Student perceptions of the transition from elementary to middle school.
School personnel recognize the difficult transition students undertake when moving from one level of schooling to another. The transition from elementary to middle school may be especially challenging because it often involves significant school and personal change. One consideration is that most middle school environments differ significantly from the elementary environment (Perkins & Gelfer, 1995). Contextual transitions commonly include additional and unfamiliar students and school staff, and multiple sets of behavioral and classroom rules and expectations.
This contextual change during the transition to middle school is heightened by personal change. Physical, emotional, and social changes that occur in puberty have been associated with heightened emotionality, conflict, and defiance of adults (Berk, 1993). Although pubertal changes have been viewed more as an opportunity than a crisis (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2001), the varied timing of preadolescent development is difficult for students (Berk). Pubertal changes occur at different times and at different rates for students in the same grade. Therefore, as students transition to middle school, they confront both external contextual changes and internal pubertal changes.
Research has highlighted the developmental and academic difficulties often associated with the transition from elementary to middle school. Both boys and girls show a significant increase in psychological distress across the transition to middle school (Chung, Elias, & Schneider, 1998; Crockett et al., 1989). Even though declines in achievement and increased distress are not gender exclusive, boys tend to show a significant drop in academic achievement, while girls seem to experience a greater level of psychological distress after the transition (Chung et al.). Also during the transition, girls find peer relationships most stressful, whereas boys find peer relationships, conflict with authority, and academic pressures as equal stressors (Elias, Ubriaco, Reese, Gara, Rothbaum, & Haviland, 1992).
Along with psychological and academic outcomes, studies have shown that student motivation and attitudes toward school tend to decline during the transition to middle school (Anderman, 1996; Harter, 1981; Simmons & Blyth, 1987). Eccles et al. (1993) used "stage-environment fit" to describe the poor fit between the developmental needs of preadolescents and the environment of middle school or junior high school (e.g., academic tracking, increasing competition, and awareness of personal peer group status). Declining student motivation and attitude were highlighted by Simmons and Blyth, who found more negative consequences for students in the transition from elementary to middle school as compared to students making the same grade transition in K-8 schools.
While most of the research describes the negative outcomes associated with the transition to middle school, several authors also suggested interventions to reduce negative outcomes. Schumacher (1998) identified social, organizational, and motivational factors as important aspects of successful interventions. Eccles et al. (1993) suggested strategies designed to create a school context appropriate to developmental levels of preadolescents. These included building smaller communities within the school, using teaming and cooperative learning, eliminating tracking, empowering teachers, and improving student/teacher relationships. Similarly, Felner et al. (1993) found teaching teams and advisory programs as important preventative interventions for students in transition.
Although much of the research has either noted the detrimental effects of the school transition or suggested interventions, few investigations have sought student perceptions during the transition to middle school. Arowosafe and Irvin (1992) interviewed students about the transition at the end of the sixth grade year. They asked students about stressors, school safety, perceptions of school, and what people told them about middle school. Students reported heightened levels of stress related to safety concerns in the school. They also noted that students report friends and the information they received from others as critical factors that affect the transition experience.
The purpose of the current investigation was to learn more about student perceptions during the transition from elementary to middle school. The research questions were:
* What questions do students have about middle school?
* What specific concerns do students have about middle school?
* What aspects of middle school do students see as positive?
* What do students think middle school will be like?
* Whom do students turn to for help during the transition into middle school?
* What is important for students to know about coming to middle school?
The research was conducted in four phases. For phases I and II, participants included all 331 fifth grade students in a large, rural, Southeastern public school district. Participants included students from three different elementary schools that were scheduled to enter one large middle school (sixth to eighth grade). The mean age was 11.8 years with a range of 10 to 13 years old. Racial composition of the participants included 59% White students (n = 195), 37% Black students (n = 122), and 4% Other (n = 14). There were 175 females (53%) and 156 males (47%). Approximately 45% (n = 149) were on free or reduced lunch during the fifth grade year.
