Stammbaum or continuum? The subgrouping of Modern Aramaic dialects reconsidered.
The terrible and still largely unknown series of persecutions suffered by speakers of Modern Aramaic (MA) outside of Syria and their emigration en masse from their homelands mean that most MA dialects today are either extinct or highly endangered. Under these circum stances, all researchers in MA have been encouraged to concentrate on the urgent task of fieldwork, so that we might be able to record as many texts and write as complete gram matical descriptions of as many dialects as possible (see Krotkoff 1985: 133).
Yet although many varieties still remain to be documented, we now have a far fuller picture of MA dialectal diversity than was available twenty or even ten years ago. Jastrow's monographs on Hertevin and Mlahso (1988, 1994a) were followed by preliminary reports of previously unknown Christian MA dialects of southeastern Turkey (1994b, 1997b) and Sinha's grammar of Besp[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]n and the neighboring Cudi dialects (2000). A number of studies have begun to fill in the blanks in our knowledge of the pre-1915 dialects of the Mountain Nestorians (Bergnestorianer) of the Hakkari district, including Talay's descriptions of the dialects spoken by their descendants living along the Khabur River in northeastern Syria (1999, 2008), and Fox's research on Jilu (1997) and Bohtan (2002). Hoberman 1989 and more recently Khan 1999a, 2002a, 2004, and Mutzafi 2004b have given us detailed treat ments of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]Amadiya (Jewish), Arbel (Jewish), Qaraqosh (Syrian Christian), Sulemaniyya and Halabja (Jewish), and Koy Sanjaq (Jewish) in Iraq, respectively; while Sabar's 2002 dictionary provides a wealth of invaluable data for the Jewish dialects of Zakho and neighboring villages in northwestern Iraq.
As for the MA of Iran, Younansardaroud (2001) provides a precise description of a dialect very close to the Christian speech of Urmia, the basis of the Modern Syriac literary language. The previously all-but-unknown dialects of Iranian Kurdistan are now becoming accessible, thanks to the work of Hopkins (1989, 2002) and others on the Jewish dialects, and of Panoussi (1990) and Heinrichs (2002) on Senaya, the language of the Christians of Sanandaj (Aramaic Sena). Further monographic descriptions are due to appear shortly, e.g., from Geoffrey Khan's students at Cambridge University, who have conducted fieldwork on other Iraqi MA varieties.
The information available on MA dialectology, then, has increased so markedly over the past generation, and especially the last decade, that one need not apologize for incorporating new findings into a comparative and historical study. Indeed, comparative investigations can play an essential role in determining which grammatical features or patterns need to be the focus of further studies or of fieldwork on unrecorded dialects. (1) The time therefore seems ripe for a reevaluation of earlier views on the historical development and dialectal diversification of present-day Aramaic.
2. THE SUBGROUPING OF MA DIALECTS
2.1. Previous Treatments
The oldest and most fundamental classification of MA distinguishes between two groups: Modern West Aramaic (MWA), spoken in the three villages of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (today officially Sarxa), and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (MWA [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) in the Qalamun valley of the Antilebanon mountains, north of Damascus; and Eastern MA, comprising all the other dialects of Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran. Such a bifurcation makes sense geographically, as the Qalamun is close to Palestine, home to the three major Western Middle Aramaic languages of the 1st millennium A.D.: Jewish Palestinian, Christian Palestinian, and Samaritan. With respect to the isoglosses distinguishing Western and Eastern Middle Aramaic dialects of the 1st millennium A.D., MWA clearly sides with the western dialects, whereas the rest of MA has participated in the innovations of the eastern group. (2)
1. 3sg. m. y- in the subjunctive (continuing the old imperfect), vs. eastern n- ~ l-: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] batte yidmux 'he will sleep' vs. Syriac nedmok. (3)
2. Masculine plural -o (in variation with older -oya in [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) ~ -o(y)- before pronominal enclitics < MidAr *-ayya (status emphaticus), vs. eastern -e: (4) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'door,' pl. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-o 'doors,' [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'his doors' vs. Syriac kalb-a 'dog,' pl. kalb-e 'dogs' (with b from the sg., like Turoyo kalb-e, C. Urmia koelb-i 'dogs'; cf. J. Zakho kalw-e < *kalb-e). (5)
3. Infixed -nn- between imperfect verbs and accusative pronominal suffixes, vs. eastern -[empty set]-: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] subj. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'that he carry,' [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'that he carry you (m.)' vs. Syriac [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
4. Retention of the semantic contrast between status absolutus and status emphaticus (e.g., *malk 'king,' *malk-a 'the king'), vs. loss of the latter's determinative function in the east (cf. Syriac malk-a '(the) king'). MWA has generalized the status emphaticus in nouns, but the contrast survives in adjectives, e.g., [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] psona [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] '(a) small boy' vs.psona [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'the small boy'; the status absolutus is used after numerals as a count plural, e.g., [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] tlota [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) 'three doors' < m. pl. *-in, etlat warkan 'three pieces of paper' < f. pl. *-an. (6)
In addition, the old West Semitic perfect and imperfect (i.e., suffixed and prefixed conjugations) are retained to this day in MWA, but have been lost everywhere else. (7)
This two-way split, which goes back to the earliest days of MA studies, remains the principal framework for more recent treatments of MA dialectology: For example, Jastrow's survey article (1997a) begins with a description of MWA, then proceeds to examine the eastern dialects together as a group. Nevertheless, scholars have long been aware of the enormous diversity within Eastern MA, which includes such mutually unintelligible languages as Turoyo, standard Modern Syriac based on the Christian dialect of Urmia, the Jewish dialects of Iranian Kurdistan, and Modern Mandaic. Noldeke (1881: 675) first emphasized the separation between Turoyo and the MA dialects east of the Tigris, based on features such as the following:
1. MidAr *a is unconditionally raised and rounded to o (phonemically /o/) in Turoyo and Mlahso, but not in NENA. (8)
2. Old geminate consonants are simplified in Turoyo and Mlahso (i.e., MidAr *VCC > *VC [V:C]), but retained in NENA. Cf. MidAr *gilla 'grass', *[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'goat' < Turoyo gelo, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], but Hertevin gella, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], C. Urmia gill[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], +zza. (9)
3. MidAr *x (i.e., *k, the spirantized postvocalic allophone of *k) and *h are preserved in Mlahso and Turoyo, but merged as h in Hertevin and x elsewhere in NENA (Jastrow 1988: 6, 1997a: 349).
