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Strategic school planning in Jordan.

Theoretical literature:

The educational system is considered the most important and most dangerous in any society. We can say that the societies culture and development can be measured with what it presents of educational systems. Where the need of having educational systems had increased in order to achieve the excellence, workmanship and quality in the modern century, through investing the human resources, the available chances and knowledge as a strategic wealth, enhancing the ability of research and education with the speed rhythm that has become part of the twenty one century.

The fact that the strategic planning concepts in the educational system are suitable in the educational operation. Add to mention that the student's education and gaining the needed skills is considered a long term cumulative process. Thus training and qualifying the teachers in order to increase their efficiencies and performance average at school needs planning and executing through long periods of time. Which makes the strategic planning the ideal in schools where the strategic planning presents a curricula scientific method to manage the schools resource, by using long term planning that depends on the analytical activities related clearly with the vision owned by school, and the degree it visualizes the surrounding competing environment, the nature of the strategic curricula used in managing and executing the programs and the educational operations, the management operations in total and the services it present (Bryosn & Farnum, 2005).

AL-Qadi (2010) sees that lots of countries prefer the strategic planning to secure the good investment in education and providing the best methods to use the specialized material. For education has lots of importance describing it as mainstay in achieving the comprehensive development in society, that includes planning upon all the educational levels to reach to the strategic school planning, that aims to providing the essential criteria to measure the development degree and growth at the educational proves. Thus school strategic planning can enlarge its scope in visioning the future vision concerning the education and learning. And finding effective methods to diversify the educational resources and ability to predict the student of teaching and learning priorities. Work on providing a safe and effective school environment, inserting the development at the school curricula and teaching and learning methods, before all that work on developing the school management work and improve its services to cope with the continuous changing operations and the knowledge and technical explosion that is been witnessed by the current era (Al-Hariri, 2007).

The study results held in the Division of school improvement related to the Development of Education and Early Childhood Development at Melbourne city in Australia to the pivotal role played by the executive plans, projects and academic programs coming from the strategic planning in school in creating and enhancing a supported environment for education and creativity for students, and developing the continuous educational concepts for life, recently the results revealed Raising the value system and trends for students, in addition to contribute in developing and improving total of educational operations and administrative activates and the presented services (Department of Education, 2010).

One of the indicators concerned on the strategic planning importance at school, the study (Salazar, 2002) in USA, that aimed to acknowledge the professional development needs for high school directors in order to develop school management at the schools they work with. The study results have revealed the need to develop the strategic planning skills and training them as considering it an important introduction from school development management.

(Grumdahl,2010) made study on three schools in USA, that revealed the most important concepts that enabled the school in practicing the effective planning that worked on developing and enhancing student's education. The results have revealed that applying the comprehensive quality management in strategic planning has made a clear improvement in the academic achievement for school students, in the shadow of having the supported establishment culture in order to support the strategic planning and comprehensive quality sample at these schools.

The strategic planning in fact needs having effective leadership represented by school manager, where school director's role is represented in describing him as strategic planning team at school in innovation a clear vision based on corporation, commitment, regulative and management efficiency, loyalty. Deep thinking by all the meant members in the planning operation. School manager role is represented in his awareness of the available chance, risk volume and threats that follow-up the change. The ability to manage the material and human resource management in the schools in order to achieve the purposes of the strategic planning (Merci, 2006).

Strategic school planning operation passes through a group of stages:

First: Planning to plan stage

Second: Strategic Analysis stage

Third: Strategic Direction appointing stage

Fourth: Strategic Formulation stage

Fifth: Strategic Implementation stage.

Sixth: Strategic Control stage.

During the planning to plan stage, school principal as planning team leader determines the criteria of choosing the planning team, forming the team and determining the tasks entrusted to them, distributing the authorities between them. The planning team works at this stage in starting to the accurate diagnosis related to school facts. Assures the workers participation at school and acknowledge the working environment at school and preparing it to adopt the planning, determining the partners in the strategic planning operation, data collecting and the needed information and determining the needed period to prepare the strategic planning related to school (Davis & Alison, 2004).

The second stage, which is the strategic analytical period to add a detailed information to the school future scope and the level the school wishes to develop when education the students, through employing SWOT technology in analyzing the strategic position, that includes the threats and risks, from the chances related to development and progress and the weak and strong points at the education and management interior operation at school. The third phase from strategic school planning is represented in forming school visions and massage, the vision represents the future vision that school seeks to achieve, where the massage aims to determining and detailing the vision concept, and massage. Where the vision represents the future forecast that the school seeks to achieve, but the massage works in details in determining the vision concept and briefing the set of tasks needed to be executed in order to achieve what was described in the vision (Robert, 2009).