At the start of the sixth grade year (phase III), 103 students (four home base classrooms) were randomly selected from the 331 fifth grade students. Demographic information mirrored that of the first sample. Phase IV included a purposeful sample of participants (n = 97), again from the 331 fifth grade students, who experienced success at the middle school. The sample was selected in December of the sixth grade year. Success was defined by average or better grades (no grade lower than a C), appropriate behavior (no more than one behavior referral), and regular attendance (no more than two unexcused absences) during the first academic marking period (9 weeks) of sixth grade. The researcher felt that perceptions and insight from students with generally positive records, rather than a random or complete sample, would be valuable for understanding student perceptions of the transition. The phase IV sample included students with similar demographics as compared to the participants for the earlier phases.
Due to the contextual influence on this research (i.e., the significance of elementary school and middle school context), it is important to provide data about the setting. In the participating elementary schools, students attend neighborhood schools that use self-contained classrooms. This middle school is centrally located in the large rural county. The middle school uses teaching teams, four teachers per team that cover primary subjects, and each student has one of those teachers for a home base. As with most middle schools, students move between four to six teachers and are introduced to lockers, showering in gym class, and more responsibility than in elementary school. Students from this district can also travel for up to one and one-half hours each way on a bus to and from their middle school. Although middle school students commute to school on a bus with students from similar geographic areas, students also ride with all students in grades 6 to 12 in the school district.
A longitudinal analysis of student perceptions occurred in four phases, starting in January of fifth grade and concluded in December of sixth grade. In phase I (January of the fifth grade year), the participants submitted questions about middle school. In phase II (May of the fifth grade year), the participants completed a questionnaire designed to discover more information about student perspectives. In phase III (in August-the start of the sixth grade year in middle school), students completed a questionnaire similar to the one used in phase II. The phase III questionnaire was administered in home base at the conclusion of the first two weeks of school. In the last phase, phase IV (December of the sixth grade year), a purposeful sample of selected successful students completed a questionnaire that repeated questions from phases II and III. The phase IV questionnaire was administered at a meeting of selected students led by the school counselor to assist in planning for the upcoming year.
One writing assignment and three questionnaires were used to elicit student perspectives during the transition. In phase I, participants were asked to write any questions they had about middle school. In phase II, the participants completed a five-item questionnaire. One item of the questionnaire asked students to select concerns from a list of 13 themes. A second item, consisting of the same 13 themes, asked students to select positive aspects. The checklist items were generated from themes written by students in phase I and each checklist included an open-ended response. The checklists were identical and included items such as changing classes, using your locker, getting good grades, older students, and making friends. The questionnaire also assessed general feelings about coming to middle school. One question asked students to indicate how they feel about coming to middle school (worried, a little worried, a little excited, or excited). Additionally, an open-ended question was included to assess perceptions of what middle school would be like. Finally, one question asked students to select the person or persons they felt are most helpful to them during the transition to middle school (teachers, counselors, parents, friends, or someone else).
During phase III, students completed a second questionnaire in home base. This seven-item questionnaire inquired about academic strategies and goals for sixth grade. Included in the questionnaire were items replicated from previous phases. Students were asked what, if any, questions they had about middle school and what concerns they had about middle school.
The third questionnaire again replicated previous questions. This six-item questionnaire included open-ended questions about concerns and best aspects of middle school. The questionnaire also replicated the question about the person or persons who helped students during the transition to middle school. These questions were worded as reflections over the past transition year (e.g., What were the best aspects about coming to middle school?). The questionnaire also included an open-ended question to seek student's recommendations for helping fifth grade students in the transition to middle school for the next academic year. Finally, the questionnaire concluded with one question about class schedule and one about team membership.
The open-ended writing assignment and series of questionnaire responses were analyzed for content and qualitative themes concerning the transition. Data were subjected to content analysis to identify emergent themes in the responses. Because categories in a content analysis should be completely exhaustive and mutually exclusive, a step classification system (Holsti, 1969) was used. First, each participant's response was categorized into a meaning unit. Meaning units are described as perceived shifts in attitude or a shift in the emotional quality of a response (Giorgo, 1985). These units are not meant to be independent, but rather expressions of aspects of the whole response. For the writing assignment, each question listed by students was coded as a meaning unit. In questionnaires, individual question responses were also coded as meaning units. Open-ended questions on the questionnaires were analyzed for meaning shifts and coded accordingly. For example, a response such as "both scary and fun" would be coded as two separate meaning units. The data, divided into meaning units, describe meaningful aspects of the response, with minimal inferences from the researcher (Seidman, 1991).
