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Strain Rate Analysis on the Cankiri-Bingol Segment of the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey/Analisis de la Velocidad de Deformacion en el Segmento Cankiri-Bingol de la Falla de Anatolia del Norte, Turquia.

INTRODUCTION

The NAFZ is one of the most offensive fault system all over the world and approximately 1500km long strike-slip fault system delineating the boundary between Eurasia and Anatolia plates (Barka and Kadinsky-Cade, 1988). The NAFZ runs along the northern part of Turkey, from Karliova in the east to the Gulf of Saros in the west and connects the East Anatolian compressional regime to the Aegean extensional regime.

The study area is bordered by the coast of the Black Sea in the north, Cankiri-Ilgaz (Kastamonu) in the west, the Sungurlu residential area in the south and Bingol-Karliova in the east. The main and secondary branches of the North Anatolian Fault have meant that the study area has been dissected into several continental blocks (Fig 1).

According to recent research (icseven and Tuysuz, 2006; Kozaci et al., 2007; Tatar et al., 2012), the continental blocks that are bordered by faults move independently in different directions around a vertical axis. Also, it is important to understand how the potential energy of deformation accumulates and releases regarding spatial and time variables. Space-based geodetic technology enables us to determine the degree of crustal deformation with millimeter accuracy. So, it is possible to estimate present-day tectonic strain accumulation on the NAFZ using these geodetic technologies and fault mechanism incorporating variables such as slip rates, locking depths, fault geometry, etc. (Straub et al., 1997; Armijo et al., 1999; McClusky et al., 2000; Reilinger et al. 2006; Ozener et al. 2010; Yavasoglu et al. 2011; Tatar et al. 2012; Peyret et al., 2013).

Since 1990 many pieces of research have been undertaken in the area. These were mostly on a micro scale geodetic network or a global scale, but with an inadequate density of geodetic stations (McClusky et al., 2000; Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2002; Hartleb et al., 2003; Reilinger et al. 2006; and Kozaci et al., 2007). Velocity field derivatives from an inadequate density of networks affect the results. Additionally, in micro-scale studies, tectonic activity bordering the surveyed area cannot be distinguished sufficiently. Therefore, an analysis incorporating both a large scale study (covering all the area) and adequate localization resolution is needed.

In this study, the aim is to combine previous micro-scale geodetic studies and an estimate of the earthquake potential of the region using strain analysis computation (Write et al., 2001; Reilinger et al., 2006, Ozener et al. 2010; Yavasoglu et al. 2011; Tatar et al. 2012). The variations of the slip/strain rate and deformations in the study areas were investigated through a rigorous combination of the published micro scale geodetic data as a primary and new contribution.

Moreover, with this study, the NAFZ segment located between longitudes E33 and E41 degrees was investigated. There are three sub-segments in this area. The first section runs from Kastamonu to Amasya, the second segment from Amasya to Erzincan, and the last part from Erzincan to Bingol. Historical and instrumental records indicate that they are active (Ambraseys, 1970, 2009; Barka, 1992, 1996; Barka et al., 2000). Another important aspect of this region is the fault behavior. What are the general characteristics of tectonic loading in this region? This is the main question concerning how loading is accommodated by the NAFZ. To answer these issues, firstly the tectonic and the seismic settings of the study area are summarized, and then the combined GPS velocity field is presented, and finally, the model results obtained from GPS velocities are discussed.

TECTONIC SETTINGS

The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) which is the best-known dextral strike-slip faults in the world because of its remarkable seismic activity, separates the Anatolian plate from the Eurasia plate. The Anatolia plate escapes to the West about the Eurasia plate along the NAFZ. The NAFZ system has a strike-slip and right lateral tectonic settings because of two important mechanisms: The first is the Arabian plate push it in the East, and the second, it escape to the west along the Hellenic arc. (McClusky et al., 2000; Bozkurt, 2001; Sengor et al., 2004; Bayrak et al., 2009 and 2011).

In the 20th Century, many destructive earthquakes happened on the NAFZ, affecting the lives of millions and causing damage regarding billions of dollars in the study area (Table 1). Besides the 1999 earthquakes affecting Izmit and Duzce, most of the destructive earthquakes happened on the central and east segments, from Kastamonu to Bingol (Table 1, Tan et al., 2008).

