Printer Friendly

Standardization of sodium metabisulfite solution concentrations and immersion time for farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei/Padronizacao da concentracao da solucao de metabissulfito de sodio e do tempo de imersao para camarao cultivado Litopenaeus vannamei.


Marine Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp is currently the main shrimp species cultivated in Brazil due to its excellent growing conditions and adaptability, easy nutrition, management and high productivity and profitability levels (PEREZ-VELAZQUEZ et al., 2012).

One of the limiting factors to increase shrimp marketing both domestically and externally are the losses of freshness that shrimp is subjected after collection, and melanosis is one of the main problems, being responsible for the darkening of its carapace. It occurs due to the action of an endogenous enzyme complex present in shrimp, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), in which tyrosinase is the main active enzyme (HUANG et al., 2010).

The method most commonly used for inhibiting enzymatic browning in shrimp is the use the sulfite preservatives, since they act by removing oxygen and reducing pH, which are essential conditions for the enzymatic reaction (ROCHA, 2000). Their use at concentrations below ideal may contribute to melanosis or result in rejection by the buyer / importer and in cases where the concentration exceeds the limit established by law, sulfite preservatives cause nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, skin reactions, as well choking and chemical pneumonitis in consumers or handlers. In addition, the overuse of these compounds can be harmful for the environment, since their residues when discarded, alkalinize the water causing death of several aquatic species (ARAUJO & ARAUJO, 2011; LIMA, 2008; PEDALE et al., 2012).

Several studies have reported the use of metabisulfite solution concentrations between 1.25% and 12% aiming to control melanosis in shrimp during storage, with immersion times ranging from 1 to 20 minutes under cooling temperatures (CINTRA et al., 1999; GOES et al., 2006; BARBIERI JR. & OSTRENSKY, 2001; OGAWA et al., 2003; ARAUJO & ARAUJO, 2011). Thus, it is clear that there is a large variation among procedures and, consequently, a great difference of residual S[O.sub.2] concentrations found in the final product.

Given the importance of controlling the S[O.sub.2] levels in the edible muscle of shrimp, the aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between different concentration of the sodium metabisulfite solution and immersion times of the whole shrimp to establish the value of these variables which permit to obtain the concentration of sulfur dioxide (S[O.sub.2]) in the edible muscle of cultured shrimp (L. vannamei) in accordance with the maximum limit established by law (100ppm).


Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp with average weight of 10g, equivalent to 81/100 classification (individuals per kilogram) was obtained from shrimp farm located at the municipality of Pilar--PB, in which collection was randomly performed.

Immediately after collection, shrimps were immersed in drinking water at temperature close to 0[degrees]C for 10 minutes, resulting in killing by thermal shock, being then transported to the Laboratory of Meat and Fish Technology and Processing--UFPB in thermal box containing ice, using an ice / shrimp ratio of 2:1 (approximately 4[degrees]C), which were placed in 500g LDPE plastic bags, being submitted to slow freezing in domestic freezer for later analysis.

To characterize the sample, water activity analyses were performed on electronic meter AQUALAB model CX2 (Decagon Devices, Washington, USA); pH, according to parameters described by method No. 947.05 of the AOAC (2000) and proximate composition with moisture, ash and protein analyses performed as described in AOAC (2000) items 950.46.41, 920 153 and 928.08, respectively, while the lipid content was determined by FOLCH, LEES & SLAON--STANLEY (1957).

The residual sulfite in edible muscle of shrimp was analyzed for different immersion times (10, 20 and 30 minutes) and concentrations of sodium metabisulfite solutions (1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%). Samples of 100g of whole shrimp were dipped into solutions of sodium metabisulfite adjusted to the tested concentration and pre-chilled at 7[degrees]C for the different immersion times assayed. To avoid loss by evaporation of sulfates, the sodium metabisulfite solutions were prepared just before the assays. Then the excess water was drained for 3 minutes, the carapace and exoskeleton of whole shrimp were removed and the residual sulfite in edible muscle was directly determined according the optimized procedure described by Monier-Williams in accordance with Brazilian Legislation (BRAZIL, 2011). The temperature of 7[degrees]C was used considering that this is the usual temperature employed in the shrimp farms during the immersion in the metabisulfite solution. All analyzes were performed in triplicate in two different experiments.

The experimental design was completely randomized, and the results of triplicates were evaluated by analysis of variance and differences between means were treated using the Tukey test (COCKRAN & COX, 1957) with the aid of the SAS System software (2001).