4. NENA, including the dialect of Hertevin, has undergone certain innovations in the pronominal system not shared by Turoyo (Hoberman 1988: 572):
a. The spread of initial a to the 3rd person independent pronouns: cf. Hertevin sg. m. ahu, f. ahi, pl. ahni, J. Zakho awa, aya, ani, C. Urmia aw, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] vs. Turoyo (Midyat) huwe, hiya, hinne, ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) hiye, hiya, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
b. The addition of final -t to the 3pl. independent pronoun in NENA (see above), but not in Turoyo (Midyat) hinne.
c. The lpl. verbal suffix in NENA is -ax (Hertevin -ah), compared with Syriac m. -innan, f. -annan (< nominal pl. -in, an + enclitic -nan) and Turoyo -ina.
5. The clitic copula in Turoyo and Mlahso for the most part continues the MidAr unstressed subject pronouns, e.g., 1sg. -no, lpl. -na < MidAr *-na, *-nan (cf. Syr. -na, -nan). In contrast, NENA has created a new copula from a syntagm containing *it 'there is,' e.g., Hertevin 3sg. m. -ile, 1sg. m. -iwen, C. Urmia -ijli, -ijvin, J. Azer. -ile, -ilen. See Noldeke 1868: 200-206; Fox 1990: 74-75, Jastrow 1997a: 372-73.
6. The MidAr passive stems ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) survive in Turoyo and Mlahso (albeit with various modifications and remodelings; Jastrow 1996), but have been lost in the NENA dialects, which express passive voice by means of a periphrastic construction with [square root of (pys)] 'become' and the past participle (historically the MidAr passive participle in status emphaticus, m. sg. *[C.sub.1][C.sub.2]i[C.sub.3]-a-; see [section]3.1, no. 6).
7. The imperative of G-stem verbs ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) is [C.sub.1][C.sub.2]a[C.sub.3]- in Turoyo and Mlahso, (10) but [C.sub.1][C.sub.2]u[C.sub.3]- in NENA: cf. Mlahso gras, pl. grasun, Turoyo gras, pl. grasu vs. Hertevin gros, pl. grusen, Mangesh gros, pl. grusu, C. Urmia grus, pl. grusun, Kerend grus ~ gurus, pl. grusmun ~ gurusmun 'pull!' (Jastrow 1997a: 365). (11) The two groups have generalized the vocalism of stative resp. non-stative verbs in Middle Aramaic; cf. Syr. dmak 'sleep!' vs. ktob 'write!' (12)
Consequently, he proposed a division of MA dialects into three subgroups: 1) Western, or MWA; 2) Central, i.e., Turoyo; (13) and 3) Eastern. This classification has been followed by most other scholars of Modern Aramaic, including Socin (1882: v), Duval (1896: 125-26), (14) and more recently Tsereteli (1977) and Jastrow (1985a: xx).
Macuch's discovery of a modern descendant of Mandaic (see especially Macuch 1993) adds a fourth subgroup to Noldeke's scheme. The resulting four-way classification was adopted by Hoberman (1988: 557-58, 1989: 4, 1997: 313), who proposed renaming the third subgroup Northeast Neo-Aramaic (NENA) in order to distinguish it from Turoyo and Modern Mandaic, and also from older East Aramaic dialects such as Jewish Babylonian. This label has since been adopted by scholars working on MA, including Fox (1994, 1997), Jastrow (1997a: 347ff., 2002: 366ff.), Murre-van den Berg (1999: 3-5), Khan (1999a: 2ff., 2002a: 8ff., 2004: 3ff., 2007), Mutzafi (2004b: 9ff), and others.
On the other hand, and despite the significant isoglosses separating Turoyo and NENA (see below), Hoberman (1988: 558, 572, 1989: 4-6, 1990: 80) has also emphasized the similarities and shared innovations between the two which set them apart from MWA as well as Modern Mandaic.
Along with the well-known replacement of the OA [Old Aramaic] perfect and imperfect conjugations by participial constructions, these shared innovations in the pronominal system make it clear that Turoyo and NENA together form a single branch of the Aramaic family, separate from documented varieties of OA on the one hand and from modern Mandaic and Ma'lula on the other. The shared innovations of NENA and Turoyo are the following:
A. The spread of initial a to the first person plural independent pronoun, which thus begins with ax, ah: PNENA *axnan, *axni, Turoyo ahna.
B. A shift in the vowels of the Nominal suffixes, second person singular, from masc. -ax, fem. -ex to masc. -ox, fem. -ax, Turoyo masc. -[begin strikethrough]u[end strikethrough]x, fem. -ax (Jastrow 1985a: 35).
C. The gender differentiation of the Verbal suffix, second person singular, as masc. -[dagger]t, fem. -at in consonant-final verbs. (In OA this differentiation existed only for vowel-final verbs.)
D. The third person plural Nominal suffix *-ay(h[dagger]n); that is, the ay which appears in OA with plural nouns attaches to singular nouns as well (Hoberman 1988: 572).
Following his lead, Jastrow (1990: 90) set up a three-way division of the MA speech area into Western, Central (i.e., Turoyo and NENA), and Mandaic. More recently, he has fluctuated between these classifications, e.g., distinguishing the four groups MWA, Turoyo/Mlahso, NENA, and Mandaic in his "state of the art" survey (2002), but also referring to "das zum Ostaramaischen gehorige, doch recht eigenstandige Sprachgebiet des Turoyo" together with "das Neuostaramaische im engeren Sinne," i.e., NENA (2005: 138).
2.2. A Stammbaum Model for Aramaic?
One may ask, however, whether the synchronic contrast between MWA and the rest of present-day Aramaic, or between Turoyo and the trans-Tigris dialects, is sufficiently great to justify these hypotheses. The subgroupings proposed above implicitly assume a Stammbaum model for the evolution of (pre-)Modern Aramaic, in which geographically defined dialect areas separate from and lose all contact with each other; in other words, "once having diverged, [the various sub-groups] did not significantly re-converge" (Boyarin 1981 613). For instance, Hoberman and Jastrow's classification may be represented by the diagram below:
According to this interpretation, the ancestor of MWA separated from the remainder of the Aramaic dialects at some point (the traditionally assumed division into Western and Eastern Middle Aramaic of the 1st millennium A.D.); then Mandaic diverged from "Central" Aramaic, and finally Turoyo/Mlahso split off from the main body of NENA. (16) Each of these postulated dialectal groupings, e.g., Western Middle Aramaic or NENA, "ha[s] a clear and separate identity as the consequence of exclusively shared common innovations ... And these innovations in turn reflect a period of exclusively shared common prehistory during which the dialects were in contact only with each other, so that innovations spread only through these dialects" (Hock 1991: 448).