After meaning units were coded and tabulated for all data, the researcher examined the coding for their thematic meaning and collapsed coded content into larger themes. Larger themes were identified from the most frequent responses emerging from the initial coding. For example, one student wrote eight separate questions. Although all eight questions were distinct meaning units, the first five focused on rules and procedures, while the last three listed concerns about bullies and older students. Additionally, several responses did not collapse into larger categories and were judged atypical. These responses represented less than 3% of the total responses.
Researcher and Researcher Bias
The researcher is a White male who at the time of the study was a practicing school counselor at the middle school. Although student perceptions formed the base of all conclusions, the researcher also had assumptions that may have influenced the results. As a school counselor, research bias included an increased focus on personal/social adjustment during the transition. The researcher also assumed a level of anxiety concerning the transition to middle school.
Phase I--January of Fifth Grade Year What questions do students have about going to middle school? Three hundred thirty-one participants submitted a total of 555 questions. Most students submitted 3 to 5 questions, with a range from one to 15. Twenty-eight percent (n = 156) of the questions focused on rules and procedures (e.g., "What's the consequence for being late?"), 16% (n = 90) on class schedules in sixth grade (e.g., "Do sixth graders get to do chorus?"), 11% (n = 60) on PE or gym class (e.g., "Do you get to play basketball in gym class?"), 9% (n = 52) on expectations for sixth graders (e.g., "Do you have a lot of work to do?"), and 9% (n = 52) on lunch (e.g., "If you have last lunch, do you always have pizza?"). The remaining questions (27%) addressed topics (each one comprised less than 5% of the total) that included lockers, extracurricular programs, recess, teachers, and sports. Of particular note and consistent with current events in schools today, a few of the questions concerned school violence or safety. For example, two questions included "What happens if you threaten to hurt a teacher?" and "Do people kill people in middle school?"
Phase II--May of Fifth Grade Year What specific concerns do students have about coming to middle school? A total of 735 concerns were selected by the 331 participants. The frequency of selected concerns was spread somewhat evenly over the 13 choices provided in the questionnaire. In fact, no one response comprised more than 15% of the total selections. The most frequent responses included older students, 14% (n = 102); homework, 13% (n = 98); using one's locker, 12% (n = 88); and getting good grades, 12% (n = 85). Only lunchroom, bathrooms, and the open-ended choice received little attention (comprised less than 1%).
Which aspects of middle school do students see as positive? A total of 808 items were selected by the 331 participants. Parallel to the worries of fifth grade students, students selected a variety of potential positive aspects of middle school. The most mentioned aspects included making friends 16% (n = 130); gym/PE class, 15% (n = 124); using your locker, 11% (n = 90); and both changing classes and getting good grades, 10% (n = 82 for each). Only the open choice received less than 1% (n = 10).
What do students think middle school will be like? A total of 329 meaning units were coded from the responses by the 331 participants. Forty-five percent of the responses listed that middle school will be "fun" (n = 148), 14% of the responses mentioned that middle school will be "exciting" (n = 46), 11% of responses suggested it will be "cool" (n = 36), while 9% of the responses listed "hard" or "scary" (n = 31). A variety of other responses (each category represented less than 5% of the total) included "weird," "tight," "good," "awesome," and "like a maze."
Whom do students turn to for help during the transition to middle school? A total of 480 choices were selected by the 331 participants. Thirty-five percent of the responses specified friends (n = 166), 22% parents (n = 105), 21% teachers (n = 103), 14% school counselor (n = 68), while 8% mentioned other sources including "cousins," "siblings," and "other family" (n = 38).
Phase III--August of the Sixth Grade Year What questions do students have about middle school? A total of 91 responses were reported by 103 randomly selected participants from phases I and II. Thirty-four percent of the responses indicated no questions about middle school (n = 31), 16% of responses centered on rules and procedures (n = 15; e.g., "Can I have one more minute extra to change classes?"), 15% of the responses focused on homework (n = 14; e.g., "How much homework do we get?"), and 7% of the responses focused on classes (n = 6; e.g., "Do I have to take an elective?"). The remaining responses (n = 31) were varied and each category accounted for less than 5% of the total.
