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Studies on Dyckia from Central Brazil--Part II. Two sweetly fragrant species from Goias.

During the study of the genus Dyckia from Central Brazil, two unusual species were found in the state of Goias, one of them originally collected over 110 years ago and recently rediscovered, and the other one new to science. Although the two species are very distinct when comparing leaf structure and conformation, those species share curious flower characteristics such as dimension, size, color and structure.

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Dyckia horridula Mez, Bot. Jahrb. 30 (67): 5. 1901.

Plant terrestrial, flowering 15-25 cm high. Leaves 35-40, densely arranged, coriaceous; sheaths broader than the blades, the older ones forming a globose base, 4-5.5 x 4-5 cm; blades sublinear, nearly flat near the base, canaliculate and obtusely carinate abaxially at middle, and subulate toward the apex, suberect to nearly erect, 10-12 cm long, ca. 0.8 cm wide and ca. 0.1 cm thick at base to 0.2-0.3 cm wide and 0.2 cm thick toward the apex, green toward the base, reddish toward the apex, opaque, densely white-lepidote abaxially, trichomes not obscuring the color of the blades, adaxially sparsely and inconspicuously white-lepidote to glabrescent, nerved adaxially, apex long acuminate-caudate, pungent, margins white-lepidote to glabrous, subdensely spinose, spines 1-1.5 mm long, ca. 0.5 mm wide at base, 2-3 mm apart from each other, acicular, spreading to slightly retrorse, reddish-castaneous, glabrous. Scape lateral, erect, 9-17 cm long, 0.2-0.3 cm in diameter, subdensely or sparsely white-furfuraceous to glabrous, smooth, green; scape bracts erect, stramineous, nerved, carinate toward the apex, sparsely white-lepidote, the basal ones subfoliaceous, the upper ones with a broadly ovate-subtriangular base, margins microscopically and densely denticulate, and a long acuminate-caudate blade, to ovate and acuminate, 10-20 x 5 mm, margins inconspicuously but densely denticulate, exceeding the internodes. Inflorescence erect, 3-4 cm long, subdensely to sparsely and inconspicuously white-furfuraceous except for the petals, subdensely flowered, rachis nearly straight, terete, smooth, green to orange-yellow, inconspicuously white-furfuraceous, ca. 2 mm in diameter; floral bracts ovate, acuminate, carinate toward the apex to ecarinate, nerved, stramineous, inconspicuously white-lepidote, ca. 7 x 3 mm, subspreading to reflexed, equaling to slightly exceeding the sepals, margins densely and inconspicuously denticulate, bearing fimbriate trichomes. Flowers 5 to 7 in number, 12-14 mm long with extended petals, spreading at anthesis, subdensely arranged, producing a strong sweet fragrance, pedicels inconspicuous, stout, ca. 2 mm long, 3.5-4 mm in diameter at apex; sepals symmetric, broadly ovate to suborbicular, convex, apex acute, ecarinate, ca. 5 x 4 mm, yellow with green apex to pale orange, sparsely white-furfuraceous, margins entire with fimbriate trichomes; petals symmetric, broadly obovate-spatulate from a narrower base, apex obtuse to slightly emmarginate, distinctly cucullate in early anthesis, connate at base for ca. 2 mm in a common tube with the filaments, ca. 10 x 6 mm, ecarinate, yellow, spreading-recurved at anthesis and forming a campanulate corolla ca. 12-14 mm in diameter; stamens distinctly shorter than the petals but distinctly exposed at anthesis by the spreading-recurved petals; filaments complanate, yellow, completely connate from the base to the apex and forming a cylindrical tube, ca. 8 mm long; anthers narrowly subtriangular, ca. 2 mm long, base truncate, apex obtuse, outside dark purplish-brown, inside yellow, fixed at base, the outside base covering like a hat the point of insertion of the filaments, basally connate to each other, distinctly recurved and free near the apex, forming a stellate structure and bearing a central entrance-hole ca. 1 mm in diameter; pistil ca. 4 mm long, completely hidden by the filaments tube; stigma conduplicate-spiral, blades inconspicuous subentire, yellow; style ca. 1 mm long, yellowish; ovary suboblong-ovate, ca. 2.5 mm long, ca. 1 mm in diameter, yellowish-white. Capsules unknown.

Type: Brazil, Goias, Rio Descoberto near Capelinha, 19 Oct. 1894, A. Glaziou 22194. Holotype, B. Isotypes, P, K.

Material examined: Goias, Santo Antonio do Descoberto, near the border to Distrito Federal, near the cemetery 16 Aug. 2004, E. Leme 6420 & Z. J. G. Miranda (HB).