The physical and chemical characteristics of the edible muscle of shrimp studied (Table 1) are in accordance with the previously related in studies that described characterization of farmed shrimp of the same specie (SRIKET, 2007; GONCALVES GOMES, 2008; ARAUJO et al., 2012).

The pH value found (6.75) indicates that the shrimp has met the maximum limit established by RIISPOA, which is from 6.5 to 6.8 (BRASIL, 1997). The water activity found (0.979) was similar to that observed by SANTOS et al. (2011), when analyzing Macrobrachium olfessi.

After analysis of the S[O.sub.2] levels in the edible muscle of shrimps that were previously submitted to peeling and immersion in concentration of sodium metabisulfite solutions of 1%, 2% , 3%, 4% and 5% on times of 10, 20 and 30 minutes at temperature of 7[degrees]C, it was possible to construct the curves shown in figure 1.

Figure 1 shows that the correlation between median value of residual concentration of S[O.sub.2] in the edible muscle of farmed shrimps and the concentration of sodium metabisulfite solutions is linear over the range of concentrations used in this study for all immersion times studied. GOMEZ-GUILLEN et al. (2005) studied the effect of S[O.sub.2] on the melanosis inhibition in Parapenaeus longirostris shrimp after different treatments with metabisulfite solutions and found an exponential increase in S[O.sub.2] residues when related to treatments of 0-9%. However, it was observed that up to 5% concentration, there is a trend of linearity in its points.

A significant increase (P<0.05) was also found in the S[O.sub.2] contents in the edible muscle of shrimps with increasing concentration of sodium metabisulfite solutions used in this study, and this increase was also observed by VIEIRA et al. (2008) for most concentrations and analytical methods used by the authors. Similarly, when analyzing the increase in S[O.sub.2] concentration in the edible muscle of shrimps with increased immersion times, a significant variation was also observed (P<0.05). GOES et al. (2006) reported that for the concentration of sodium metabisulfite solutions tested in their experiment (1% and 10 %), there was a significant influence of the exposure time on the S[O.sub.2] levels. These results confirm the results found by WEDZICHA (1992), who reported the influence of some factors such as concentration and immersion time on the use of sulfur dioxide.

It is noteworthy that all concentration of sodium metabisulfite solutions used in this study exceeded the S[O.sub.2] concentration of 100 ppm established by law (BRA SIL, 1988), at least in two immersion times (20 and 30 minutes), except for concentration of 1%, where, even after immersion for 30 minutes, maximum S[O.sub.2] concentration of 67.62ppm was reached. According to VIEIRA et al. (2008), in practice, the use of much higher sodium metabisulfite concentrations is observed (about 10%) for preventing melanosis, which may suggest that the shrimp marketed presents residual S[O.sub.2] contents above limits established by Brazilian (100ppm) and European legislation (300ppm). Studies by OGAWA et al. (2003) and HARDISSON et al. (2002) with L. vannamei shrimps proved this finding, since excessive levels of this compound were observed in more than 50% and 40% of the analyzed samples, respectively. This excess S[O.sub.2] found in shrimp may cause harm to consumer's health, handlers and refusal by the consumer market.

When analyzing the correlation between median value of residual concentration of sulfur dioxide (S[O.sub.2]) in the edible muscle of farmed shrimps and the immersion time of whole shrimp in sodium metabisulfite solution, it was possible to construct curves, which are shown in figure 2 for each sodium metabisulfite concentration used at temperature of 7[degrees]C.

By means of equations shown in figure 2, it was possible to obtain the immersion time required to achieve S[O.sub.2] concentration of 100ppm, established by Brazilian law for each sodium metabisulfite concentration used, except for the 1% solution, which did not reach this value. Therefore, in order to optimize the shrimp collection stages, it is recommended to immerse L. vannamei on a 3% sodium metabisulfite solution for a time of 13 minutes, and this time was calculated so as not to extrapolate the minimum and maximum values found in this study, thus obtaining the shorter immersion time with the lowest concentration as possible in order to reduce costs with reagents and save time for companies working in this area. However, further studies should be carried out in order to verify the possibility of obtaining a threshold S[O.sub.2] concentration in shorter immersion times, thus enabling the application and standardization of these parameters by shrimp-producing companies.


Based on equations relating residual concentration of S[O.sub.2] in the edible muscle of shrimps with concentration of sodium metabisulfite solutions and residual concentration of S[O.sub.2] in the edible muscle of shrimps with immersion time of whole shrimp in sodium metabisulfite solution at different concentrations, it is possible to suggest immersing shrimp in a 3% solution for a time of 13 minutes so as to achieve S[O.sub.2] concentration of 100ppm, as recommended by Brazilian law (BRASIL, 1988).