This assumption is certainly inaccurate, as there is no evidence that Aramaic ever underwent a clean split into two or more separate dialects which then developed independently of each other. On the contrary, the considerable evidence for extensive human contact (migration, trade, communication) across the contiguous Aramaic-speaking regions of Palestine, Syria, and Mesopotamia, from pre-Achaemenian times down to the first Islamic centuries, would lead one to expect a complex network of intersecting isoglosses. Other examples include the Romance-speaking territory from Portugal up to Belgium and down to southern Italy, the South Slavic dialects of southeastern Europe, and me Arabic dialects of the modern Middle East. As Hock (1991: 450) puts it,
The linguistic relationship between the neighboring dialects of the same language very commonly cannot be stated in terms of tree diagrams. This is a consequence of the fact that these speech varieties remain mutually intelligible, stay in close contact, and therefore continue to interact with each other on a day-to-day basis, with shifting realignments as political and social circumstances change. It is therefore unrealistic to expect clear, "tree-diagram" splits in such dialect continua. Clear splits seem to result only when originally closely affiliated dialects become separated, through migration or radical political and social realignment, such that they cease to be mutually intelligible and become different languages.
By the twentieth century, of course, the totality of MA dialects were neither intelligible nor in close contact; not only had MWA and Mandaic been isolated for many centuries, but geographical and political barriers to communication and the social divide between Jews and Christians (and among the latter, among Syrian Orthodox, Nestorians, and Chaldeans) greatly reduced the opportunities for contact and incentives for accommodation to other speech forms--the driving force behind diffusion of linguistic change. It is important to remember, however, that this state of affairs was preceded by well over a millennium of geographically uninterrupted development, from the Persian Empire to the early Islamic period. We shall see below that the distribution of several important features in MA strongly argues for their local diffusion from one dialect to another in the past, and across the boundaries of the generally accepted subgroups.
2.3. MA Dialectology Reconsidered
In reconsidering the historical evolution of MA dialectal diversity, we must address two fundamental questions. The first concerns the relationship between Turoyo (along with Mlahso) and the trans-Tigris or NENA dialects. It is important to keep in mind that the seemingly sharp division between Turoyo and NENA is due in large part to a lack of reliable data for the MA dialects spoken in the highlands of southeastern Turkey until 1915. Until Jastrow's discoveries, there was a considerable gap between the Tur 'Abdin and the westernmost NENA dialects for which reliable linguistic information was available; the nearest was probably that of the Jews of Zakho. (17) Now that far more data has become known, both on the surviving dialects of southeastern Turkey and on the Jewish and Christian dialects of northern Iraq, is the linguistic boundary between Turoyo and NENA as clear-cut, or as significant, as traditionally believed? In this connection, Polotsky's (1964: 108-9) cautionary remarks on the classification and subgrouping of Semitic apply equally well to MA, in particular to the Turoyo-NENA divide:
[We encounter] the familiar experience that once a dialectological framework has been set up, it may prove too rigid for fresh discoveries. Newcomers will almost inevitably be looked upon as intruders. There is the temptation to leave the existing framework intact and to accommodate additions in such a way as to cause minimal disturbance. It is thus likely that new entities which have every claim to a central or even independent place are assigned a marginal and subordinate position. The only way to obviate this danger is not to regard with too much reverence even such well-established and time-honored sub-groups as "Canaanite."
In fact, as Takashina 1990: 116ff. points out, certain features of Hertevin are shared with Turoyo and others with the NENA dialects; aside from lexical items, note the preterite (m)[C.sub.1]a[C.sub.2]e[C.sub.3], ma[C.sub.1][C.sub.2]e[C.sub.3] and infinitive (m)[C.sub.1]a[C.sub.2]o[C.sub.3]a, ma[C.sub.1][C.sub.2]o[C.sub.3]a of derived stems, the former with stem vowel a like Turoyo (vs. NENA u), the latter like NENA (m)[C.sub.1]a[C.sub.2]o[C.sub.3]e, ma[C.sub.1][C.sub.2]o[C.sub.3]e (see [section]3.1, no. 5 and n. 37). Based on this "twofold nature" of Hertevin, he assigns it to an intermediate position in the "continuum" of Aramaic dialects going back to pre-Islamic times.
The second issue has to do with the linguistic relationship between Turoyo/Mlahso and the only surviving MA dialects to the west, i.e., Modern West Aramaic. Since the late nineteenth century, Turoyo has generally--and with justification--been treated as a modern variety of "East Aramaic." Along with the MA varieties to the east, i.e., NENA and Modern Mandaic, it was considered to descend from a dialect closely related to the three great Eastern Middle Aramaic literary languages of the first millennium A.D., namely Syriac, Jewish Babylonian, and Classical Mandaic. However, Boyarin 1981 has argued that Syriac, despite sharing major isoglosses with Jewish Babylonian and Mandaic (see [section]2.1 above), also underwent innovations common to one or more of the Western Middle Aramaic languages, e.g., 3sg. masculine possessives of plural nouns in *-auhi, or the spread of prefixed m- in the infinitives of the derived conjugations. Consequently, Syriac is better viewed as the sole literary representative of "Central Middle Aramaic," occupying an intermediate location within the range of Aramaic dialects spoken in the first millennium A.D. (18)
On purely geographical grounds, of course, Turoyo may likewise be considered "Central Modern Aramaic." However, given the existence of isoglosses grouping Syriac with the Western Middle Aramaic literary languages, we may go one step further and ask the corresponding question for their approximate modern descendants. Do Turoyo (plus Mlahso) and MWA, now separated by a solid band of Arabic-speaking territory, share any significant innovations vis-a-vis older stages of Aramaic and/or the MA dialects to the east? Such shared features would hearken back to an earlier period when the Qalamun valley and northern Mesopotamia (including the Tur 'Abdin) formed part of a dialect continuum spanning (historical) Syria, within which innovations beginning in one place could--and did--spread to neighboring areas.
Finally, the existence of distinct coterritorial Christian and Jewish varieties is a well-known characteristic of MA dialectology (see, e.g., Hopkins 1999: 321-22), but the interaction of the geographical and religious dimensions has not yet been sufficiently explored. Now that descriptions are available for far more dialects, including both Christian and Jewish varieties of several localities (Aradhin, Koy Sanjaq, and Sena, in addition to Zakho, Urmia, and Salamas), we should compare the geographical distribution of linguistic features among Christian and Jewish MA dialects, and seek to determine whether any post-Middle Aramaic innovations which began in one religious community have spread to the other.