The NAFZ extends to the Karliova (Bingol) triple junction in the East and the Aegean Sea in the west. It formed about 13 to 11 Ma in the east and propagated westward at about 11 cm/yr according to geological studies (Sengor et al., 2004). However, the NAFZ was formed in early Pliocene according to several scientist like Barka and Kadinsky-Cade, (1988) and Bozkurt (2001). The segmentation of the NAF and the structure of its splines are still in conflict. According to Sengor et al., (2004), The NAFZ bounds the Anatolian plate to the north. Its width, which is about 100 km, steadily increases from east to west, even though some pinched or swollen zones exist and the fault is located along an interface that separates subduction-accretion material to the south, from the older and stiffer continental basement to the north.

The NAFZ has been known to incorporate a uniform and homogenous structure in many segments. However, present day GPS data and strain analysis show us that it is not strictly uniform and homogenous from east to west. Many studies prove that the geological settings are different for each segment (Bozkurt, 2001; Sengor et al., 2004; Bayrak et al., 2009 and 2011; Peyret et al., 2013). Therefore, the velocity and seismicity of each segment of the NAFZ is also different.

In this area, the type of deformation is strike-slip along the fault. On the other hand, the central part of the NAFZ fault deformation has a standard component, because the fault is parallel to the Black Sea coastline. Additionally, geological evidence indicates compressive strain near the Ilgaz Mountains (Piper et al., 2010). The main offsets on the NAFZ are in the Pontide suture which is located close to the city of Erzincan (longitude E39[degrees]20') (Sengor et al., 1985), around the Sea of Marmara (Armijo et al., 1999), and in the western part of the central bend (Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2002). The cumulative displacement of the NAFZ is about 80 km as has been indicated by evidence obtained from river deflection such as appertain to the Yecihrmak, Kizilirmak and Gerede rivers (Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2002; Sengor et al., 2004; Peyret et al., 2013). Moreover, previously estimated geological slip rates of [+ or -] 18 mm/yr (Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2002) to [+ or -] 20.5 mm/yr (Kozaci et al., 2007) are in consensus with present day GPS derivative slip rates as determinated by block modeling that ranges from 17 to 25 mm/yr (McClusky et al., 2000; Reilinger et al., 2006; Yavasoglu et al., 2011).

The aim of the earth science studies on the NAFZ is to understand the large-scale behavior of the NAFZ zone. For this purpose, geodetic networks have been established on the NAFZ segments (McClusky et al., 2000; Reilinger et al., 2006; Ozener et al., 2010; Yavasoglu et al., 2011; Tatar et al., 2012).

In this study, the horizontal GPS velocity fields published by Reilinger et al. (2006), Ozener et al. (2010), Yavasoglu et al. (2011) and Tatar et al. (2012) will be used as a reference. These velocities have been estimated from at least 3 GPS campaigns and have been computed by using geodetic GPS process software such as GAMIT/GLOBK and BERNESE. Therefore, the velocities are accurate to the sub-millimeter level.

GEODETIC STUDIES

Today, InSAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) and GPS (Global Positioning System) are the most common methods used to observe tectonic movements. During the last decades, applications of such usage have been expanded, and precision of calculation has been increased. In this research, GPS data that has been gathered from research published between 2006 and 2012, have been included in the analysis.

Geodetic studies have been carried out concerning local regions. Although global scale measurements have been performed in previous studies (McClusky et al., 2000; and Reilinger et al., 2006), their cover area does not represent the entire fault zone, and the number of geodetic points was limited. Therefore, it is once more expressed that geodetic studies should be merged and analyzed accordingly (Table 2).

STRAIN RATE CALCULATION (MODELING)

The GPS data obtained from different projects (papers) have been transformed into the same datum. Then, the Eurasia fixed velocity field has been calculated. The data used in this study have been processed using geodetic software GAMIT/GLOBK, which can to provide velocity vectors with sub-millimeter accuracy.

The velocity field is necessary to show the movement of Anatolian Plate. But it is usually not sufficient for earth science purposes. Velocity field data gathered from GPS data is meaningful when translated into strain and slip values using block modeling or elastic half-space modeling.

The general approach associated with this method is to obtain a continuous strain field via a different interpolation of the east and north velocity components (Wessel and Bercovici, 1998) on a regular grid using the splines in tension algorithm using only geodetic data. A factor (T) controls the tension. T=0 is the minimum curvature, and T=1 is the maximum curvature. Also, the GPS sites must be sufficiently distributed to cover all the area under consideration, and they must be distributed in such a way as to cover an area bigger than the grid size. It was tested the T values and set to T=0.3 as recommended by Hackl et al. (2009). The area was divided into cells using the grid size. They contain more than one observation. The median of all the included data was computed for each, with the regions having a large number of comments in need of being averaged. In this way, outliers and bias can be removed.

