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Stress management: self first.


Successive waves of downsizing, closures and reorganisations put pressure on managers and employees alike. Additionally, technological changes to improve the speed of communications in the form of fax machines, mobile telephones and e-mail have created twenty-four hour accessibility. This is a potential recipe for disaster. The detrimental effects of poorly managed pressures can be measured in terms of the cost to organisations and society as a whole. Research by the Health and Safety Executive reports that 12.8 million working days were lost in 2004/05 because of stress. The personal cost to individuals is less easy to measure but it affects the quality of life and relationships and can be enormous.

This checklist is designed to help individuals recognisen symptoms of stress, sources of pressure and to identify coping strategies.

National Occupational Standards for Management and Leadership

This Checklist has relevance for the following standards: E: Using resources units 5, 6 and 7.


The Health and Safety Executive define stress as "the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressure or other types of demand placed on them". Studies have shown that stress is closely related to the degree of control an individual has over their work--self-controlled pressure can be tolerated at a very high level, while the threshold for imposed pressure is low. The experience of stress, therefore, is very personal. Pressures come from many different directions, affecting us in different ways at different times. In some situations when we are under an enormous amount of pressure, we cope, are stimulated and on occasion positively thrive. In other situations we may suffer in some way, show signs of not coping and feel unable to meet either the deadlines or the expectations--this is the experience of stress. Most people need a certain level of pressure to motivate them--it is when it gets beyond this level that problems arise.

Action checklist

1. Recognise your symptoms

Symptoms can alert you to the fact that you may be under stress. Commonly experienced symptoms include:

* Health--headaches, upset stomach, sleep problems, change in appetite, tense muscles, indigestion, exhaustion, stomach, intestinal and skin problems, and heart attacks.

* Behaviour--feeling worried, irritated, demotivated, unable to cope and make decisions, being less creative, nail biting, excessive smoking and/or use of alcohol.

* Work--lower job satisfaction, communication breakdown and a focus on unproductive tasks.

All these symptoms may be experienced in normal life; they only become symptoms of stress when several occur together, when they do not have an obvious cause, or when you experience them more often than you would expect. Also, whilst the symptoms are often exhibited in your workplace behaviour, they are not necessarily a reflection of workplace pressures.

2. Identify the sources

We live in an ever-changing world and must constantly adapt and adjust to technological and social changes. In addition, there are recurring pressures that form a predictable pattern of events in our lives, and can be a source of stress and satisfaction.

In everyday life these may include:

* death of someone close

* divorce

* injury

* moving house

* a large mortgage

* holidays

* birth of a child (especially the first).

In work they may include:

* time pressures

* demanding deadlines

* relationships with others

* too much or too little work

* business or work changes

* threat of redundancy

* pressure from above

* insensitive management.

3. Know your response

Individuals respond to these external pressures by adapting and adjusting in a variety of ways, depending on their lifestyle. Two broad categories have been identified according to personality type. Type "A" people could be described as competitive, aggressive or hasty, whilst Type "B" people are just the reverse. Type "A" people tend to take stress out on others, Type "B" to internalise it. Other characteristics such as age, gender, health, financial situation and access to support can influence how we respond to change, regardless of our personality traits.

4. Identify the strategies that help you cope

Individuals react differently to stress, so each of us has different coping strategies. Identify for yourself those that have been successful in the past; they may have involved:

* removing or reducing the outside pressure

* accepting the things that can't be changed

* breaking up 'big' problems into smaller, achievable goals.

5. Begin to make the necessary changes

Change yourself--we can be our own worst enemies:

* be realistic

* recognise your own weaknesses

* talk to others, at home and at work: do not bottle up stress

* remember you are not the only one who is stressed: you are not alone.

Change relationships--relationships can be both supportive and damaging:

* invest in developmental and supportive relationships

* withdraw from damaging relationships.

Change activities--activities create balance and an opportunity for release:

* relax, if necessary by using well established techniques

* develop interests that nourish you

* take sensible exercise--a great way to relieve tension

* eat well; eat a sensibly balanced diet

* get enough sleep to ensure you are refreshed.

Your happiness and well-being depend on making changes. When change comes, it will bring with it an easing of pressures, profound changes in personality and mood and an approach to life which benefits you and those with whom you live and work.

Managers should avoid:

Thinking that stress equates with weakness is not the way to approach this problem. Keeping it to yourself will most certainly be detrimental to your health, while ignoring it and thinking it will heal itself will solve nothing. Stopping all activity completely will only give you more time to think and worry, so doing something else which you enjoy is far more therapeutic.

Additional resources


Surviving stress: a guide for managers and employees Samuel A Malone

Cork, Ireland: Oak Tree Press, 2004

Managing the risk of workplace stress Sharon Clarke and Cary L Cooper

London: Routledge, 2004

Health and wellbeing in the workplace: managing health safety and wellbeing at work to boost business performance

London: Institute of Directors, 2002

59 minutes to a calmer life Paul McGee

Leicester: Go Mad Books, 2001

Occupational health psychology: the challenge of workplace stress Marc Schabracq and others

Leicester: BPS Books, 2001

Instant stress management Brian Clegg

London: Kogan Page, 2000

Internet resources

Stress Management Society: The site offers an introduction to stress at work and a ten step guide to managing personal stress

UK National Work Stress Network: The network aims to raise awareness of the causes and cost of work-related stress. The site includes copies of the quarterly newsletter.


British Association of Counselling

1 Regent Place, Rugby, Warwickshire, CV21 2PJ

Tel: 0870 443 5252

International Stress Management Association UK (ISMA UK)

PO Box 26, South Petherton TA13 5WY

Tel: 07000 780430
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Title Annotation:Checklist 034
Publication:Chartered Management Institute: Checklists: Personal Effectiveness and Development
Geographic Code:4EUUK
Date:Mar 1, 2006
Previous Article:Effective communications: preparing presentations.
Next Article:Working out your redundancy package.

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