These questions will lead us to reexamine the classification schemes listed in [section]2.1, taking into account the dialect studies published in recent years. Based on principles of historical dialectology, dialect contact, and diffusion, I propose that the Modern Aramaic speech area should be viewed as a geographically discontinuous dialect continuum, stretching from Syria through southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq to northwestern Iran. (19) The distribution of a number of post-Middle Aramaic phonological, morphological, and lexical innovations ([section]3) suggests that Turoyo/Mlahso and NENA together form a single chain of dialects, within which the easternmost NENA dialects, Qaraqosh, on the southwestern edge of Iraqi Kurdistan; and Turoyo and particularly Mlahso in the west, occupy peripheral positions. In addition, Turoyo and Mlahso share at least two significant innovations with MWA ([section]4), suggesting that the former occupy an intermediate place between MWA and NENA, just as Syriac does between the Western and Eastern Middle Aramaic languages.
3. EVIDENCE FOR A (PRE-)MA DIALECT CONTINUUM
It is a well-established principle of historical linguistics that only innovations are of diagnostic value for the subgrouping of related languages. This principle, stated by Hetzron 1976 within the context of Semitic, goes back at least to the 1880s and the Neogrammarian Carl Osthoff. Since inheritances (archaisms) might happen to be preserved in any particular descendant, two or more languages belong to the same subgroup if and only if they share a significant number of innovative features with respect to the proto-language (Hock 1991: 579; cf. Harrison 2003: 233). (20) Whether phonological, morphological, or lexical, these features must also be sufficiently idiosyncratic that the probability of their independent occurrence in multiple speech communities is not significant. (21) If these conditions are met, we may with reasonable confidence postulate a period of common evolution of the languages in question, following the breakup of the larger family to which they belong.
It follows that most of the arguments usually adduced for the subgrouping of MA, or for divisions within the NENA dialects, are of little or no diagnostic value. For instance, many of the features separating the NENA dialects from Turoyo (and Mlahso) involve comparatively trivial phonological changes (e.g., *a > o and simplification of geminates in Turoyo/Mlahso) or mergers (e.g., of MidAr *k and *h in NENA). Furthermore, loss of morphological categories is one of the most easily repeatable linguistic changes, and therefore among the least diagnostic for subgrouping (cf. Hetzron 1976: 96-97 with refs.). Thus little weight can be attached to the disappearance of the old prefixed and suffixed conjugations, or of the distinction between status emphaticus and status absolutus in the adjective, in Turoyo and NENA vs. their retention in MWA; here MWA has simply preserved an old formation and/or distinction. Phonetically natural and crosslinguistically common sound changes are likewise unsuited for subgrouping, e.g., the treatment of MidAr *t and *d, which Maclean 1895: xii-xv took as the basis for his initial classification of the NENA dialects.
On the other hand, idiosyncratic (morphological or other) innovations limited only to small sets of dialects tell us little about the larger patterns, the "big picture" of MA dialect differentiation. For instance, the fate of the MidAr [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] conjugations varies greatly from one NENA dialect to the next (Jastrow 1997a: 360-62; Mutzafi 2004a: 259-60; Kapeliuk 2005: 356-57), without clear indication of larger dialectal groupings. Similarly, the evolution of vowel harmony in the Christian and Jewish varieties of Iranian Azerbaijan is a significant innovation shared only by those dialects, but offers little clue as to their geographical or historical relation to the rest of MA. The same applies to other locally restricted changes, e.g., the various modifications of endings and paradigms in standard Modern Syriac, many confined to the Christian dialects of Urmia and its immediate vicinity (Polotsky 1961: 23ff.; cf. Younansardaroud 2001: 73ff.); the characteristic features of the Jewish dialects of Arbel and the surrounding plain (the "Trans-Zab" group; Khan 1999a: 8-9, 1999b: 222-24; Mutzafi 2004b: 9-10); or the complex remodeling of the preterite in the Jewish dialects of eastern Iraqi and Iranian Kurdistan (see [section]3.1, no. 6).
In fact, probably the only useful criteria among those listed in [section]2.1 are the developments in the personal pronouns (both those common to Turoyo/Mlahso and NENA, and NENA-only innovations) and the vocalism of G-stem imperatives. However, a number of isoglosses of equal or greater significance may be drawn across the MA speech area, based on precisely the sort of idiosyncratic innovations stipulated above.
3.1. Peripheral Archaisms in "Central" MA
In the following cases, an innovation has taken place and diffused throughout a geo graphically central subset of Mlahso/Turoyo and NENA, leaving unaffected peripheral areas to the west, east, and/or south which preserve the earlier state of affairs.
1. Placement of stress (Jastrow 1997a: 353). In general, word stress falls on the final syllable of nominal and verbal stems in Mlahso (Jastrow 1985b: 267, 1994a: 14, 26) and the eastern Jewish NENA dialects, i.e., those of Arbel, Rustaqa/Ruwanduz, Sulemaniyya and Halabja, and Koy Sanjaq in eastern Iraqi Kurdistan (Khan 1999a: 70-74, 2004: 61ff.; Mutzafi 2004b: 55f.), (22) as well as Iranian Azerbaijan (Garbell 1965: 34-35) and Iranian Kurdistan (Hopkins 2002: 282 and passim; Jastrow 1997a: 353). In the remaining MA dialects, stress is penultimate; this includes Turoyo (Jastrow 1985a: 26-27), Hertevin (Jastrow 1988: 17-18), Bohtan (Fox 2002: 167), Hassane and the other Cudi dialects (Sinha 2000: 61 ff.), Baz (Mutzafi 2000: 300-301), Jilu (Fox 1997: 11-12), Tkhuma (Jacobi 1973: 30ff.), C. Zakho, (23) J. Zakho (Sabar 2002: 36-37), C. Aradhin (Krotkoff 1982: 16), J. Aradhin (Mutzafi 2002b), C. Nerwa (Talay 2001: passim), J. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Hoberman 1989: 151), J. Barzani (Mutzafi 2002a: 52-53), the Christian dialects of Alqosh, Kultepe, and other villages of the Mosul plain (Sachau 1895: 64), (24) Qaraqosh (Khan 2002a: 67-68), C. Koy Sanjaq (Mutzafi 2004a, 2004b: 10-11), the Christian dialects of Iranian Azerbaijan (Hetzron 1969: 114; Younansardaroud 2001: 65ff.), and Senaya. (25)
2. In certain MA dialects, the 3sg. pronominal suffixes attached to verbs to denote a direct or indirect object differ from those found with nouns and prepositions. Whereas the former continue MidAr m. *-eh, f. *-ah, the latter appear to reflect preforms m. *-ew, f. *-aw < *-ehu, *-ahu, whose exact origins remain unclear. (26) Other dialects have leveled the distinction in favor of the postverbal allomorphs, e.g., Turoyo abr-e 'his brother,' min-a 'from her' like k-obe-no-le 'I give him,' ko-hoze-la 'he sees her.' The following data is taken from Hoberman 1988: 563 and Jastrow 1977a: 355-56, augmented by more recent descriptions.