The interpolation will give two continuous scalar fields from east and north velocities are independent for the interseismic period. In this way, the spline interpolation function can be applied to calculate the strain rate tensor for two components of the velocity fields.

The elements of the strain rate tensor are defined in Hackl et al. (2009) as;

[[??].sub.ij] = 1/2 ([partial derivative][v.sub.i]/[partial derivative][x.sub.j] + [partial derivative][v.sub.j]/[partial derivative][x.sub.i]) (1)

Where i, j substitute east and north.

In a similar way, it is possible to compute the antisymmetric rotation rate tensor:

[[??].sub.ij] = 1/2 ([partial derivative][v.sub.i]/[partial derivative][x.sub.j] + [partial derivative][v.sub.j]/[partial derivative][x.sub.i]) (2)

At this point, any tensorial analysis can be performed.

The eigenspace analysis of the tensor is the starting point for the full description of deformation at every grid point, providing different aspects of the strain rate. The eigenvectors of the strain rate, for example, represent the direction of maximum and minimum strain rates, while their associated real eigenvalues X1 and X2 represent the magnitude (note that the notation that positive values indicate extension and negative values stand for compression was followed) (Hackl et al., 2009).

The maximum shear strain rate and its direction might provide a tool to identify active faults since motion along faults is related to shear on that structure. Faults oriented in this direction are the ones most likely to rupture in a seismic event. The maximum shear strain rate at every grid point can be obtained by a linear combination of the maximum and minimum eigenvalues:

[[??].sub.max_shear] = [[lambda].sub.1] - [[lambda].sub.2]/2 (3)

While the direction of maximum shear is oriented 45[degrees] from the direction of the eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalue:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (4)

Note that Eq. (4) corresponds to two conjugate perpendicular directions that cannot be distinguished without further constraint.

The trace of the tensor,

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (5)

Corresponds to the relative variation rate of surface area (dilatation) and thus can indicate regions of thrusting or normal faulting (Hackl et al., 2009).

Therefore, strain rates, the variation rate of the area under consideration, maximum and minimum share and strain rate tensor were calculated from the velocity field obtained from GPS data using a method published in Hackl et al. (2009) in detail, (Figs. 2, 3).

Based on the allocation of the GPS observations, different grid sizes were tested to identify the best resolution. The ideal situation would be to have a grid with at least one observation per cell. After various tests, it was found that a regular grid with a cell size of 0.03[degrees] is most suitable for the interpolation of the horizontal velocity field components for this region. Using GMT routines (Wessel and Smith, 1998), the strain rate tensor was calculated. Figures 2, 3 shows the three components of the strain rate tensor. This method is more suitable to determine relative strain and strain rate changes (Hackl et al., 2009).

The plate boundary along the NAFZ is mainly of strike-slip nature. Thus, the direction and magnitude of the maximum shear strain rate are good scalar fields to represent the strain rate tensor. These two parameters are suitable to characterize the amount of localization of the shear deformation and the direction along which strike-slip faulting is more favorable. In Figures 2, 3, the color scale indicates the magnitude of the maximum shear strain rate, while the crosses indicate the two conjugate maximum shear directions. The maximum shear strain rate is highest in the southeast (Region-4 and 5) along the NAFZ (max 0.44 [micro]strain/yr) and along the central section of the NAFZ (Region-2 and 3) (max 0.33 [micro]strain/ yr). This matter can partially be a consequence of the fact that in these regions, the deformation can better localize along the major segments of the fault especially Region-2 and 3. The maximum shear strain rate is less in Region-1 according to the other four regions, but it has significant values (max 0.28 [micro]strain/yr) in Cankiri basin.

DISCUSSION

Biryol et al. (2010) suggest that comparison of fast polarization directions with plate motion directions requires selection of a reference frame that will yield true absolute plate velocities. There exist multiple reference frames for plate motions, based on different assumptions, and each of these has different motion directions and speeds. One of the most commonly used reference frames for our study area regards Eurasia as fixed and focuses on the relative motions of the surrounding plates (i.e. Anatolia) on fixed Eurasia (McClusky et al. 2000). In this case, the direction of lithospheric motion depends strictly on the selection of the fixed plate (i.e. Eurasia) and does not necessarily represent an absolute plate motion that can be used for comparison with mantle anisotropy measurements.

