5 cm (not including the primary bracts), fascicles densely arranged, rachis not visible; primary bracts strongly spreading-recurved, longer than the fascicles, with a greenish, suborbicular base and a bronze-colored, narrowly triangular-attenuate, canaliculate, acuminate-caudate blade, densely and coarsely cinereous-lepidote on both sides, distinctly nerved abaxially, the basal ones 3 to 4 times longer than the fascicles (excluding the petals), the upper ones twice as long as the fascicles (excluding the petals), margins densely (at the base) to laxly (toward the apex) spinose, spines prevailingly spreadingretrorse, narrowly triangular-acicular, 1.5-3 mm long, ca. 1 mm wide at base, 2-6 mm apart; fascicles ca. 4, polystichously disposed, suberect, sessile, subflabellate-pulvinate, ca. 27 x 25 mm (excluding the petals), 4- to 5-flowered; floral bracts ovate-triangular, acuminate and ending in a short, acicular mucro, distinctly carinate, about equaling the sepals but distinctly recurved toward the apex and exposing the sepal apex, apple green, finely nerved, abaxially densely and coarsely white-lepidote throughout, adaxially densely and coarsely white-lepidote toward the apex, 20-24 x 12-16 mm, thinly coriaceous toward the apex and along the keel, membranaceous toward the base and the margins, margins densely and coarsely spinose toward the apex, spines 1-1.2 mm long, the floral bracts of the simple part of the inflorescence slightly longer than the sepals, ecarinate, marginal spines ca. 2 mm long; flowers 31-33 mm long (including the petals), sessile, densely arranged, odorless; sepals narrowly triangular-lanceolate, subsymmetrical, apex acuminate and shortly acicular-mucronulate, 18 x 4.5-5 mm, free, margins entire, pale green except for the hyaline membranaceous margins, subdensely to densely and coarsely white-lepidote abaxially, the posterior ones alate-carinate, with the keels decurrent on the ovary, keels entire, the anterior one ecarinate; petals sublinear-subspathulate, obtuse-cucullate, 24-25 x 4.5-5 mm, free, erect at anthesis and forming a tubular corolla, green except for the white apex, bearing 2 irregularly lacerate-crenulate, obovate to suborbicular-laminate, prevailingly downwardly oriented appendages ca. 4 mm above the base, as well as 2 conspicuous longitudinal callosities distinctly shorter than the antepetalous filaments; filaments terete, greenish, the antepetalous ones ca. 16 mm long, adnate to the petals for ca. 9 mm, the antesepalous ones ca. 17 mm long, free; anthers suboblong, ca. 2.5 mm long, strongly laterally complanate, the base obtuse, apex obtuse and inconspicuously apiculate, dorsifixed at 1/3 of its length above the base; pollen oblong-elliptic, sulcate, exine microreticulate to peforate throughout, muri thickened; stigma ca. 1.5 mm in diameter, white, blades weakly conduplicate, obtuse, spreading-recurved, margins densely papilose; ovary ca. 5-6 mm long, ca. 4.5 mm in diameter at the apex, trigonous, densely white-sublanate, white; epigynous tube inconspicuous; placentation apical; ovules obtuse, numerous. Fruits unknown.

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The close morphological resemblance of Orthophytum piranianum with O. mello-barretoi justified its identification done by Wanderley & Forzza (2003) as being the latter one. However, the comparison of this new species with flowering specimens of typical O. mello-barretoi from type-locality (Jaboticatubas, Serra do Cipo, Minas Gerais; unpublished data), revealed important distinctive features. This new species can be distinguished from its close relatives by leaf blades densely and coarsely white lepidote on both sides (vs. adaxially densely and coarsely white-lepidote near the base and subdensely whitelepidote to glabrecent toward the apex), floral bracts densely and coarsely white lepidote but at the apex not lanate (vs. apex conspicuously white-lanate), distinctly suberectrecurved (vs. erect or nearly so with the calyx), about equaling sepals length (vs. equaling the middle of the sepals) and larger (20-24 x 12-16 mm vs. 12-15 x 8-10 mm), sepals narrowly triangular-lanceolate (vs. suboblong) with apex not lanate (vs. conspicuously lanate at apex), and by the densely white-sublanate (vs. glabrous) ovary.

[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]

Because Orthophytum piranianum and O. graomogolense are sympatric species and their populations may overlap, it is important to establish the morphological differences between them. O. piranianum differs from O. graomogolense by its much shorter stature (ca. 19 cm high vs. ca. 40 cm high), shorter leaf blades (15-16 cm long vs, 38-90 cm long) with upright margins (vs. margins strongly revolute mainly under water stress) and bearing comparatively shorter spines (2-3 mm long vs. 3-4 mm long), scape shorter (ca. 9 cm long vs. 25-28 cm long), inflorescence shorter (c. 4 cm long vs. ca. 9 cm long) and more compact (vs. basal fascicles subdensely arranged), floral bracts shorter (20-24 mm long vs. 28-30 mm long) strongly recurved (vs. suberect), densely white-lepidote throughout (vs. densely white-lanate at apex) and distinctly spinose with spines 1-1.2 mm long (vs. spinulose at middle with spines ca. 0.6 mm long), flowers shorter (31-33 mm long vs. 38-40 mm long), sepals shorter (cs. 18 mm long vs. 23-25 mm long) and subdensely to densely and coarsely white lepidote throughout (vs. glabrous except for the densely white-lanate apex), and by the anthers shorter (cs. 2.5 mm long vs. ca. 5 mm long).

On the other hand, when compared to the preferable habitat of O. graomogolense, O. piranianum was encountered in higher altitudes on sandy to rocky soils or on accumulated organic material on sandstone outcrops of the "Campos Rupestres", in full exposed areas or more often under the partial shade protection of shrubs. Most of the observed individuals were scattered in the area and not forming comparatively large populational groups of plants like those of O. graomogolense.

This new species honors the botanist Jose Rubens Pirani from the Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, for his monumental botanical research on the Flora of Grao-Mogol, where this new species was discovered.

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the Instituto Estadual de Florestas de Minas Gerais--IEF-MG, for providing the research permit and logistical support for the investigation conducted here. We are also grateful to the Director of Grao-Mogol State Park, Carla Cristina de Oliveira Silva, for her valuable support during field activities, as well as the Park Ranger Wagner Souza Carvalho, for guiding us to the most hard-to-reach sites of the Park and for field assistance.

Literature Cited

Leme, E. M. C. (2004). "Studies on Orthophytum, an Endemic Genus of Brazil Part I." J. Bromeliad Soc. 54(1): 36-43.

Leme, E. M. C. and M. Machado (2005). "Studies on Orthophytum - Part IV: Two Unusual New Species from Brazil." J. Bromeliad Soc. 55(4): 171-178.

Leme, E. M. C. and Siqueira-Filho (2006). Taxonomia das bromelias dos fragmentos de Mata Atlantica de Pernambuco e Alagoas. Fragmentos de Mata Atlantica do Nordeste, Biodiversidade, Conservacao e suas Bromelias. J. A. Siqueira-Filho and E. M. C. Leme. Rio de Janeiro, Andrea Jakobsson Estudio.

Silveira, A. A. d. (1931). Floralia Montium, II, Notas botanicas, geologicas e geographicas. Belo Horizonte, Imprensa Official de Minas Gerais.

Wanderley, M. G. L. and R. C. Forzza (2003). "Flora de Grao-Mogol, Minas Gerais: Bromeliaceae." Bol. Bot. Univ. Sao Paulo 21(1): 131-139.

Elton M. C. Leme & Claudio Coelho de Paula.

Authors

E. M. C. Leme: Herbarium Bradeanum, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. leme@tj.rj.gov.br Claudio Coelho de Paula: Coordinator of the Unidade de Pesquisa e Conservacao de Bromeliaceae--UPCB, Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, DBV/UFV, 36570-000, Vicosa - MG, ccpaula@ufv.br
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Title Annotation:Scientific
Author:Leme, Elton M.C.; de Paula, Claudio Coelho
Publication:Journal of the Bromeliad Society
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3BRAZ
Date:May 1, 2008
Words:3026
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