m. f. Mlahso -av -a (Jastrow 1994a: 29-30) Turoyo -e -a Hertevin -ew -o (< *-aw) (Jastrow 1988: 22-23, n. 2) Bohtan -ew -aw (Fox 2002: 169) [TEXT NOT -u (< *-ew) -aw (Sinha 2000: 70-71) REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Baz [TEXT NOT -aw (Mutzafi 2000: REPRODUCIBLE 303-4) IN ASCII] Jilu -e -o (Fox 1997: 44) Tkhuma -e -a ~ -o (27) (Jacobi 1973: 204-10, 218-20) C. Zakho -eh ~ -e(h) -ah ~ -a(h) (28) (Sabar 1995: 34-35, 37) J. Zakho -e -a C. Aradhin -e -a(h) (Krotkoff 1982: 20) J. Aradhin -e -a (Mutzafi 2002b: 480) C. Nerwa -e -a (Talay 2001: 10) J. [TEXT NOT -e -a (Hoberman 1989) REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] J. Barzani -e -a (Mutzafi 2002a: 54) C. Mosul -eh ~ -eh -ah ~ -ah Plain Qaraqosh [TEXT NOT -ah (Khan 2002a: REPRODUCIBLE 76ff.) (29) IN ASCII]h J. Arbel -eu -aw (Khan 1999a: 8, 82) C. Koy -ew -aw (cf. Mutzafi Sanjaq 2004a: 257) J. Koy -ew -aw (Mutzafi 2004b: 60) Sanjaq J. Rustaqa -eu -aw (Khan 2002b: 398) J. Sulemaniyya/ -eu, -ew -aw (Khan 2004: 74) Halabja C. Urmia -u (< *-ew) -o (< *-aw) J. Azerbaijani -ew -aw (Garbell 1965: 59) Senaya -e -e(!) (Panoussi 1990: 111) J. Iranian -ef -af Kurdistan (Kerend)
We see that the distinction between nominal and verbal suffix is preserved in the peripheral dialects, namely Mlahso, Hertevin, and the other dialects of the Bergnestorianer in the west and the Jewish dialects of eastern Iraq and Iran, plus C. Urmia, in the east. In contrast, the centrally located dialects have generalized the verbal suffixes. Cf. Hertevin bet-ew, J. Azerbaijani bel-ew vs. Turoyo bayt-e, J. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] be:[theta]-e 'his house,' the latter having the same ending as Turoyo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], J. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'he pulled.' (30)
3. The 1sg. present ending was originally just the enclitic personal pronoun *-na (< independent *ana), attached to the present active participle. Cf. the Syriac present paradigms for the strong root [square root of (dmk)] 'sleep' and the III-y root [square root of (hzy)] 'see':
1sg. m. damekna hazena ~ hazen f. damkana ~ damkan hazyana ~ hazyan 2sg. m. damkat hazet f. damkat hazyat 3sg. m. damek haze f. damka hazya
In most NENA dialects, the 1sg. m. and f. endings have been remodeled on the basis of the 2sg., for which all varieties of (eastern) MA share forms descended from m. *-et, f. *-at. The 2sg. m. and f. endings were originally identical for sound verbs (e.g., Syr. 2sg. m./f. damkat < *damek-att, *dameka-(a)tt), but came to be differentiated by generalizing the endings proper to III-y roots (Hoberman 1988: 565-68, 571-72; Khan 1999a: 91). The alteration of the 1sg. endings in most NENA dialects has resulted in a uniform present (or rather, subjunctive) inflection, in which all the sg. forms are disyllabic. Cf. the subjunctive sg. forms of [square root of (pth)] 'open' in Hertevin, the Jewish dialect of Arbel, and Christian Urmia:
Hertevin J. Arbel C. Urmia 1sg. m. pathen palxen [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] f. pdthan palxdn [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 2sg. m. pdthet palxet [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] f. pdthat palxat [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 3sg. m. pateh palix [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] f. patha palxa [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
However, the MidAr ending *-na is at least partially preserved in three sets of dialects, located on the western, eastern, and southern edges of the Central/Northeastern MA area.
1. In Mlahso domexno, hozeno and Turoyo m. domaxno, hozeno, f. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], where 1sg. -no has the synchronic status of a clitic and does not affect the position of stress (R. Kim forthcoming a).
2. The Jewish dialects of Iranian Kurdistan likewise preserve the original ending, although the 1sg. f. also exhibits alternants in -an, apocopated from *-a-na: cf. Kerend pres. 1sg. m. garisna, f. garsan(a) 'I pull,' intransitive pret. 1sg. m. qimna, f. qiman(a) 'I stood.' (31) In J. Arbel, palxena and palxana 'I open' "exist as rare alternatives" to usual 1sg. m. palxen, f. palxan (Khan 1999a: 90); similarly for J. Koy Sanjaq, e.g., baxen(a), baxyan(a) 'I cry' or perfect rxis-en(a), rxis-an(a) 'has walked' (Mutzafi 2004b: 11, 82). (32) The Baz dialect de scribed by Mutzafi (2000: 307) has a single form for 1sg. m. and f. in -[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ~ -[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], e.g., [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]n(a) 'I sweep.'
3. The Jewish dialects of Sulemaniyya/Halabja and Rustaqa/Ruwanduz have gone one step further, eliminating the longer ending in the 1sg. f.: hence palxan, but m. palixna (Khan 2002b: 400, 2004: 83-84). In Qaraqosh as well, the 1sg. f. is in -an, but the 1sg. m. option ally maintains the old ending, as in m. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ~ [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], f. patxan (Khan 2002a: 88-89). To the west, the Cudi dialects and C. Nerwa have -ena beside -[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in the 1sg. m. (Sinha 2000: 101; Talay 2001: 16-17); (33) and Jilu has 1sg. m. i-pat[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]xna (f. i-patxan) beside imperfect i- patx[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]n-wa 'I opened' (Fox 1997: 35).
The variation in the latter two groups of dialects is also observed in the seventeenth-century texts from northern Iraq edited by Mengozzi (2002: 30): alongside usual 1sg. m. -en, Israel of Alqosh uses the ending -ena, like J. Arbel palxena ~ palxen.