This research was supported by the Graduate Program in Science and Technology of Food Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB).


AOAC (ASSOCIATION OF OFFICIAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTS). Official methods of analysis. 12.ed. Washington, 2000. 474p.

ARAUJO, F.R.; ARAUJO, Y.M.G. Pratica inadequada: substancias liberadas na despesca do camarao podem provocar a morte. Revista Protecao, p.114-120, 2011. Available from: < artigo078f08e6c67431c6ed2e1170240d2aa7.pdf>. Acesso em: 18 out. 2013.

ARAUJO, D.F.S. et al. Composicao centesimal e teor de colesterol do camarao branco do Pacifico. Ciencia Rural, v. 42, n.6, p.1130-1133, 2012. Available from: < scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782012000600029>. Accessed: Ago. 30, 2013. doi: 0.1590/S0103-84782012000600029.

BARBIERI Jr., R.C.; OSTRENSKY, A.N. Camaroes marinhos: engorda. Vicosa, MG: Aprenda Facil, 2001. 372p.

BRASIL. Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento. Metodos Analiticos Oficiais Fisico-quimicos para Controle de Pescado e seus Derivados. Instrucao Normativa n.25, de 2 de junho de 2011. Diario Oficial da Uniao, Brasilia, 03 Jun. 2011--Secao 1.

BRASIL, Ministerio da Agricultura. Regulamento da Inspecao Industrial e Sanitaria de Produtos de Origem Animal--RIISPOA. Aprovado pelo Decreto n.30.691, de 29-03-52, alterado pelos Decretos ns.1.255 de 25-06-62, 1.236 de 02-09-94, n.1.812 de 08-0296 e n.2.244 de 04-06-97. Diario Oficial da Uniao, Brasilia, 1997.

BRASIL. Ministerio da Saude. Resolucao n.04, de 1988. Diario Oficial da Uniao, Brasilia, Secao I, p. 24716-24723, 10 jan. 1988.

CINTRA, I.H.A et al. Decomposition oftrimethylamine oxide related to the use of sulfites in shrimp. Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Campinas, v. 19, p.314-317, 1999. Available from: < php?pid=S0101-20611999000300003&script=sci_arttext&tlng=es>. Accessed: Mar. 12, 2014. doi:10.1590/s0101-20611999000300003m.

COCKRAN, W.G.; COX, F.M. Experimental design. 2.ed. New York: John Wiley, 1957. 611p.

FOLCH, J. et al. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. Journal Biologycal Chemical, v.226, n.1, p.497-509, 1957. Available from: <http://onlinelibrary.>. Accessed: Mar. 12, 2014. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03925.x.

GOES, L.M.N.B. et al. Uso do metabissulfito de sodio no controle de microorganismos em camaroes marinhos Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences, v.28, n.2, p.153-157, 2006. Available from: <http://periodicos.uem. br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciBiolSci/article/view/1039>. Accessed: Mar. 10, 2014. doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1039.

GOMEZ-GUILLEN, M. C. et al. Melanosis inhibition and S[O.sub.2] residual levels in shrimps (Parapenaeus longirostris) after different sulfite-based treatments. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, v.85, p.1143-1148, 2005. Available from: <>. Accessed: Apr. 12, 2014. doi:10.1002/jsfa.1990.

GONCALVES, A.A.; GOMES, P. A. Desenvolvimento de um produto de valor agregado: Camarao empanado corte Butterfly. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Pesca, v.3. n.1, p.62-75, 2008. Available from: < REPESCA/article/viewFile/64/62>. Accessed: Jan. 10, 2014.

HARDISSON, A. et al. Content of sulphite in frozen prawns and shrimps. Food Control, Guildford, v. 13, p.275-279, 2002. Available from: < S0956713502000221#>. Accessed: May 15, 2014. doi: 10.1016/ S0956-7135(02)00022-1.

HUANG, J. et al. Reconsideration of phenoloxidase activity determinationin white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, v.28 p.240-244, 2010. Available from: <http://>. Accessed: May 15, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2009.10.010.

LIMA, I.M. et al. Aplicacao do gerenciamento ambiental em um cultivo de camaroes com a abordagem nas ferramentas de producao mais limpa. Estudos tecnologicos, v.4, p.55-68, 2008. Available from: <file:///C:/Users/Allan/SkyDrive/Documentos/artigo/S[O.sub.2]/ lima.pdf>. Accessed: Apr. 24, 2013.