In the four stage, which is the phase of formulating the detailed executive plans at school, the planning team translates the strategic purposes related to development in students education and learning, in addition to developing the services and operations in total presented by the school, by which the planning team finalized at school, into the detailed purposes. Then the planning team will expose these detailed purposes on the beneficiaries from the strategic planning operation by describing them as school partners, where these detailed purposes will be translated as into detailed plans (programs and projects), thus the needed periodical period for executing the detailed plans at school, at last the team determines the expected balance for programs and suggested projects (Madbouli, 2001).

The fifth stage is the stage for executing the strategic plan, which means a group of the activities and practiced events for executing the detailed plans, and the outcomes presented by these activities such as the feedback that increases the efficiency of executing this plan, where as the details plans are being distributed among all the sections at school describing them as partners in the strategic school planning operation which is considered one of the most crucial planning stage that the follow up and evaluating is held through, in order to assure the safety of the procedures and avoid falling in mistakes in all the previous stages that the strategic planning passes through, the planning team in this stage shall be provided with the feedback that causes to resolve the problems and correct the deviations. Finally the final evaluation to issue a general provision on the plan and what was achieved (Mohammed, 2011).

What was previously mentioned reveals the importance the strategic school planning refers to in developing school job and developing it to cope with the twenty first century variables and updates, despite the Arabic counties awareness.

Concerning the importance of strategic school planning, thus the results of some studies held accordingly reveals that applying the strategic planning is held with minimum degrees at schools, Which may raise questions concerning the degree of preparing the educational system in these countries to comprehend such thoughts and concepts. In addition to asking questions concerning the professional thinking preparation for workers at the educational systems in order to understand the change towards the strategic planning.,

In a study made by Al-Qashairi in Republic of Yemen (2007) aimed at affecting the high school directors performance in the governorate concerning the strategic planning within the light of (SWOT) sample, the results have revealed the absence of the strategic planning principle at school plans placed by high school directors in Adan Governorate, the results have revealed weakness in forming the plans purposes, evaluating and follow-up at high schoole in Adan Governorate.

Madbouli (2001) had suggested a sample for the strategic school planning and building the planning abilities for the educational leadership in UAE, had recommended in circulating these samples on the educational leaderships in the Arabic countries, in a way of improve applying the strategic school planning in these schools, and his conviction in the role of the strategic planning in offering these schools a bigger margin from freedom in executing and planning.

AlAbsi (2004) made a study in the Hashemite kingdom of Jordan that aimed at building and educational guide for strategic planning at Jordanian High schools, after the study results have revealed a weak degree for the Jordanian High schools in practicing strategic planning and depending on the traditional planning. Where as the results have revealed a weak degree of the specialized team in leading school principle in planning the school, recently the study has revealed having a need to building strategic planning educational guide.

The fact that Ministry of Education in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has given great importance in the strategic planning since early years, together with the applying tools upon all the educational system levels in Jordan, starting from developing the strategic planning in Ministry of education for the periods from (2009-2013). Where Ministry of Education depended on the reference in building the strategic plan and forming its purposes and programs the seek to face the challenges educational system challenges and constrains in the coming stage. That presented these challenges by showing special interest to the educational type in Jordan, and concentrating on early childhood and achieving the Education and literacy for Everyone principle, and simulating the educational culture for life.

In the same context, the Ministry of Education focused on raising awareness of strategic planning culture in its schools, through launching its education development project in 2009, the main message of this program is empowering schools to set up and execute plans that develop their performance, with the support of the education directorates, and building up the professional capacities, educational expertise, and safe educational environment for student; which shall eventually enable them in achieving the curriculum's objectives set by the Ministry and developing the education towards knowledge economy, in addition to providing society with creative well educated participants who can solve problems and contribute in reaching the knowledge economy.