4. The preterite of intransitive verbs is formed by adding the subject pronominal endings to the passive participle in status absolutus (MidAr *[C.sub.1][C.sub.2]i[C.sub.3]-) in the Jewish dialects of eastern Iraqi Kurdistan (Rustaqa, Koy Sanjaq, Sulemaniyya/Halabja; Khan 2002b: 403-5, 2004: 86-87; Mutzafi 2004b: 82) and Iranian Kurdistan (Hopkins 1989: 426ff.). Similarly in Turoyo, many intransitive preterites, including the most frequent, add the subject endings to an originally deverbal adjective in status absolutus (MidAr *[C.sub.1]a[C.sub.2][C.sub.2]i[C.sub.3]-), e.g., Turoyo 1sg. m. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], f. damixo-no 'I slept.' (34)
In the remaining dialects, the preterite of intransitive verbs had adopted the pattern of transitive verbs: the original pass. ptcp. *[C.sub.1][C.sub.2]i[C.sub.3]- is followed by l- + object pronominal suffixes in Hertevin, Hassane, the Christian and Jewish dialects of all but easternmost Iraqi Kurdistan, Christian Urmia, Jewish Azerbaijani, and Senaya. (35) See Jastrow 1997a: 366-67; cf. the forms for 'I (m., f.) stood' and 'I pulled' in six MA dialects, arranged from west to east.
Turoyo Hertevin J. Zakho C. Urmia J. Iran. Azer. intrans. [TEXT NOT qem-li qim-li qim-lij qim-li REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] trans. [TEXT NOT gres-li gris-li gris-lij griS-li REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Kerend (36) intrans. [qim-na, qima-n(a)] trans. gris-li
5. A second or actual/continuous present is found in the MA dialects of the Hakkari Nestorians, most of Iraq, and Iranian Azerbaijan, including the Cudi dialects (Sinha 2000: 106-7, 131), Baz (Mutzafi 2000: 309ff.), Jilu (Fox 1997: 22ff.), the Tiyari dialects (Talay 1999: 172-73), Tkhuma (Jacobi 1973: 141-44), Iraqi Koine (cf. Fox 1990: 74-75), C. Zakho, J. Zakho (Sabar 2002: 48), C. Aradhin (Krotkoff 1982: 33), C. Nerwa (Talay 2001: 20), J. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Hoberman 1989: 79-82), the Christian dialects of the Mosul plain (Sachau 1895: 50-51; Rhetore 1912: 86), J. Koy Sanjaq (Mutzafi 2004b: 82-84, 112-13), J. Sulemaniyya (Khan 2004: 100-101, 2005: 366-67), C. Urmia (Polotsky 1961: 22-23, 1991; Hetzron 1969: 114ff.; Murre-van den Berg 1999: 201ff.; Younansardaroud 2001: 73ff, 2002: 844-48), and J. Iranian Azerbaijan (Garbell 1965: 63-65). This formation consists of the innovative NENA copula, described above on p. 3, and (b- +) the (post-) MidAr infinitive (*[C.sub.1][C.sub.2]a[C.sub.3]a for the [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] conjugation; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *ma[C.sub.1][C.sub.2]o[C.sub.3]e, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *ma[C.sub.1][C.sub.2]o[C.sub.3]e); (37) see Jastrow 1997a: 361ff., esp. 365-66 and Goldenberg 2000: 82-84, the latter comparing English be on X-ing > be a-X-ing [right arrow] be Xing.
On the other hand, this formation is absent in the western dialects of Mlahso, Turoyo, Hertevin, and Bohtan (Fox 2002: 174); in the Christian dialect of Qaraqosh; and at the eastern end of the MA-speaking area, the Jewish dialects of Iranian Kurdistan (Hopkins 1989: 417 n. 10), as well as Senaya (Heinrichs 2002: 256-60). Some of these have retained the MidAr present active participle in both general and actual usage, e.g., Turoyo k-oxal-no, Hertevin axlen, Qaraqosh [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ~ [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) 'I (m.) am (in the process of) eating' as well as 'I (m.) eat (in general, all the time, every day). (38)
Other MA dialects have evolved different means for expressing the actual present, but formal discrepancies among them make it clear that they are independent local innovations. Thus Qaraqosh and Senaya both make use of the general (unmarked) present plus the copula, but whereas the Qaraqosh continuous present takes the form 3sg. m. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], f. k-ila k-satya 'he, she is drinking' (Khan 2002a: 18, 331ff.), Senaya cliticizes the copula to the present, e.g., 3sg. m. paseh-ile, 1sg. f. pashan-yan 'he, I (f.) am opening' (Panoussi 1990: 118; Heinrichs 2002: 260). (39)
On the other hand, a formation la-palix 'he is opening' occurs in the Jewish dialects of Arbel and Rustaqa/Ruwanduz, and similarly la-k-pat [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] x in the Christian dialect of Koy Sanjaq (Mutzafi 2004a: 255-56). Here the prefix la- seems to be some sort of presentative particle, perhaps a fossilized form of the copula (Khan 1999a: 111-14, 271-74, 1999b: 219, 2000: 323ff., 2002b: 402; Heinrichs 2002: 261-62; see no. 6 below). (40) A comparable construction [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] k-sate, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] y-sate 'he is drinking' is found in the Jewish dialects of Barzani, Shahe, and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Mutzafi 2002a: 42, 59).
6. A perfect based on the MidAr passive participle in status emphaticus ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sg. m. *[C.sub.1][C.sub.2]i[C.sub.3]-a, f. *[C.sub.1][C.sub.2]i[C.sub.3]-ta, pl. m. *[C.sub.1][C.sub.2]i[C.sub.3]-in) occurs in Bohtan (Fox 2002: 172ff.), the Cudi dialects (Jastrow 1997b: 279-80; Sinha 2000: 106), Baz (Mutzafi 2000: 309ff.), Jilu (Fox 1997: 22ff.), Tkhuma (Jacobi 1973: 141-44), C. Zakho, J. Zakho, C. Aradhin (Krotkoff 1982: 34-35), C. Nerwa (Talay 2001: 19-20), J. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Hoberman 1989: 82-90), the Christian dialects of the Mosul plain (Rhetore 1912: 102-4), Qaraqosh (Khan 2002a: 340ff.), C. Koy Sanjaq (Mutzafi 2004a: 254-57), J. Koy Sanjaq (Mutzafi 2004b: 82-84, 105-9), C. Urmia (Polotsky 1961: 22-23, 1991; Hetzron 1969: 114ff.; Murre-van den Berg 1999: 201ff., Younansardaroud 2001: 73ff., 2002: 844-48), and J. Azerbaijan (Garbell 1965: 68-70; see below). This perfect is construed with the same innovative copula found in the actual present (see no. 5), e.g., C. Urmia ptijxevin 'I (m.) have opened' (< [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] + -ijvin), like [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'I (m.) am opening' (< [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] + -ijvin). The perfect in the Jewish dialects of extreme eastern Iraqi Kurdistan (Sulemaniyya, Halabja) and Iranian Kurdistan has the same origin, but the originally voice-neutral formation has been remodeled so as to differentiate transitive and intransitive; for details, see Hopkins 2002 and Khan 2004: 85-90, 97ff., 313-18, 2005:362-66.