Regional strain rates for Anatolia indicate variations in the principal compressional and extensional strain axes from east to west, following the pattern of the counter-clockwise rotation of the Anatolian plate. This variation in direction for maximum compression and extension is also in agreement with the structural features of the Anatolian crust (Biryol et al., 2010).

Regarding the results of this study, there is a high degree of consistency between the results obtained with geodetic methods and geological-geophysical methods (Biryol et al., 2010). Therefore, the data used in this study, the modeling calculations, and the computed strain rates can be accepted. The study of regional strain rates is crucial for any seismic hazard assessment.

In this study, the velocity fields of the middle and eastern parts of the NAFZ have been merged to calculate the strain accumulation in a greater area. Similar studies have been realized previously in local areas. However, none of them either covered the focus area of this research nor were as large in scope. A previous study by McClusky et al. (2000) and Reilinger et al. (2006) should be noted, however, since they cover the same area of focus but with limited geodetic data.

The Cankiri basin (Region-1) that is located in different tectonic regimes is an active seismic region (Kaymakci et al., 2003; Yavasoglu et al., 2011; and Peyret et al., 2013). The strain accumulation in the Cankiri basin has been discussed in Kaymakci et al. (2003) and Peyret et al. (2013) concerning the possibility that it is a post-seismic strain that occurred after the Duzce (1999) earthquake, and the effects were thought to be improbable regarding the post-seismic activity. However, strain accumulation in Region-1 can be seen to be associated with a right lateral slip rate (Fig. 3). In this study, for the Cankiri basin, the northern side of the Cankiri basin indicates compressional deformation, and the southern side indicates extensional deformation. Besides, the rotational displacement is also shown (Cinku et al., 2011).

In Amasya (Region-2), the NAFZ exhibits a horse tail structure with the main branch and several secondary branches that extend into Anatolia. The most important and well-known of these branches is the Sungurlu (Ezinepazar) fault, on which deformation signs were not detected in this study, in concordance with Yavasoglu et al. (2011). However, it is known that the 1939 Erzincan earthquake also fractured the Sungurlu fault (I[section]seven and Tuysuz, 2006). Despite this, there is a concentrated strain accumulation in Region-2, where the Sungurlu fault and the NAFZ main branch merge. Between the main branch and the Sungurlu fault, a structure of normal and reverse faults have triggered the extension. Due to this extension, the strain has built up in the northern parts of the Region-2, and the earthquake potential has risen accordingly.

Kelkit Valley (Region-3) and Erzincan (Region-4) exhibit a very active setting. Seismicity is noteworthy in this region as is reported in Tatar et al. (2012). While Region-4 shows signs of compression, Region-3 shows signs of extension. In Region-3, the NAFZ is wider (Sengor et al., 2004). The tension that builds up in Region-2 also affects Region-3, which in turn continues the extension.

Karliova (Region-5) is a very complex zone (Barka et al., 1987; Sengor and Yilmaz, 1981). Many physical elements contribute to the deformation where the right lateral NAFZ and the left lateral East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ) merge. The earthquakes of March 12 and 14, 2005 in Karliova (Table 1) were the results of an extended period of seismic inactivity. The seismic gap that lasted from the year 1784 has been ended to a degree in this region. However, strain accumulation in the area can be postulated to be still building up. This complex structure also affects the results of this study. The tension in Region-5 does not exhibit a homogeneous dispersion. The fault segments found in the Yedisu, Ovacik and Pulumur faults should be investigated separately.

CONCLUSION

GPS velocity field data has been modeled for the strain rates in middle and eastern parts of the NAFZ, using published GPS derivative data (Reilinger et al., 2006, Ozoner et al., 2010, Yavasoglu et al., 2011, Tatar et al., 2012) and the mathematical model published in Hackl et al. (2009).

The presence of earthquake potential and strain accumulation in 5 regions in the middle and eastern parts of the NAFZ (Figs. 2, 3) have been found in this study. With the help of this new modeling method, the results are free of ambiguity regarding parameters such as fault locking depth, fault geometry, and are calculated to show present day activity using only geodetic data.

Between Region-1 and Region-2, there is no significant strike-slip or dip-slip on the Sungurlu fault that is the spline of the NAFZ. The sudden decrease in strain accumulation from the east (the Kelkit Valley) to the west (south of the Cankiri basin) reveals that all the strain is sufficiently accommodated by the main branch of the NAFZ.

Region-5 indicates a high strike-slip rate. The last rupture in the Region-5 was approximately 250 years ago (Ambraseys, 1970). The accumulated slip deficit is about 3m, corresponding to an earthquake potential of between Mw 7 and 7.7.

There is great risk concerning the five regions focused on in this study. Extensive and detailed seismic records are needed to estimate earthquake times and magnitude. Also, micro-geodetical research in the region should be increased. Multi-disciplinary studies on both the global and the local scale should be increased, especially in the regions where the NAFZ shows a very complex structure.

http://dx.doi.org/10.15446/esrj.v19n2.49063

Record

Manuscript received: 11/02/2015

Accepted for publication: 28/07/2015

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank M. Hackle, R. Malservisi and S. Widowinski for their GMT scripts. I am grateful to T. Aykan Kepekli, Huseyin A. Yavasoglu and Ali Goksenli for their comments. This paper has been supported by TUBITAK (2219 scholarship) and ITU. Maps and figures were drawn using GMT (Wessel and Smith, 1998).

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Hakan Yavasoglu

Istanbul Technical University

Insaat Fakultesi, Geomatik Muhendisligi Bolumu,

Maslak, Istanbul, 34469, Turkey

yavasoglu@itu.edu.tr

Table 1. Major earthquakes of last century in the area. (URL1)

Date          Latitude      Longitude    Depth   Magnitude
             ([degrees])   ([degrees])

14.03.2005     39.354        40.890       5.0       5.8
12.03.2005     39.440        40.978       11        5.6
27.01.2003      39.5          39.85      16.1        6
27.01.2003     39.503        39.851      16.1        6
06.06.2000      40.73          33          7         6
06.06.2000     40.737        33.005        7         6
13.03.1992     39.718        39.622      25.9       6.7
28.03.1954      39.1           41         --        6.8
13.08.1951      40.8          33.4        --        6.5
17.08.1949      39.5          40.6        --        6.6
01.02.1944     40.844        33.292       35        7.2
26.11.1943     40.912        33.392       25        7.5
20.12.1942     40.671         36.45       35        7.2
26.12.1939      39.77        39.533       35        7.7
19.04.1938     39.439        34.015       35        6.6
24.01.1916       41            37         --        7.2
09.02.1909       40            38         60        6.6

Table 2. GPS sites velocities used in strain rate computation.

Long              Lat           E&N Rate       E&N 1-Sigma
([degrees])   ([degrees])        mm/yr        uncertainties
                                                (mm/year)

41.057          38.959       -9.32    14.57   0.66   0.64
40.733          39.182      -15.71    4.73    1.67   2.13
40.575          38.758       -4.95    17.14   0.71   0.69
40.515          39.215        -18     5.35    1,62   2.13
40.33           39.039       -20.2     7.9    1.96   2.58
40.105          38.949      -17.33    6.23    0.62   0.67
40.052          38.963      -17.33    6.23    0.62   0.67
40.038           39.43      -13.31    8.51    3.25   4.24
39.957          39.538      -12.76    2.89    1.52   1.88
39.91           38.737      -18.76    11.13   0.61   0.59
39.524          39.824       -7.36    -1.39   1.18   1.47
39.258           39.35      -19.25    4.12    1.28   1.59
39.217          39.074      -20.63    12.1    1.5    1.86
38.931          39.026      -19.06    12.58   0.83   0.98
38.922          39.059      -19.06    12.58   0.83   0.98
38.645           39.31       -21.9    9.77    1.37   1.67
38.264          39.178      -17.01    12.9    1.34   1.59
36.046          41.065       -4.46    4.94    1.34   1.64
35.83           40.681       -14.9    7.64    1.01   1.22
35.645          40.919      -11.97    7.37    1.17   1.38
35.604          40.471       -21.2    2.96    1.2    1.47
35.316          40.666      -16.16     5.9    1.21   1.49
35.166          41.146       -8.69    5.19    1.19   1.51
35.113          40.949       -14.5    6.34    1.24   1.44
35.054          40.802      -15.56     5.3    0.93   1.14
34.814          40.145      -20.38    3.99    1.07   1.25
34.78           40.888      -16.26    2.49    0.65   0.54
34.707          41.022      -12.75    4.71    0.66   0.52
34.379          40.155      -22.25    3.97    0.67   0.64
34.272          41.031      -13.72    3.35    1.34   1.6
33.668          40.905      -18.87    2.04    3.74   1.82
33.62           40.614      -21.03    2.97    1.07   1.11
33.558          41.208       -3.34    1.43    0.62   0.6
33.102          29.141       -1.09    6,75    0.69   0.65
33.191          37.378      -13.63    2.53    0.6    0.59
33.228          28.163       -2.01    7.14    0.66   0.65
33.391          27.919       -1.92    7.22    0.65   0.64
33.396          35.141       -6.24    3.11    0.53   0.53
33.404          28.631       -2.93    4.98    0.65   0.64
33.494          27.686       -1.69    5.07    0.65   0.64
33.596          28.269       -3.18    6.29    0.58   0.57
33.832          27.244       -3.36    5.82    0.82   0.77
33.883          27.961       -4.61    8.74    1.01   1.01
33.991          44.413       0.02     1.06    0.66   0.66
33.995          28.639       -0.87    6.38    1.03   1.04
34.184          27.846       -3.4     7.25    0.58   0.57
34.256          36.566      -11.59    4.94    0.69   0.69
34.314          28.178       -2.17    8.06    0.87   0.8
34.47           28.529       -3.05    7.42    0.63   0.63
34.552           36.9        -12.2    4.37    1.08   0.96
34.763          30.598       0.47     8.64    0.55   0.55
34.781          32.068       -1.73    7.46    0.51   0.51
34.803          39.106      -19.36    3.89    1.5    1.49
34.813          39.801      -18.84    5.38    0.66   0.64
34.866          31.378       -2.97     7.7    0.74   0.74
34.875          40.453       -17.6    4.78    0.94   0.91
34.921          29.509       -0.45    8.86    0.53   0.53
35.023          32.779       -3.53    8.57    0.49   0.49
35.089          31.723       -1.61    7.28    1.18   1.12
35.145          33.023       -3.78    8.18    0.57   0.57
35.202          31.771       -2.86    8.59    0.95   0.93
35.205           42.02       -0.56    1.72    0.87   0.77
35.392          31.593       -2.32     8.9    0.64   0.63
35.416          32.479       -3.58    9.66    0.57   0.57
35.674          34.115       -6.87    8.39    0.95   0.95
35.688          32.995       -1.68    11.97   0.52   0.52
35.771          33.182       -2.68    11.26   0.66   0.66
35.87           36.397       -5.41    9.51    1.7    1.62
35.94           36.456       -9.6     9.71    1.04    1
36.1            29.139       1.57     12.55   0.87   0.85
36.131           36.05       -5.12    10.2    0.65   0.63
36.18            36.54       -9.89    12.17   1.73   1.75
36.245          38.231      -13.82    8.39    1.59   1.44
36.285           33.51       -2.27    11.9    0.95   0.95
36.33           37.572      -14.11    8.91    1.66   1.6
36.336          41.299       0.29     2.77    0.98   0.99
36.378          26.458       3.24     14.09   1.77   1.77
36.465          36.531       -7.41    11.86   0.9    0.82
36.524          36.788       -7.8     10.13   0.67   0.67