What specific concerns do students have about middle school? A total of 115 responses were tabulated from the 103 randomly selected participants from phases I and II. Twenty-four percent of the responses focused on bullies or older students (n = 28) (e.g., "Being picked on on the bus with the older kids"), 19% about getting lost in the building (n = 22) (e.g., "Getting lost"), and 19% about doing well in classes (n = 22) (e.g., "I am worried that I might not do as well as I have in the past years"). Fourteen percent of the responses suggested there were no concerns (n = 16) and 7% of the responses centered on being tardy to class (n = 8) (e.g., "What happens if I am a minute late to class?"). The remaining responses (n = 27) were varied and each category accounted for less than 5% of the total responses.
Phase IV--December of Sixth Grade Year What were the most difficult aspects of middle school? A total of 152 responses were listed by the 97 participants from a purposeful sample of successful students in phases I and II. Twenty-six percent of the responses focused on getting lost (n = 40) (e.g., "Fear of getting lost"), 13% on making friends (n = 19) (e.g., "Getting to know people"), 11% on learning the class schedule (n = 17) (e.g., "Knowing how to change classes"), 10% on lockers (n = 16) (e.g., "Opening your locker"), 8% on getting to class on time (n = 12) (e.g., "Tardies, all of them you can get"), and 5% of responses indicated there were no difficulties. The remaining responses (n = 50) were varied and no category accounted for more than 5% of the total.
What were the best aspects of being in middle school? A total of 118 responses were reported from 97 participants of a purposeful sample of successful students from phases I and II. Forty-three percent centered on freedom/choices (n = 51; e.g., "You get more freedom, like not having to walk in lines"), 18% focused on friends (n = 21; e.g., "Get more time to talk to friends"), 16% on classes (n =19; e.g., "Different and better classes"), and 13% on lockers (n = 15, e.g., "You get your own space and can put stuff in your locker"). The remaining responses (n = 12) were varied and each category accounted for less than 5% of the total.
Who helped students the most with the transition to middle school? A total of 131 choices represented the people most helpful to the 97 participants. Forty percent of the responses selected friends (n = 52), 23% chose teachers (n = 30), 19% selected parents (n = 25), 11% selected other family (n = 14; e.g., "brothers," "cousins"), while 8% selected the school counselor (n = 10).
What is important to tell fifth grade students about coming to middle school? Of the 158 responses from the 97 participants, 23% felt it was most important to tell fifth grade students about rules (n = 36; e.g., "You can't chew gum"), 18% reported expectations/responsibilities (n = 29; e.g., "You have to do your homework to go to incentive day"), 10% where classes and other items are located (n = 16; e.g., "Art is on the eighth grade hall"), 9% that it is fun (n = 14; e.g., "It is more fun than elementary school"), 8% there are nice teachers (n = 12; e.g., "Teachers are pretty nice"), and 6% that it is not hard (n = 9; e.g., "Most of the classes are easy, except social studies"). The remaining responses (n = 69) accounted for categories represented by less than 5% of the total.
Students' questions about middle school were dominated by rules and procedures throughout the transition from fifth to sixth grade. Although school rules may be a typical part of orientation programs, being explicit and thorough about rules and procedures seems crucial. The data suggest that students are keenly aware of the contextual change in the transition. Although sixth grade students at times may exhibit adolescent characteristics, it seems important to remember that these students need an "elementary" orientation concerning rules and procedures. Rules such as walking in the halls or keeping one's hands to oneself, or procedures such as reporting to class before the tardy bell seem simplistic, but these rules and procedures are what students asked about the most. In fact, students 9 weeks into the sixth grade still reflected that expectations and responsibilities were most important to tell fifth grade students. Although class scheduling is often the start and focus of the orientation process for students in fifth grade, these data suggest that rules/procedures and expectations are most important to students.
Student worries about middle school include a wide variety of topics. Although orientation programming attempts to minimize these concerns, these data indicate that it is important to address a variety of worries involved in the transition. In fact, the spread and frequency of reported worries suggest that there is a generalized or overall persistent level of worry for most students in transition. This conclusion is similar to research suggesting the difficulty of school transitions (Chung et al., 1998; Crockett et al., 1989).
It as also noteworthy both in the fifth grade and at the start of the sixth grade year, older students or bullies were a particular concern. This echoes findings from Arowosafe and Irvin's (1992) study in which students reported safety as a concern because of rumors about older students. Orientation programming could address this persistent concern by including older students as tour guides or peer mentors in the school to ease the transition. Alternatively, school-wide bullying programs may help alleviate student concerns about school safety. It is also important to note that homework and doing well in classes seem to be of particular concern to students in both fifth grade and the start of sixth grade. Students' academic concerns may suggest that it is important to build students' confidence in the classroom by teaching homework and study skills. In light of research (Anderman, 1996; Harter, 1981; Simmons & Blyth, 1987) that suggests academic and motivational declines in the transition, addressing these concerns seems especially important. Additionally, getting lost in middle school is a main concern of students upon reflection in December of the sixth grade year. This fear could be addressed by providing school tours or comprehensive class schedule-based orientations.
Although intervention or orientation programming can be useful to address questions and worries, designing orientation programs that facilitate and build upon student enthusiasm and confidence might provide encouragement to overcome worries and build motivation during the transition. Students recorded more entries for positive aspects than concerns and indicated excitement about a variety of aspects of middle school. In fact, 70% of the student responses were positive to the open-ended question, "What will middle school be like?" During the transition, orientation leaders should highlight aspects of middle school that students seem to enjoy including increased freedom and choices, the opportunity to change classes, and having their own lockers. Also it is important to note that students mentioned friends as the top source of help during the transition. This finding supports the need to include peers in transition interventions and orientation programming. Upon reflecting about the transition, sixth grade students suggest it is important to tell fifth graders that middle school is fun and there are nice teachers.
Although a few studies have found students that thrive in the transition (Crockett et al., 1989; Hirsch & Rapkin, 1987), these data contradict most of the previous research reporting the transition as a rather negative event for students (Anderman, 1996; Chung et al., 1998; Crockett et al., 1989; Elias, Gara, & Ubriaco, 1985; Harter, 1981; Simmons & Blyth, 1987). This study suggests that there is equal, if not more positive aspects related to the transition to middle school from the student perspective.
This study revealed the importance of including a variety of people in the transition or orientation program. Although school counselors are often responsible for transition planning, students reported that friends, parents, and teachers are all sources of help in the transition. Again, friends and peers are reported as the most frequent resource for students in transition. However, some peers may not provide accurate or helpful information. In this way, it may be useful to identify role model students who exhibit a desire and skill set that would make them good candidates to help students in transition. An ambassador or peer-helping program may be extremely helpful in the transition (Arowosafe & Irvin, 1992). In fact, Mittman and Packer (1982) found students attribute a good start frequently to the presence of old friends and the making of new friends. This type of peer support has a strong relationship with adolescent mental health (Hirsch & DeBois, 1992).
Similarly, including teachers and parents in programming is important. Although teachers often provide an orientation to their individual classrooms, integrating teachers in a systemic way may be useful. For example, teachers may have unique classroom rules or procedures, but perhaps a combined orientation can be presented by teachers about general topics such as hall passes or discipline referrals. Arowosafe and Irvin (1992) suggested that teachers can be integrated in advisor/advisee activities. Similarly, although parents are included in open house and class scheduling in most cases, it seems important that parents are informed about rules/procedures and expectations in the middle school.
Arowosafe and Irvin (1992) also suggested it is important to provide parent consultation on the transition to middle school, as they found most parents tended to provide warnings rather than positive information about middle school. In this way, parent orientation can strengthen and support student orientation to the middle school. Students look for help from parents during the fifth grade year, while teachers replace parents to become more important during the sixth grade year. This shift in adult influence fits developmentally as preadolescents struggle to form an identity independent of family. Interestingly, students still continue to desire adult assistance throughout the transition.
With only one primary researcher, qualitative data coding are limited. No researcher can enter into a study without bias (Rowan, 1981). With only one researcher involved with data analysis and only one school district, this study requires replication. Interviews, rather than questionnaires, with students may also elicit richer information about difficulties and positive aspects of the transition. All of the data are self-report, which has inherent limitations.