Jordan Project of School Development comprises four phases:

* First phase: Preparation & set-up

* Second phase: Self-Evaluation Process

* Third phase: Collecting, analyzing and summarizing Data

* Fourth phase: Building Plans and Implementing them

The school's role during these phases includes the following:

* Self evaluation of all the sides of the educational-learning process in the school (principal, teachers, students and parents);

* Analyzing and discussing the evaluation results within the school community to set up a primary development plan;

* Finalizing the plan in its final structure by the school and the community and submit it to the directorate;

* Translating the activities mentioned in the developmental plan into a procedural plan;

* Providing the directorate with a chapter basis report regarding the progress in executing the school's plan ;

* Evaluating the external evaluation of the school plan's achievements after three years of the primary self evaluation. (Training & Rehabilitation management, 2009)

One of the most important indicators regarding the Kingdom's interest in strategic planning is launching "Queen Rania Award for the Distinguished Principal", where as school principal practice criteria of strategic planning is considered one of the main criteria of choosing the distinguished principal for this award--(part of Queen Rania Al Abdulla Award for Excellence in Education 2011).

All the above mentioned, in addition to having more sizable number of public high schools in Amman, had justified conducting this study which aimed at detecting the extent of applying strategic planning stages in the schools, as an approach towards developing the schools' management, in the opinion of educational principals and supervisors in Amman directorates.

Study problem:

Schools of the 21st century face local and international challenges resulted from the revolution of information, technological development and knowledge explosion. Those challenges have increased the complications of the role which schools play in building and developing the generations; therefore, practicing strategic planning in such schools became an urgent necessity, as it helps enhancing creativity and innovation of all the school members, especially that strategic planning requires scientific thought and well planned steps of implementation, leading to positive results that contribute to improving and developing all educational and administrative tasks of a school.

Thus, the study's problem is represented in answering the main following question: "what's the degree of applying strategic planning at public high schools, as a method of improving their management, in the perspective of educational principals and supervisors in Amman directorates?"

Study purposes and inquiries:

This study aims at measuring the extent of applying strategic planning in public high schools in Amman, through answering the following questions:

* To what extent the strategic planning stages are applied in public high schools, in the opinion of principals and educational supervisors in Amman directorates?

* Are their differences of statistic significance at the level (@ .05) for the degree of applying strategic school planning in public high schools, attributed to the gender variable, from the educational principals and supervisors point of view in the Amman directorates?

* Are their differences of statistic significance at the level (@ .05) for the degree of applying strategic school planning in public high schools, attributed to the years of experience variable, from the educational principals and supervisors point of view in the Amman directorates?

Importance of the study:

The importance of this study emanates from the ability of referring to its results at the following sides:

* Ministry of Education in Jordan. The researcher wishes that decision makers in the Ministry shall adopt the results of this study and make the suitable decisions to activate them;

* Researchers and interested people in this field.

Terminologies definition:

This study includes a number of terms: Strategic planning: an organized process through which the organization's leaders may take decisions regarding this institution's future and development, in addition to following up on the required procedures and measures towards achieving the desired future, and finding methods to measure the success of these operations' execution. (Policastro, 2003).

School strategic planning: organized analysis of the schools and its environment, and forming a set of major strategic goals to help a school achieve its vision, within its values, and available resources. (Al Hariri, 2007)

The study limitations:

This study included the following limitations:

Limitation in the size of the study community as the study was restricted to public high schools in the city of Amman.

The study approach:

This study followed the analytic survey approach, to measure the degree of applying strategic planning phases, as a method of management development, in public high schools, as revealed by the educational principals and supervisors of Amman directorates, through distributing questionnaires specially designed for this purpose.

Study community:

The study community includes all managers of education directorates in Amman, and administrative directors and technicians, and educational supervisors in those directorates. Table No. 1 shows the distribution of the study community according to the job title.

Study sample:

The whole study community was selected as the study sample, they were handed over the questionnaires, 120 of which were returned, with the percentage of 80%.

Study tools:

The study tool was built up with reference to theoretical literature in regards to the study subject; the tool included 30 clauses distributed to 6 domains.

Tool's stability and reliability:

The tool's stability and reliability was found out through the internal consistency of its clauses, using the coefficient of reliability cronbach's alpha, and the stability of scales amounted to 0.93, while the arbitrators' integrity was adopted to measure the tool clauses' reliability.

Study results:

This chapter includes the results of this study according to the its phases and questions after applying the study measures and statistic analysis of the data, as follows:

Results regarding the first question: To what extent strategic planning phases are applied in public high schools, in the opinion of principals and educational supervisors in Amman directorates?

To answer this question, arithmetic averages and standard deviations were calculated for each domain of the tool measuring the degree of applying strategic planning in public high schools, as a management development method, as seen by directors of education directorates, departments' heads, and educational supervisors.