No such perfect occurs in Mlahso and Turoyo; Hertevin; the Jewish dialects of Arbel and Rustaqa in eastern Iraqi Kurdistan; or Senaya. Turoyo simply adds ko- to the preterite, e.g., Turoyo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'I saw her,' [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'I have seen her'; this is surely the same ko- which forms the present from the subjunctive stem, e.g., ko-hoze-no-la 'I see her.' (41) Similarly, the Jewish dialects of Arbel and Rustaqa make use of the same particle la- as in the actual present (see no. 5), e.g., Arbel la-plix-le 'he has opened,' Rustaqa la pil 'he has fallen (and is lying on the ground)' (Khan 1999a: 274-7-5, 2000: 328-29, 331, 2002b: 403-4). (42) Senaya prefixes gi- to the preterite, as in gi-pseh-le 'he has opened' (Heinrichs 2002: 261-63).
In two other dialects, we find verbal systems which reflect intermediate stages in the evolution of the perfect. Jastrow (1988: 58-59; cf. Goldenberg 1993: 302-3) observes that the perfect in Hertevin has not yet been fully elaborated: the construction "passive participle in status absolutus + enclitic subject personal pronoun" denotes the perfect of intransitive verbs but, as in Turoyo and Jewish Iranian Kurdistan, the perfect passive of transitive verbs. Cf. Hertevin intransitive [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'I have gone,' transitive passive qtil-en, -an 'I (m., f.) have been killed' vs. preterite zi-li 'I went,' qtel-li 'I killed.' This dialect thus lacks a grammaticalized perfect for transitive active verbs, which would correspond to C. Urmia xizyevin (< [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ijvin) 'I (m.) have seen' or Turoyo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], J. Arbel la-plix-le 'he has opened.' (43)
The Jewish Azerbaijani dialects also appear to form a sort of transition zone for the spread of the status emphaticus perfect. These dialects, like most others (no. 4), form the preterite of both intransitive and transitive verbs with the passive participle in status absolutus and l- + object pronominal suffixes, e.g., qim-li 'I stood,' gris-li 'I killed.' But whereas the perfect of intransitive verbs consists of the passive participle in status absolutus plus pronominal subject suffixes, transitive verbs make use of the same status emphaticus + copula as C. Urmia and the other Christian dialects of Azerbaijan.
preterite perfect intransitive qim-li m. qim-en, f. qim-an transitive gris-li m. griselen, (44) f. gristelan (< grisa-ilen, grista-ilan) ~ m. gris-en, f. grisi-an (45)
See Garbell 1965: 68-70 for further examples, and also Heinrichs 2002: 261.
Finally, the Jewish dialects of Barzani and vicinity have a morphologically suppletive perfect: only the negative is formed from the (negative) copula and the preterite participle in status emphaticus, while the positive consists of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] plus the preterite, similar to actual present [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] k-sate, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] y-sate 'he is drinking' (see no. 5). Thus we find [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'he has killed' vs. lewe qtila 'he has not killed,' and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'he has sent them' vs. lewe sdira-lu 'he has not sent them' (Mutzafi 2002a: 42, 60, 65-66). These dialects were apparently in the process of replacing the status emphaticus perfect with the new "particle + preterite" construction; see below, pp. 521-22.
7. In most MA dialects, the preterite stem can agree only with a third-person patient, in which case it is inflected for gender and number: cf. Turoyo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], griso-le, grisi-le 'he pulled (him), her, them,' J. Zakho sqil-li, sqila-li, sqili-li 'I took (him), her, them.' This continues the situation in Middle Aramaic, where the passive participle *[C.sub.1][C.sub.2]i[C.sub.3]- in status absolutus agreed with its referent for number and gender, just like other adjectives. To ex press a first- or second-person patient, these dialects must add l- + clitic pronoun after the subject: hence Turoyo griso-le 'he pulled her,' but [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'he pulled me,' [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'he pulled you (pl.). (46)
On the other hand, several MA dialects of Iraq and Iranian Azerbaijan allow the preterite stem to be marked for objects of any person, thereby creating (partial) parallelism of agent-and patient-marking between the preterite and present: cf. J. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] k-patx-an-nux 'I (f.) open you (m.),' ptix-an-nux 'you (m.) opened me (f.)' (Hoberman 1989: 36), and see Mutzafi 2002a: 65, 2002b: 481-82 for J. Barzani and J. Aradhin, and Hetzron 1969: 117ff.; Polotsky 1979 for C. Urmia. The evidence of the Nerwa texts (e.g., mulp-ax-lu 'they taught us,' lit-an-nox 'you (m.) cursed me (f.)'; Goldenberg 1992: 119ff.) and religious poetry of northern Iraq (e.g., mxols-itu-le 'he saved you (pl.),' muxw-en-ne 'he showed me'; Mengozzi 2002: 33ff., 2005a: 249-52) shows that such "intraconjugational" object affixes existed in Iraqi Aramaic of the seventeenth century, but had been lost by the nineteenth century in the Mosul plain dialect of the Sachau manuscripts. This intraconjugational marking of first- and second-person objects is best understood as a post-MidAr innovation of the Iraqi dialects, which never spread to outlying areas such as Tur 'Abdin or Iranian Kurdistan. (47)
For the most part, these innovations are found within a common core of dialects, namely those of trans-Tigris Turkish Kurdistan; western and central Iraqi Kurdistan, excepting the south(west)ernmost Christian dialect of Qaraqosh; and to a lesser extent, Iranian Azer baijan, especially the Christian varieties of Urmia, Salamas, etc. In contrast, the areas on the periphery--Mlahso and Turoyo to the west, Qaraqosh to the southwest, and eastern Iraqi Kurdistan and Iranian Kurdistan to the southeast--have preserved more conservative varieties of MA, lacking such typical features of the northwestern Jewish dialects (e.g., Zakho) or the Christian literary standard of Urmia as pres. 1sg. m. -in, f. -an paralleling 2sg. m. -it, f. -at, uniform preterite inflection for intransitive and transitive verbs, or actual/continuous presents and perfects built respectively on the post-MidAr infinitive and the passive participle in status emphaticus. (48) For details, see Figures 1 and 2.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
These isoglosses thus present the familiar pattern of focus vs. relic areas, with innovations concentrated in the former and peripheral archaisms in the latter (Hock 1991: 440-41; Chambers and Trudgill 1998: 94, 167-68). Moreover, we find that within the areas having an actual/continuous present and perfect, new formations consisting of invariable particle + present resp. preterite (la-palix 'he is opening,' la-plix-le 'he has opened') were in the process of spreading among the dialects of northeastern Iraq: they occur inter alia in Jewish Arbel, Rustaqa/Ruwanduz, and the vicinity of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]Aqra (Dobe; Barzan, Shahe, Bijil), and in Christian Koy Sanjaq (Mutzafi 2004a: 260-62); but the new perfect remains confined to the positive in the Barzani dialects. The resulting "donut-hole" picture may be observed in Figure 2.