Implications for School Counselors
Data from this research and the research to date (e.g., Arowosafe & Irvin, 1992; Crockett et al., 1989; Eccles & Midgley, 1989) on school transition suggest that preventive or proactive programming is needed to assist students with the elementary to middle school transition. The transition provides both a challenge and opportunity for school counselors. This research suggests the following guidelines for school counselors coordinating transition programs: (a) rules, expectations, and responsibilities are the primary concern of students and should be presented early in fifth grade and infused throughout the transition year (this is also an excellent opportunity to include administrators and teachers in transition programming); (b) school counselors have an opportunity both to address concerns and stressors and to promote positive aspects of the transition to middle school; (c) transition programs should include peers, family, and teachers as students look to significant others for help; and (d) transition programs should evolve throughout the transition year as student perceptions and needs change.
Anderman, E. (1996). The middle school experience: Effects on the math and science achievement of adolescents with LD. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31, 128-138.
Arowosafe, D., & Irvin, J. (1992). Transition to a middle level school: What kids say. Middle School Journal, 24(2), 15-19.
Berk, L. (1993). Infants, children, and adolescents. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Chung, H., Elias, M., & Schneider, K. (1998). Patterns of individual adjustment changes during the middle school transition. Journal of School Psychology, 36, 83-101.
Crockett, L., Peterson, A., Graber, J., Schulenberg, J., & Ebata, A. (1989). School transitions and adjustment during early adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 9, 181-210.
Eccles, J., & Midgley, C. (1989). Stage/environment fit: Developmentally appropriate classrooms for early adolescents. In R. Ames & C. Ames (Eds.), Research on motivation in education (Vol. 3, pp. 139-186). New York: Academic.
Eccles, J., Wigfield, A., Midgley, C., Reuman, D., Mac Iver, D., & Feldlaufer, H. (1993). Negative effects of traditional middle schools on students' motivation. The Elementary School Journal, 93, 553-574.
Elias, M., Gara, M., & Ubriaco, M. (1985). Sources of stress and support in children's transition to middle school: An empirical analysis. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 14, 112-118.
Elias, M., Ubriaco, M., Reese, A., Gara, M., Rothbaum, P., & Haviland, M. (1992). A measure of adaptation to problematic academic and interpersonal tasks of middle school. Journal of School Psychology, 30, 41-57.
Felner, R., Brand, S., Adan, A., Mulhall, P., Flowers, N., Sartain, B., & DuBois, D. (1993). Restructuring the ecology of the school as an approach to prevention during school transitions: Longitudinal follow-ups and extensions of the School Transition Environment Project (STEP). Prevention in Human Services, 10(2), 103-136.
Giorgo, A. (1985). Phenomenology and psychological research. Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University.
Harter, S. (1981). A new self-report scale of intrinsic versus extrinsic orientation in the classroom: Motivational and informational components. Developmental Psychology, 17, 300-312.
Hirsch, B., & DeBois, D. (1992). The relation of peer support and psychological symptomatology during the transition to junior high school: A two-year longitudinal analysis. American Journal of Community Psychology, 20, 333-347.
Hirsch, B., & Rapkin, B. (1987). The transition to junior high school: A longitudinal study of self-esteem, psychological symptomatology, school life, and social support. Child Development, 58, 1235-1243.
Holsti, O. (1969). Content analysis for the social sciences and humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Mittman, A., & Packer, M. (1982). Concerns of seventh graders about their transition to junior high school. Journal of Early Adolescence, 2, 319-338.
Papalia, D., Olds, S., & Feldman, R. (2001). Human development (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Perkins, P., & Gelfer, J. (1995). Elementary to middle school: Planning for transition. The Clearing House 68, 171-173.
Rowan, J. (1981). A dialectical paradigm for research. In P. Reason & J. Rowan (Eds.), Human inquiry (pp. 93-112). New York: John Wiley.
Schumacher, D. (1998). The transition to middle school (Report No. EDOPS-98-6). Washington, DC: Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 422 119)
Seidman, I. (1991). Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and the social sciences. New York: Columbia Teachers Press.
Simmons, R., & Blyth, D. (1987). Moving into adolescence: The impact of pubertal change and school context. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
Patrick Akos, Ph.D., is an assistant professor, School of Education, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. E-mail: email@example.com
This research was sponsored by the American School Counselor Association Practitioner Grant.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Publication:||Professional School Counseling|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2002|
|Previous Article:||Students with disabilities: school counselor involvement and preparation.|
|Next Article:||School counselors' interest in professional literature and research.|