Table No. 1 shows that planning to plan came in the first rank, with average (3.29), while strategic analysis took the 2nd place (3.12), strategic direction in 3rd place (3.18), strategic formulation occupied the 4th position (3.04), strategic implementation came in the 5th place with the average (3.03), and in the last place stood strategic control with the average (2.79).

First Domain: Planning to Plan

Table No. (2) shows the averages and standard deviations of clauses on the Planning to Plan domain, the arithmetic averages ranged between (3.09-3.5) compared to the general arithmetic average which amounted (3.29).The clause pointing out "the school principal, as the head of the planning team, determines the members of the team upon specialization", took the first place with an arithmetic average (3.5) and a standard deviation (0.86), while the clause "the planning team selects the strategic partners in the strategic planning process of the school", got the last, sixth rank with an arithmetic average of (3.09) and standard deviation of (0.89).

Second Domain: Strategic Analysis

Table No. (3) shows the averages and standard deviations of clauses on the strategic analysis domain, the arithmetic averages ranged between (3.25-3.10) compared to the general arithmetic average which amounted (3.12).The clause stating that "the planning team analyzes the interior environment of the school (weakness and strength points), occupied the first rank with an arithmetic average (3.25) and a standard deviation (0.91), while the clause "the planning team detects predictions of those who have interests from the school management within the strategic plan implementation period", recorded the fifth rank (which is the last), with an arithmetic average of (3.10) and standard deviation of (0.93).

Third Domain: Marking Strategic Direction

Table No. 4 explains averages and standard deviations of clauses about marking Strategic Direction. The arithmetic averages ranges between (3.03-3.34), compared to the general arithmetic average (3.18). The clause "Planning team formulates a special vision of the school, written and approved by all its employees", stands in the first place with an average of 3.34, and a standard deviation of 0.96, as for the clause "Planning team surveys the concerned people's opinion about the strategic goals, to ensure they correctly reflect the school's future visions", it took the fourth and last place, with an arithmetic average (3.03) and a standard deviation (0.96).

Fourth Domain: Strategic Formulation

Table No. 5 defines the averages and standard deviations of the Strategic Formulation, where the averages ranges between 2.99 - 3.12, compared to the general arithmetic average 3.04. In the first ranks comes the clause "planning team determines the necessary duration to implement plans (projects & programs) inn school", with an arithmetic average (3.12) and a standard deviation (0.92), while in the last rank No.5 comes the clause "team determines the expected budget of the proposed programs and projects", with an average (2.99) and a standard deviation (0.99).

Fifth Domain: Strategic Implementation

Table No. 6 shows averages and standard deviations of clauses in the Strategic implementation aspect. The arithmetic averages ranges between (2.84-3.15), in comparison to the general arithmetic average (3.03). The clause which states "Planning team translates the strategic goals into detailed goals" occupies the first grade with an average of 3.15, and a standard deviation of 0.94, as for the clause "Planning team defines clear criteria by measuring the accomplishment level during the strategic implementation time", it took the fifth last place, with an arithmetic average (2.84) and a standard deviation (0.91).

Sixth Domain: Strategic Control & Performance Evaluation

Table No. 7 underlines averages and standard deviations of clauses in the Strategic Control. The arithmetic averages ranges between (2.74-2.84), compared to the general arithmetic average (3.03). The clause pointing out that "Follow up & Evaluation Committee regularly supervises the progress of strategic implementation in the school" stands in the first place with an average of 2.84, and a standard deviation of 0.93, while the clause " Follow up & Evaluation Committee accurately applies the criteria of measuring performance to find out the performance outcomes during the implementation period", took the fifth last place, with an arithmetic average (2.74) and a standard deviation (0.90).

* Results in regards the second question: Are there differences of statistic significance of @ [less than or equal to] .05 level, from the point of view of principals and education supervisors in Amman directorates, to the extent of applying strategic planning in public high schools, attributed to the gender variable?

To answer the second question, the value of (Y) was calculated to the average of public high schools practice of strategic planning, as a step towards developing the management, again in the point of view of departments' heads and supervisors. (Y) was calculated for the average of the two groups: males and females. The results came up as follows:

Results in table (8), indicates that there is no difference of statistic significance at the significance level a [less than or equal to] 05.0, between the two averages of the two groups' responses (males & females), based on the calculated value of Y which amounted to 0.25 and an significance level of 0.83.

* Results of third question: From the point of view of principals and education supervisors in Amman directorates, are there any differences of statistic significance of @ [less than or equal to] .05 level, to the extent of applying strategic planning in public high schools, attributed to the years of experience variable?