OGAWA, N.B.P. et al. Teor residual de S[O.sub.2] em camaroes congelados exportados pelo estado do Ceara. Boletim Tecnico e Cientifico/IBAMA, v.1, p.191-196, 2003. Available from: < science/article/pii/S1050464809003313>. Accessed: May 15, 2014.

PEDALE, A.B. et al. Acute toxicity of sodium metabisulphite on mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Decapoda, Ucididae). Anais Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, v.84, n.4, p.1009-1014, 2012. Available from: < xt&pid=S0001-37652012000400015>. Accessed:: Feb. 10, 2014. doi: 10.1590/S0001-37652012005000058.

PEREZ-VELAZQUEZ, M. et al. Effects of water temperature and Na+:K+ ratio on physiological and production parameters of Litopenaeus vannamei reared in low salinity water. Aquaculture, v.13, p.342-343, 2012. Available from: <http://www.researchgate. net/publication/256916940_Effects_of_water_temperature_ and_NaK_ratio_on_physiological_and_production_parameters_ of_Litopenaeus_vannamei_reared_in_low_salinity_water>. Accessed: May 12, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.02.008.

ROCHA, I.P. Agronegocio do camarao cultivado--Uma nova ordem economico-social para o litoral nordestino. Revista Associacao Brasileira de Criadores de Camarao, ano 2, n.1, p.23-30, 2000. Available from: < br/>. Accessed: Oct. 21, 2013.

SANTOS, R.M.; SOUZA, J.F. et al. Avaliacao Fisico-Quimica e Nutricional do Macrobrachium Olfessi sob as formas in natura e salgado cozido. Scientia Plena, v.7, n.10, p.101502, 2011. Available from: < article/view/386/308>. Accessed: Feb. 15, 2014.

SRIKET,P. et al. Comparative studies on chemical composition and thermal properties of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) meats. Food Chemistry, v. 103, p.1199-1207, 2007. Available from: <http://www.>. Accessed: May 14, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.10.039>.

VIEIRA, K.P.B.A. et al. Influencia do aquecimento sobre diferentes metodos de titulacao de S[O.sub.2] residual em camaroes Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences, v.30, n.1, p.83-88, 2008. Available from: <http://periodicos.uem. br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAnimSci/article/viewFile/3437/2670>. Accessed: May 11, 2014.

WEDZICHA, B.L. Chemistry of sulphiting agents in food. Food Additives & Contaminants, Basingstoke, v.9, n.5, p.449-459, 1992. Available from: <http://www.ncbi.nlm.>. Accessed: May 12, 2014. doi: 10.1080/02652039209374097.

Luciana Trigueiro de Andrade (I) Nkarthe Guerra Araujo (II) Ana Paula Moraes Ventura (III) Andrea de Lucena Lira (IV) Marciane Magnani (V) Jose Marcelino de Oliveira Cavalheiro (VI)

(I) Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Paraiba (IFPB), Campus Cabedelo, Santa Rita de Cassia, s/n, Jardim Jerico, 58310-000, Cabedelo, PB, Brasil. E-mail: Corresponding author.

(II) Programa de pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB, Brasil.

(III) Departamento de Nutricao, UFPB, Joao Pessoa, PB, Brasil.

(IV) Departamento de Quimica, IFPB, Joao Pessoa, PB, Brasil.

(V) Departamento de Engenharia de Alimentos, UFPB, Joao Pessoa, PB, Brasil.

(VI) Centro de Tecnologia e Desenvolvimento Regional (CTDR), UFPB, Joao Pessoa, PB, Brasil.

Table 1--Physical and chemical characteristics of edible muscle
of farmed shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

Sample                    Moisture                 Protein

Edible muscle of   76.02 ([+ or -] 0.24)    19.22 ([+ or -] 0.67)

Sample                    Lipids                    ASH

Edible muscle of   0.46 ([+ or -] 0.11)    2.33 ([+ or -] 0.26)

Sample                      pH                      Aw

Edible muscle of   6,75 ([+ or -] .11)    0.979 ([+ or -] 0.002)
COPYRIGHT 2015 Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2015 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:texto en ingles
Author:de Andrade, Luciana Trigueiro; Araujo, Nkarthe Guerra; Ventura, Ana Paula Moraes; Lira, Andrea de Lu
Publication:Ciencia Rural
Date:Mar 1, 2015
Previous Article:Estimation of genetic divergence between braquiaria ecotypes based on quantitative and qualitative descriptors/Estimativa da divergencia entre...
Next Article:Quantitative carcass traits of Holstein calves, finished in different systems and slaughter weights/ Caracteristicas quantitativas da carcaca de...

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters