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States of rebellion, emergency under Arroyo administration.

State of Rebellion: 2001 and 2003

ON MAY 1, 2001, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo declared a 'state of rebellion' in Metro Manila when mobs protesting the arrest of deposed President Joseph Estrada stormed and nearly overran Malacanang. In signing Proclamation No. 38, Ms. Arroyo also issued General Order No. 1, where she called upon the Armed Forces of the Philippines and the Philippine National Police 'to suppress and quell the rebellion.' The order was lifted five days later.

On July 27, 2003, President Arroyo declared a 'state of rebellion' after a group of mutinous soldiers led by then Navy Ltsg. Antonio Trillanes seized Oakwood Premier in Makati City, in what was purportedly the opening salvo of a coup attempt aimed at toppling the administration. In signing Proclamation No. 427, Ms. Arroyo also issued General Order No. 4, which asked the military and the police to 'immediately carry out the necessary actions and measures to suppress and quell the rebellion with due regard to constitutional rights.' It was lifted 15 days after its issuance.

State of Emergency: 2006

On Feb. 24, 2006, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo proclaimed a 'state of national emergency,' claiming an alliance of soldiers, opposition politicians and communist rebels were plotting to overthrow her. The President appeared on television to announce Proclamation No. 1017, which she signed after meeting with the National Security Council attended by top Cabinet and military officials in Malacanang.

The President cited Section 18, Article 7 of the Constitution which empowers the President to 'call out (the) Armed Forces to prevent or suppress rebellion ' and Section 17, Article 12 of the Charter authorizing her to 'temporarily take over or direct the operation of any privately-owned public utility or business affected with public interest.' She also ordered the Armed Forces of the Philippines 'to maintain law and order throughout the Philippines, prevent or suppress all forms of lawless violence, as well as any act of insurrection or rebellion, and to enforce obedience to all the laws and to all decrees, orders and regulations [she had] promulgated personally or upon [her] direction.' It was lifted a week later.

State of Emergency, Martial Law: 2009

On Nov. 24, 2009, a day after 58 people were killed in the bloody Ampatuan massacre, President Arroyo issued Proclamation No. 1946, 'declaring a state of emergency in the provinces of Maguindanao, Sultan Kudarat and the City of Cotabato for the purpose of preventing and suppressing lawless violence in the aforesaid areas.'

On Dec. 4, 2009, President Arroyo issued Proclamation No. 1959 declaring martial law and suspending the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus in Maguindanao, saying it was done to suppress a 'rebellion in the offing' by disparate armed groups loyal to the Ampatuan clan, who were believed responsible for the Nov. 23 massacre. It was lifted 8 days later.

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Publication:Philippines Daily Inquirer (Makati City, Philippines)
Date:Sep 4, 2016
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