36.57           55.115       1.51     -0.04   1.2    1.18
36.643          37.088       -7.45    10.98   0.76   0.72
36.758          55.699       0.59     -1.1    0.45   0.45
36.759          55.699       0.59     -1.1    0.45   0.45
36.972           37.19       -8.18    11.63   0.49   0.5
36.996          37.522       -9.38    10.6    0.55   0.57
37.106          36.685       -7.95    10.53   1.77   1.74
37.113          37.747      -11.97    8.31    0.69   0.68
37.22           38.179      -13.24    9.37    0.66   0.67
37.224          56.027       0.32      0.8    0.58   0.57
37.436          37.518       -7.4     11.49   0.68   0.7
37.574          36.901       -6.73    13.7    0.56   0.53
37.869           38.05      -13.34    9.73    0.68   0.67
37.886          37.541       -7.1     12.58   0.74   0.73
37.902          37.237       -6.82    13.61   0.68   0.68
38.049          44.552       -0.16    -1.02   1.5    1.32
38.215          38.456      -11.48    10.92   0.74   0.72
38.231          37.747       -7.57    14.06   0.83   0.8
38.584           9.081       1.04     6.68    0.99   0.78
38.766           9.035       1.03     6.53    0.51   0.44
39.242          44.704       -0.22    0.05    1.27   1.13
39.254           38.64      -13.64    10.88   1.24   1.2
39.282           8.472       3.29     6.34    0.63   0.54
39.438           8.292        4.1     6.03    0.7    0.55
39.52            8.258       4.38     5.54    0.57   0.51
39.524          39.071      -16.97    11.96   1.45   1.3
39.531           8.266       4.38     5.54    0.57   0.51
39.631          21.369       7.59     15.54   1.79   1.78
39.702          40.974       0.68     2.55    0.47   0.45
39.805          37.847       -8.91    15.11   0.75   0.74
40.194          -2.996       2.85     5.23    0.52   0.5
40.254          39.731       -2.81    5.81    0.75   0.68
40.272          43.681       1.83     -1.09   1.68   1.41
40.65           37.246       -6.44    16.64   0.8    0.75
40.809          40.437       0.72     3.31    0.56   0.51
41.3            39.973       -0.66    5.88    0.66   0.64
41.339          41.371       -0.54    2.83    0.9    0.89
41.454          39.186       -5.88    10.74   2.01   1.29
41.512          39.643       -2.09    4.39    1.78   1.22
41.565          43.788       0.78     1.23    0.44   0.43
41.565          43.788       0.78     1.23    0.44   0.43
41.794          38.754       -4.69    14.76   0.84   0.69
41.99           40.548       1.95     5.07    0.93   0.9
40.079          39.852       -5.71    2.73    0.52   0.65
39.853          39.591      -13.11    8.17    0.54   0.67
39.725          39.582      -12.19    9.56    0.54   0.67
39.688          39.724      -11.36    3.56    0.54   0.67
39.593          39.733      -10.52    3.37    0.57   0.73
39.494          39.652      -15.59    5.35    0.82   1.07
39.482          39.793      -10.52    0.77    0.52   0.64
39.42           40.151       -4.55     1.6    0.27   0.26
39.361          39.902       -4.24    -1.26   0.52   0.64
39.349          39.762      -13.57    3.37    0.61   0.77
39.164          39.613      -10.87    7.71    0.47   0.57
38.836          40.136       -4.09     2.7    0.49   0.61
38.774          39.914      -13.87    5.92    0.44   0.54
38.743           39.82      -18.39     9.6    0.45   0.53
38.743          40.047      -10.58    0.12    0.51   0.64
38.515          39.614      -11.76    8.02    0.48   0.58
38.448          40.316       -5.05    -1.70   0.46   0.55
38.121          39.882      -13.35    7.48    0.55   0.69
38.067          40.162      -14.74    7.03    0.55   0.68
37.958          39.454      -18.18    9.88    0.5    0.58
37.869          40.313       -7.74    4.87    0.45   0.53
37.771          40.463       -4.46    4.98    0.46   0.54
37.757          39.867      -18.82    10.13   0.46   0.56
37.604          40.778       -2.12    1.41    0.26   0.24
37.549          40.221      -17.47    7.73    0.41   0.48
37.394          39.921      -21.28    5.96    0.45   0.54
37.265          40.547       -9.09    5.18    0.41   0.48
37.095          39.786      -20.33    8.58    0.26   0.24
37.054          40.863       -1.13    -0.85   0.43   0.53
37.001          40.685       -5.48    4.07    0.45   0.55
36.912          40.447      -19.95    6.09    0.97   1.28
36.804          40.557      -13.52    5.23    0.48   0.57
36.77            40.68       -5.77    3.12    0.41   0.48
36.752          40.476      -14.42    6.74    0.45   0.54
36.554          40.237      -20.73    7.08    0.25   0.23
36.485          40.617      - 17.18    4.8    0.39   0.46