Dyckia horridula was originally collected in 1894 by Auguste Glaziou, and besides the types specimens there are very few representatives in herbaria. The taxon was recently rediscovered in the vicinity of type locality, in the periphery of the city of Santo Antonio do Descoberto. It is a typical inhabitant of the Campos Rupestres in the domain of the Cerrado vegetation, where the individuals grow sparsely distributed in rocky soils and due to its small size are hidden by the herbaceous vegetation even when in bloom, which makes the task of locating the specimens in habitat difficult.

Dyckia horridula is characterized by numerous and narrow leaves densely arranged from a thickly globose base, bearing along the leaf blades margins subdensely disposed, delicate spines. The unusual appearance of this species certainly inspired its name "horridula", but it is far from being a "horrible little plant" as the name suggests. The inflorescence of D. horridula is small, with few inconspicuously pedicellate flowers that posses a campanulate corolla of spreading-recurved, yellow petals. The striking feature of this taxon are the strong sweet fragrance produced by their flowers, the completely connate filaments that form a tubular structure, hiding the comparatively small pistil, and the anthers basally connate to each other, forming a stellate structure in a top view, and bearing a small central entrance-hole which certainly is the only access of the pollinator (probably an insect) to the internal chamber formed by the filaments, where the female organs are carefully protected.

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The future of D. horridula in its original habitat, at least around the city of Santo Antonio do Descoberto, is uncertain due to urban expansion and the consequent degradation of the surrounding Campos Rupestres and Cerrados. It is also severely affected by frequent fires and cattle breeding activities.

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Dyckia mirandiana Leme & Z. J. G. Miranda, sp. nov. Type: Goias, Alto Paraiso de Goias, ca. 20 km from the city toward Teresina de Goias, km 197 road GO 118, way to Poco Encantado, ca. 1,400 m elev., 24 July 2004, Z. J. G. Miranda s. n., fl. cult. E. Leme 6380. Holotype, HB.
 Inter generis species valde singularis, a speciebus omnibus foliis
 distichis vel fere, laminis foliorum utrinque distincte nervatis,
 marginibus sparse spinosis, inflorescentia curvata, breviore,
 floribus manifeste odoratis, sepalis atrovinoso-purpureis, petalis
 flavidis, apice obtusis apiculatisque vel subacutis, antheris basi
 connatis et apice petalorum aequantibus differt.


Plant terrestrial, flowering 20-25 cm high. Leaves 10-15, distichously arranged or nearly so, coriaceous; sheaths distinctly broader than the blades, the older ones forming a subglobose base, 3.4- x 4-5 cm, suborbicular-ovate, dark castaneous, lepidote; blades sublinear-attenuate, distinctly U-canaliculate, suberect-arcuate, 25-40 cm long, ca. 1 cm wide near the base, green to reddish toward apex, opaque, inconspicuously white-lepidote abaxially with trichomes disposed along the intercostal zones and not obscuring the color of the blades, adaxially glabrescent toward the apex, distinctly nerved on both sides, apex long acuminate-caudate, pungent, margins glabrous, sparsely spinose, spines 0.5-1 mm long, ca. 15 mm apart from each other, uncinate, retrorse to antrorse, castaneous, glabrous. Scape lateral, erect except for the curved apex, ca. 8 cm long, 0.4-0.5 cm in diameter, glabrous, sulcate, dark purplish-wine to blackish; scape bracts erect, dark purplish wine, distinctly nerved, bearing a central protruded longitudinal nerve but not at all carinate, sparsely to densely white-lepidote toward the apex, narrowly triangular, long acuminate-caudate, 12-18 x 6-8 mm, exceeding to equaling the internodes, margins microscopically and densely denticulate. Inflorescence strongly curved, ca. 6.5 cm long, laxly (at base) to subdensely (at apex) flowered, rachis straight, margins angular, dark purplish-wine to blackish, glabrous, 2-2.5 mm in diameter; floral bracts subtriangular, acuminate, bearing a protruded central nerve but not at all carinate, nerved, dark purplish-wine, sparsely white-lepidote, membranaceous, 7-10 x 5-6 mm, suberect with the flowers, exceeding (basal ones) to slightly shorter than the sepals, margins inconspicuously denticulate to entire. Flowers ca. 9 in number, ca. 12 mm long with extended petals, suberect anthesis, producing a strong sweet fragrance, pedicels inconspicuous, stout, ca. 1.5 mm long, ca. 3 mm in diameter at apex; sepals symmetric, acuminate, convex, ecarinate but bearing a protruded central nerve mainly toward the apex, 6-6.5 x 3.5-4 mm, dark purplish-wine, glabrous, entire, bearing a protruded central nerve toward the apex but not at all carinate; petals symmetric, broadly obovate-spatulate from a narrower base, apex obtuse and apiculate to subacute, connate at base for ca. 1.5 mm in a common tube with the filaments, ca. 10 x 7.5mm, ecarinate, yellow, erect anthesis and forming a tubular corolla ca. 3 mm in diameter at apex; stamens about equaling the petals but distinctly exposed at the apex of the corolla at anthesis; filaments complanate, yellow, connate at base for 1.5-3 mm and free above, but arranged closely together and forming a cylindrical tube ca. 8 mm long; anthers narrowly subtriangular, ca. 2 mm long, base distinctly sagittate, apex acute, strongly recurved toward the apex, fixed at base, adnate to each other at base and free toward the apex, forming a stellate structure well visible at the apex of corolla, ca. 2.5 mm in diameter, bearing a central entrance-hole ca. 0.5 mm in diameter; pistil ca. 6 mm long, completely hidden by the filaments tube; stigma conduplicate-spiral, blades subentire, yellow; style ca. 1 mm long, yellowish; ovary ovate, ca. 4 mm long, ca. 2 mm in diameter, greenish. Capsules unknown.

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Paratype: Goias, Alto Paraiso de Goias, km 196 road GO 118, toward Teresina de Goias, 13[degrees]55'41.4"S 47[degrees]25'59.4"W, 1,473 m elev., Z. J. G. Miranda s. n.. (CEN).

This new species can be distinguished from all known taxa due to an unusual combination of morphological features, like the distichous arranged leaves, leaf blades distinctly nerved on both sides with margins sparsely spinose, inflorescence curved and short, flowers strongly fragrant, sepals acuminate and dark purplish-wine, petals yellow with an obtuse and apiculate to subacute apex, forming a tubular corolla, and by the anthers basaly connate and equaling the petals.

The distichous leaf arrangement of Dyckia mirandiana resembles the rosette structure of D. estevesii Rauh (D. mirandiana never forms large clumps whereas D. estevesii does). However, because of completely distinct flower morphologies, these two species are not closely related. Conversly, whilst the leaf rosettes of D. mirandiana and D. horridula are not alike, these two species do have some common floristic characters such as the strong sweet fragrance and the yellow petals. Also, their filaments form a tubular structure, despite their being completely connate in D. horridula, that has a campanulate corolla, but only connate at base in D. mirandiana that shows in contrast a tubular corolla. Finally, they share the anthers basally connate to each other, forming a stellate structure in a top view, and bearing a small central entrance-hole to the internal chamber formed by the filaments, which hides the female organs. That stellate structure formed by the anthers obstructs almost completely the entrance of the tubular corolla of D. mirandiana and is well visible above it.

Dyckia mirandiana was found growing terrestrially, as a heliophyte, on an almost flat or slightly inclined terrain, with the sub-globose basal portion of the plants completely sunk in sandy soil accumulated among quartzitic outcrops in Campos Rupestres vegetation. The specimens were observed growing isolated or in small groups of about five or more individuals, with populations severely affected by the annual fires. In field conditions, the strong sweet fragrance produced by its flowers was more intensively perceived between 10:00 to 12:00 am.

The name chosen for this new species honors the bromeliad collector and writer Antonio Miranda from the University of Brasilia, DF, who is an enthusiast of the bromeliad study and conservation in the Cerrado ecosystem of the Brazilian Central Plateau.

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Literature cited

Forzza, R. C. and B. R. Silva (2004). "A new species of Dyckia (Bromeliaceae from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil." Novon 14(2): 168-170.

Leme, E. M. C. and J. A. Siqueira-Filho (2007). Taxonomy of the bromeliads of the Atlantic Forest fragments of Pernambuco and Alagoas. Fragments of the Atlantic Forest of Northeast Brazil, Biodiversity, Conservation and the Bromeliads. Siqueira-Filho and E. M. C. Leme. Rio de Janeiro, Andrea Jakobsson Estudio: 191-381.

Luther, H. (2006). An alphabetical list of bromeliad binomials 10th edition. Sarasota, FL, Bromeliad Society International.

Strehl, T. (1994). "Bromelias que passam parte do ano submersas." Bromelia 1(3): 19-21.

--(2005). "Novas especies de Bromeliaceae do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil." VidAlia 2(2): 26-36.

Authors

E.M.C. Leme: Herbarium Bradeanum, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. e-mail: leme@tj.rj.gov.br

J.G. Miranda: Embrapa Cerrados, BR 020, km 18, Planaltina, DF, Brazil, CP 08223, 73310-970. e-mail: zenilton@cpac.embrapa.br
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Scientific
Author:Leme, Elton M.C.; de J.G. Miranda, Zenilton
Publication:Journal of the Bromeliad Society
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3BRAZ
Date:Mar 1, 2009
Words:2127
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