ANOVA was used to detect the effect of experience on the opinions of directors and supervisors regarding the concept of applying strategic planning, and statistic differences were found at the significance level @ [less than or equal to] .05, that are attributed to the years of experience in planning to plan and strategic analysis fields, (0.044) & (0.041) successively; this is a statistic indication, while no other statistic indications were found in the rest of the questionnaire's domains. See table 9 for further details.

To find out the differences' resources, Scheffe' Test was used as it is a parametric multi-comparison procedure to measure the practices of strategic planning at public high schools. Table No. 9 shows that the difference were in the benefit of the category of 10-15 years of experience, in planning to plan and strategic analysis domains, people with 5-10 years of experience reached an arithmetic average (2.94), (2.78) successively and in both domains. While those who have 10-15 years of experience got the averages 3.48, 3.35 in sequence, and teachers and educational supervisors of more than 15 years of experience obtained the averages 3.28 and 3.08 in turn.

Discussion on the results

* Discussion on the results in regards to the first question: To what extent does strategic planning reach in public high schools, in the opinion of principals and educational supervisors in Amman directorates?

Responses of the study sample revealed a medium level in all fields of the study case, this indicates that the culture of strategic planning is still in its beginning and is not delivered yet to all the Kingdom's schools, which made the point of view of the study sample on the strategic planning gets a medium level, knowing that the sample represents principals and educational specialists who are the keystone of building strategic planning concept in the schools, as they are strategic partners in the Ministry of Education, and the contact channel between the Ministry and the schools, furthermore, one of their main tasks is to apply and follow up on strategic planning to develop and improve the performance of the school's environment. Nevertheless, strategic planning enjoys the interest of the officials in charge of education in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, and this is evident in the Jordanian project to develop the schools, launched by the Ministry of Education in 2009, which aims at creating dependent schools that implements its missions and tasks, including planning, implementation, and decision making process through its own management; this program also aims at giving such schools special funding to set up their budgets upon their needs, within its authorities and independence.

Strategic control obtained the less average (2.79), while planning to plan domain recorded the highest average (3.29). This result can be attributed to the fact that most schools, as seen by educational principals and supervisors, aim at applying the strategic planning as an approach to promote its performance, but the idea of transparent and honest investigation, tasks description, and following up on them, is barely used in the schools; this can be caused by many reasons, such as personal relationships that hinder investigation process when an error comes up, or having vague criteria of the investigatory system in the schools.

As for the whole clauses of this study, they all got medium level with very close averages, which can be justified by the whole reasons mentioned to explain the domains' levels in general.

* Discussion of results in regards to the 2nd question: Are their differences of statistic significance of level (@ [less than or equal to] .05) for the range of applying strategic planning in public high schools, attributed to the gender variable, according to educational principals and supervisors?

The above stated results indicate that there are no such differences on the significance level (@ [less than or equal to] .05), between the averages of the two groups' answers (the males & females), upon the values of Y (0.25), and a significance level (0.83), this can be a result of the directors and supervisors working under the same circumstances, as they all work on achieving one vision regarding extending and improving strategic planning at the schools, and this can bridge any gaps in their responses that are affected by their gender variable.

* Discussion of results in regards to the 3rd question: Are their differences of statistic significance of level (@ [less than or equal to] .05) for the range of applying strategic planning in public high schools, attributed to the years of experience variable, according to educational principals and supervisors in Amman directorates?

Results showed that there are differences of statistic significance, attributed to the years of experience variable, in the point of view of the study sample on the extent of strategic planning application in public high schools; the differences appeared in the planning to plan and strategic analysis domains, and they were in favor of the study sample who have experience from 10-15 years, the arithmetic averages amounted to 3.48 and 3.35 in sequence for both domains.

Such results explain that the educational supervise of this experience are the closest and most responsible for following up on planning to plan and strategic analysis phases in the schools applying them (the phases), which makes them more familiar with the range of applying these phases and the most aware of the real practices in the schools.

Recommendations:

According to the study results, it recommends the following:

* As per the results of the extent of applying strategic planning in public high schools in Amman, which was in medium level, the study recommends the Ministry of Education to allocate programs to support application and distribution of the strategic planning approach at all the Kingdom's schools.

To set up a management team at the Ministry of Education to follow up and evaluate the application of strategic planning in the Jordanian schools.

References:

Queen Rania Prize Assn. for Educational Distinction (2011), the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

Al-Hariri, Rafidah (2007), Strategic Planning in the Scholar System, Jordan: Dar Al Fekr.

Davez, Brent & Alison, Linda (2004), School Management in the 21st Century, (translated book by Abdel Aziz Al Hawashi) Cairo: Egyptian Renaissance Library.

Al Selmi Ali (2002), Excellence Management, Cairo: Dar Ghareeb.

Al Absi, Mohammad (2004), Building Educational Guide of Strategic Planning in Jordanian High Schools, PHD Study, unpublished, University of Jordan.

Al Qadi, Al Mkashfi (2010), Strategic Planning of Education, Egypt: Science & Faith publishing house.

Al Qsheori, Said (2007), Activating Performance of High Schools Teachers in Adan Province in Strategic Planning, upon SWOT model, Masters study, unpublished, Adan University, Yemen.

Madbouli, Mohammad (2001), Strategic Scholar Planning, Egypt, Al Dar Al Arabia Library.

Madbouli, Mohammad (2001), proposed model of strategic planning and building planning capacities for a group of practitioners, Education College Magazine, UAE University, issue No. 18.

Mohammad, ahmad (2011), Strategic Educational Planning "Idea & Application", Jordan, Dar Al Maseerah.

Mursi, Nabeel Mohammad (2006), Strategic Principal, Egypt, Alexandria: Modern University Book.

Ministry of Education/Jordan (2009), Jordanian Program to Develop the School, Educational Training, Qualification, & Supervision Dept., Jordan.

* Bryson M. John & Aston K. Farnum (2005), Creating and Implementing Your Strategy Plan, John Wiley & Sons, U.S.A.

* Policastro, Michael I. (2003), Introduction to Strategic Planning, SBA, Small Business Administration.

* Robert W. Ewy (2009), Stakeholders-Driven Strategic Planning in Education, American Society for Quality, U.S.A.

* Salazar, Pamela (2002), The Professional Development Needs OF High School Principals for School Improvement, DISSERTATION, University of Nevada, LAS VEGAS, USA.

* Grumdahl, Constance (2010), How Schools Can Effectively Plan to Meet the Goal of Improving Student Learning, DISSERTATION, THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA, U.S.A.

DR. MOHAMMAD SALEEM AL-ZBOON

Faculty of Educational Sciences

Dept. of Educational Administration & Foundations

University of Jordan/Amman/Jordan

DR. MANAL SUBHI HASAN

Faculty of Arts

Dept. of Educational science

Alzaytoonah private university/Jordan
Table (1)

No    Clause           Arithmetic   Standard    Order    Effect
                       average      deviation            range

1     Planning to      3.29         0.76        1        Medium
      Plan

2     Strategic        3.12         0.82        3        Medium
      Analysis

3     Strategic        3.18         0.85        2        Medium
      Direction

4     Formulation      3.04         0.88        4        Medium

5     Strategic        3.03         0.91        5        Medium
      Implementation

6     Strategic        2.79         0.92        6        Medium
      Control

General arithmetic     3.12         0.83        Medium
average and standard
deviation

Table (2)
Averages and standard deviations of "Planning to Plan" domain

No.    Clause                                 Arithmetic   Standard
                                              average      deviation

1      School principal, as the planning      3.09         0.86
       team head, the experienced
       members for the team

2      The planning team distribute tasks     3.29         0.89
       & owners among the members

3      Planning team members to be            3.24         0.90
       qualified through training courses
       in strategic scholar planning

4      Planning team diagnoses the            3.25         0.86
       school situation by collecting data
       & info as they are basics in the
       planning process

5      The planning team determines the       3.15         0.77
       required duration to set up the
       school strategic plan

6      The planning team determines the       3.45         0.86
       Strategic partners in the strategic
       planning of the school

General arithmetic average                    3.50         0.76
and standard deviation

No.    Clause                                 Order        Effect
                                                           range

1      School principal, as the planning      1            Medium
       team head, the experienced
       members for the team

2      The planning team distribute tasks     2            Medium
       & owners among the members

3      Planning team members to be            5            Medium
       qualified through training courses
       in strategic scholar planning

4      Planning team diagnoses the            3            Medium
       school situation by collecting data
       & info as they are basics in the
       planning process

5      The planning team determines the       4            Medium
       required duration to set up the
       school strategic plan

6      The planning team determines the       6            Medium
       Strategic partners in the strategic
       planning of the school

General arithmetic average                    Medium
and standard deviation

Table (3)
Averages and standard deviations of Strategic Analysis

No.    Clause                                 Arithmetic   Standard
                                              average      deviation

7      Planning team analyzes the             3.13         0.95
       school's culture and its prevailing
       values

8      Planning team analyzes the             3.25         0.91
       Interior environment of the school
       (weakened strength points)

9      Planning team analyzes the exterior
       environment the school (available      3.18         0.85
       opportunities & potential risks)

10     Planning team detects predictions of   3.10         0.93
       those who have interests from the
       school management within the
       strategic plan implementation period

11     Planning team selects the available    3.12         0.84
       strategic alternatives for the
       school

General arithmetic average                    3.12         0.82
and standard deviation

No.    Clause                                 Order        Effect
                                                           range

7      Planning team analyzes the             3            Medium
       school's culture and its prevailing
       values

8      Planning team analyzes the             1            Medium
       Interior environment of the school
       (weakened strength points)

9      Planning team analyzes the exterior                 Medium
       environment the school (available      2
       opportunities & potential risks)

10     Planning team detects predictions of   5            Medium
       those who have interests from the
       school management within the
       strategic plan implementation period

11     Planning team selects the available    4            Medium
       strategic alternatives for the
       school

General arithmetic average                    Medium
and standard deviation

Table (4)
Averages and standard deviations of marking Strategic Direction

No     Clause                                 Arithmetic   Standard
                                              average      deviation

12     Planning team formulates the           3.34         0.96
       school's vision written and agreed
       upon by all employees

13     Planning team formulates the           3.31         1.03
       school's message written and agreed
       upon by all employees

14     Planning team translates the           3.15         0.94
       school's message into strategic
       goals

15     Planning team gathers the concerned    3.03         0.96
       people's opinions about the
       strategic goals, to ensure they
       correctly reflect the school's
       future

General arithmetic average                    3.18         0.85
and standard deviation

No     Clause                                 Order        Effect
                                                           range

12     Planning team formulates the           1
       school's vision written and agreed                  Medium
       upon by all employees

13     Planning team formulates the           2            Medium
       school's message written and agreed
       upon by all employees

14     Planning team translates the           3            Medium
       school's message into strategic
       goals

15     Planning team gathers the concerned    4            Medium
       people's opinions about the
       strategic goals, to ensure they
       correctly reflect the school's
       future

General arithmetic average                    Medium
and standard deviation

Table (5)
Averages and standard deviations of Strategic Formulation

No.    Clause                                 Arithmetic   Standard
                                              average      deviation

16     Planning earn translates strategic     3.l0         0.92
       goals into more specific goals

17     Planning team introduces specific      3.02         0.98
       goals to the beneficiaries of the
       strategic planning as partners of
       the school

18     Planning team detailed goals into      3.09         0.87
       detailed plans (programs & projects)

19     Planning team determines time needed   3.12         0.92
       implement detailed plans in the
       school

20     Planning team estimates budget for     2.99         0.99
       implementation

General arithmetic average                    3.04         0.88
and standard deviation

No.    Clause                                 Artier       Effect
                                                           range

16     Planning earn translates strategic     2            Medium
       goals into more specific goals

17     Planning team introduces specific      4            Medium
       goals to the beneficiaries of the
       strategic planning as partners of
       the school

18     Planning team detailed goals into      3            Medium
       detailed plans (programs & projects)

19     Planning team determines time needed   1            Medium
       implement detailed plans in the
       school

20     Planning team estimates budget for     5            Medium
       implementation

General arithmetic average                    Medium
and standard deviation

Table (6)
Averages and standard deviations of Strategic Implementation

No     Clause                                 Arithmetic   Standard
                                              average      deviation

21     Planning team translates strategic     3.15         0.94
       goals into more specific goals

22     Planning team introduces specific      3.10         0.92
       goals to the beneficiaries of the
       strategic planning partners of the
       school

23     Planning team translates detailed      2.90         0.86
       goals into detailed plans (programs
       & projects)

24     Planning team determines time          2.84         0.91
       needed to implement detailed plans
       in the school

25     Planning team estimates budget for     2.90         0.99
       plans implementation

General arithmetic average and                3.03         0.91
standard deviation

No     Clause                                 Order        Effect
                                                           range

21     Planning team translates strategic     1            Medium
       goals into more specific goals

22     Planning team introduces specific      2            Medium
       goals to the beneficiaries of the
       strategic planning partners of the
       school

23     Planning team translates detailed      3            Medium
       goals into detailed plans (programs
       & projects)

24     Planning team determines time          5            Medium
       needed to implement detailed plans
       in the school

25     Planning team estimates budget for     4            Medium
       plans implementation

General arithmetic average and                Medium
standard deviation

Table (7)
Averages and standard deviations of Strategic Control

No     Clause                                 Arithmetic   Standard
                                              average      deviation

26     Follow up & Evaluation Committee       2.84         0.93
       regularly supervises strategic
       implementation progress the school

27     Follow up & Evaluation Committee       2.83         0.94
       regularly supervises strategic
       implementation in progress the
       school

28     Follow up & Evaluation Committee       2.74         0.90
       accurately a criteria of measuring
       performance to find out performance
       outcomes during the strategic
       implementation period

29     Follow up & Evaluation Committee       2.82         0.96
       execute the suitable corrections to
       handle errors of work plans in case
       occurred) at school

30     Follow up & Evaluation Committee       2.75         1.03
       Activates an investigatory system
       upon related to accomplishment
       during implementation programs and
       projects

General arithmetic average and standard       2.79         0.92
deviation

No     Clause                                 Order        Effect
                                                           range

26     Follow up & Evaluation Committee       1            Medium
       regularly supervises strategic
       implementation progress the school

27     Follow up & Evaluation Committee       2            Medium
       regularly supervises strategic
       implementation in progress the
       school

28     Follow up & Evaluation Committee       5            Medium
       accurately a criteria of measuring
       performance to find out performance
       outcomes during the strategic
       implementation period

29     Follow up & Evaluation Committee       3            Medium
       execute the suitable corrections to
       handle errors of work plans in case
       occurred) at school

30     Follow up & Evaluation Committee       4            Medium
       Activates an investigatory system
       upon related to accomplishment
       during implementation programs and
       projects

General arithmetic average and standard       Medium
deviation

Table (8)
Averages, standard deviations, and values of Y for the answers
of the study sample

Group        Arithmetic Average   Y-value   Significance
                                            level

Males        3.11
                                  0.25      0.83
Females      3.15

Table (9)
ANOVA for the differences of the opinions of directors and
supervisors about the concept of strategic planning upon experience

Field            Source of   Squares    Freedom    Squares
                 variation   total      degree     average

Planning         Between     3.615      2          1.807
to plan          groups

                 Inside      66.133     117        0.565
                 groups

                 Total       69.748     119

Strategic        Between     4.309      2          2.155
Analysis         groups

                 Inside      76.938     117        0.658
                 groups

                 Total       81.248     119

Strategic        Between     2.453      2          1.226
Direction        groups

                 Inside      83,578     117        0.714
                 groups

                 Total       86.031     119

Strategic        Between     2.153      2          1.076
Formulation      groups

                 Inside      90.345     117        0.772
                 groups

                 Total       92.498     119

Strategic        Between     4.263      2          2.131
Implementation   groups

                 Inside      94.604     117        0.809
                 groups

                 Total       98.867     119

Strategic        Between     4,174      2          2.087
Control          groups

                 Inside      98,574     117        0.843
                 groups

                 Total       102.748    119

Field            Source of   Statistic   Significance
                 variation               level

Planning         Between     3198        0.044
to plan          groups

                 Inside
                 groups

                 Total

Strategic        Between     3.277       0.041
Analysis         groups

                 Inside
                 groups

                 Total

Strategic        Between     1.717       0.184
Direction        groups

                 Inside
                 groups

                 Total

Strategic        Between     1394        0.252
Formulation      groups

                 Inside
                 groups

                 Total

Strategic        Between     2636        0.08
Implementation   groups

                 Inside
                 groups

                 Total

Strategic        Between     2.477       0.09
Control          groups

                 Inside
                 groups

                 Total

Table (10)
Post Hoc Comparisons as per Scheffe' Test on the strategic planning
in public high

Field        Category   Average   5-10        10-15     15+

Planning     5-10       2.9444
to plan      10-15      3.4762    * 0.53175
             15+        3.2750    0.33056     0.20119

Strategic    5-10       2.7778
Analysis     10-15      3.3452    * 0.56746
             15+        3.0833    0.30556     0.26190
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Article Details
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Author:Zboon, Mohammad Saleem Al-; Hasan, Manal Subhi
Publication:Education
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7JORD
Date:Jun 22, 2012
Words:6743
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