Long           RHO     Sites    Reference
([degrees])

41.057        -0.075   SOLH     Ozener et
40.733        -0.062   KRPR    al., (2010)
40.575        -0.131   GENC
40.515        -0.076   ATAP
40.33         -0.101   USVT
40.105        -0.043   KLKY
40.052        -0.043   KAKO
40.038        -0.053   BLYM
39.957        -0.075   KTAS
39.91         -0.072   SRYB
39.524        -0.053   KCMZ
39.258        -0.051   SRTS
39.217        -0.069   HZAT
38.931        -0.089   CMGK
38.922        -0.089   CMG1
38.645        -0.085   DBAS
38.264        -0.104   DIVR
36.046        -0.086   KVAK     Yavasoglu
35.83         -0.057   GBAG       (2011)
35.645        -0.093   HVZA
35.604        -0.163   GYNC
35.316        -0.03    GKCB
35.166        -0.118   GOL1
35.113        -0.091   GHAC
35.054        -0.074   HMMZ
34.814        -0.065   ALAI
34.78         -0.145   DDRG
34.707        -0.121   OSMC
34.379        -0.047   SNGR
34.272        -0.074   ORTC
33.668        -0.232   ILGZ
33.62         -0.089   CNKR
33.558        -0.025   IHGZ
33.102        0.006    ABOZ    Reilinger et
33.191        0.005    MELE    al., (2006)
33.228        0.005    GARB
33.391        0.002    ZEIT
33.396          0      NICO
33.404        0.004    DERB
33.494          0      GEMS
33.596        0.004    TOUR
33.832        -0.003   HURG
33.883        -0.008   KENS
33.991        0.001    CRAO
33.995        -0.011   CATH
34.184        0.001    SHAM
34.256          0      MERS
34.314        -0.003   NABQ
34.47         0.001    DAHA
34.552        0.029    MERO
34.763          0      RAMO
34.781        -0.001   TELA
34.803        -0.025   ABDI
34.813        0.005    YOZG
34.866          0      LHAV
34.875        -0.016   KKIR
34.921          0      ELAT
35.023          0      BSHM
35.089        -0.012   BARG
35.145          0      KABR
35.202        0.005    JSLM
35.205        0.007    SINO
35.392        0.001    DRAG
35.416          0      GILB
35.674          0      LAUG
35.688        -0.002   KATZ
35.771          0      ELRO
35.87         -0.001   ULCN
35.94         0.003    ULUC
36.1          0.001    HALY
36.131        -0.015   SENK
36.18         -0.033   ISKE     Ozener et
36.245        -0.016   PNLR    al., (2010)
36.285        -0.001   UDMC
36.33         -0.031   ANDR
36.336        0.049    SAMS
36.378        -0.002   ALWJ
36.465        0.007    ABAK
36.524        -0.004   HASA
36.57         -0.005   MOBN
36.643        -0.016   FEVZ
36.758        -0.005   ZWE2
36.759        -0.005   ZWEN
36.972        -0.009   SAKZ
36.996        -0.02    KMAR
37.106        -0.06    KILI
37.113        -0.011   ABEY
37.22         -0.017   ELBI
37.224        0.001    MDVO
37.436        -0.014   ALAR
37.574        -0.012   GAZI
37.869        -0.014   ALTP    Reilinger et
37.886        -0.011   CKRI1   al., (2006)
37.902        -0.021   ARGA
38.049        -0.024   GELE
38.215        -0.012   MLT1
38.231        -0.002   ADYI
38.584        -0.01    KOLO
38.766        -0.003   ADD0
39.242        0.018    GKL_
39.254        -0.046   GMKV
39.282        0.012    3 OKU
39.438         0.03    SELA
39.52         -0.005   BOLO
39.524        -0.004   TUNC
39.531        -0.005   REDG
39.631        -0.001   JEDD
39.702        0.009    AKTO
39.805        -0.006   KRCD
40.194          0      MALI
40.254        -0.015   MERC
40.272        0.006    KRPO
40.65         -0.023   KIZ2
40.809        -0.015   ISPI
41.3          0.008    ERZU
41.339        -0.017   HOPA    Reilinger et
41.454        -0.046   VART    al., (2006)
41.512        -0.072   TKMN
41.565        0.004    ZECK
41.565        0.004    ZELB
41.794        0.107    KRKT
41.99          0.02    OLTU
40.079        -0.086   CYRL      Tatar et
39.853        -0.089   MUTU    al., (2012)
39.725        -0.084   CLYN
39.688        -0.083   UZUM
39.593        -0.098   EKSU
39.494        -0.055   BNKC
39.482        -0.083   ER98
39.42         -0.034   KLKT
39.361        -0.090   AHMD
39.349        -0.078   BHCL
39.164        -0.088   KMAH
38.836        -0.092   KRDK
38.774        -0.081   RFHY
38.743        -0.082   ARPY
38.743        -0.088   AYDG
38.515        -0.092   ILIC
38.448        -0.087   SBKH
38.121        -0.108   IMRN
38.067        -0.102   SUSE
37.958        -0.068   SINC
37.869        -0.082   IKYK
37.771        -0.067   MSDY
37.757        -0.101   TEKK
37.604        -0.027   GURE
37.549        -0.085   DOSA
37.394        -0.090   KSDR
37.265        -0.090   BRKT
37.095        -0.035   SIVA
37.054        -0.104   AKKS
37.001        -0.088   OZDM
36.912        -0.088   ATKY
36.804        -0.103   TALN
36.77         -0.090   PBYL
36.752        -0.097   GKDE
36.554        -0.032   CRDK
36.485        -0.095   KZLU
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Title Annotation:SEISMOTECTONICS
Author:Yavasoglu, Hakan
Publication:Earth Sciences Research Journal
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7TURK
Date:Dec 1, 2015
Words:7722
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