The above observations strongly suggest that Mlahso/Turoyo and NENA cannot be neatly divided into discrete subgroups, but rather constitute a single dialect continuum. The existence of Randarchaismen shared by Mlahso and Turoyo with eastern NENA dialects does not presuppose any historical connection between these two areas (pace Hopkins 1989: 417 n. 10, 429-30), but merely reflects their position at opposite ends of the main "central MA"-speaking region.
3.2. The Position of Mlahso
Further support for the hypothesis that Mlahso, Turoyo, and NENA form one dialect continuum is provided by at least two innovations common to Turoyo and all of NENA, but absent in Mlahso.
1. Turoyo and the NENA dialects have shortened vowels in closed syllables, leading to the characteristic alternations that play such a prominent role in MA morphology, e.g., Turoyo pres. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'he pulls' ~ ko-gurs-o 'she pulls,' pret. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'I pulled (him)' ~ gris-6-li 'I pulled her'; C. Urmia pres. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [ae:] 'he opens' ~ [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [ae] 'I (m.) open,' perf. ptijxeli 'he has opened' ~ [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'she has opened.' By contrast, vowels in Mlahso are of roughly the same length and quality in both open and closed syllables, e.g., in domex 'he sleeps,' domxina 'we sleep,' dmix-li 'I slept' (Jastrow 1985b: 267, 1994a: 20-23).
2. In a number of cases, Turoyo and NENA have replaced an inherited word with a derivative or a borrowing (usually from Kurdish), while Mlahso preserves the original Aramaic form. Examples include
Mlahso avo 'father' < Old Syriac (OSyr.) aba vs. Turoyo babo, J. Zakho baba, Nerwa texts baba, C. Urmia [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], J. Azer. baba [left arrow] Kurd., Turk. baba (and/or Lallwort?); Mlahso dozo 'paternal uncle' < OSyr. dada vs. Turoyo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]ammo, Tiyari [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], J. Zakho [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], J. Koy Sanjaq [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], J. Azer. amona (*ama preserved in ami 'my uncle!'; Garbell 1965: 296) [left arrow] Arabic [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; (49) and Mlahso renyo 'trouble' < OSyr. renya 'thought, anxiety, trouble' vs. Turoyo, J. Zakho, J. Azer. dard 'pain, trouble, sickness' [left arrow] Kurd., Turk. derd.
Other lexical archaisms in Mlahso include aho 'brother,' l[gamma]av 'in, into,' mzito 'town,' l-mun 'why' ('for what') < OSyr. aha, lgab, mditta, l-mun; cf. Turoyo ahuno, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (with suffixation and metathesis), walaye ([left arrow] Arabic), qay ([left arrow] Kurdish). For discussion and other examples, see Jastrow 1985b: 269, 1994a: 15-16 and Goldenberg 1998: 65.
These isoglosses suggest that Mlahso occupies a peripheral, outlying position with respect to both Turoyo and NENA (see Fig. 2). Despite sharing most characteristic features with Mlahso (see [section]3.1, nos. 3-6; Jastrow 1985b: 266-67, 1994a: 13-16), Turoyo here sides with all the NENA dialects against Mlahso. Along with the distribution of innovations in [section]3.1, this suggests that the division between Mlahso/Turoyo and NENA is not as significant as generally believed, and that both traditional groupings in fact belong to a single "central" or Central/Northeastern MA dialect continuum. If this interpretation is correct, shortening of vowels in closed syllables and the replacement of, e.g., *aba, *dada by *baba, *[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] must have begun somewhere in the middle of the MA-speaking territory--perhaps also in northern Iraq, as suggested for the changes in [section]3.1--and eventually spread to all dialects except for that of two villages in the far northwest, near Diyarbakir. (50)
3.3. Innovations Shared by MWA and Turoyo/Mlahso
Having examined the MA dialects to the east of the Tigris, let us now turn west to reconsider the relationship between Turoyo/Mlahso and MWA. A number of scholars have remarked that the two languages share only superficial phonetic details; thus Hoberman (1989: 4-6) justifiably doubts the value of "a few shared sound changes (a > o, p > f) and ... certain morphological archaisms." Yet although the backing and rounding of stressed a > o is phonetically natural and attested in dozens of languages worldwide, the relative chronology of Turoyo sound changes suggests that the shift of a > o there was a very early change--as one might infer from the presence already in West Syriac--and so may have been part of the same phenomenon as the MWA change. (51) Furthermore, Turoyo/Mlahso and MWA share at least two other developments of a more idiosyncratic nature:
1. Introduction of a prothetic vowel *e- before word-initial clusters of obstruent + sonorant, e.g., [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ebra, Mlahso ebro, Turoyo abro < MidAr *br-a 'son' or [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] esma, Turoyo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] < MidAr *sm-a 'name.' In contrast, most NENA dialects resyllabify the initial cluster by geminating the sonorant, as in simma 'name' or dimma < MidAr *dm-a 'blood.'
MidAr [TEXT NOT Mlahso Turoyo REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *bra 'son' ebra ebro abro *bnayya ~ *bne 'sons' bno abne *dma 'blood' edma admo *sma 'name' esma [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *snayya ~ *sne 'years' isno [snaye] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *tmal 'yesterday' esmol [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] MidAr Hertevin J. Zakho C. Urmia *bra 'son' ebra [brona] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (52) *bnayya ~ *bne 'sons' *dma 'blood' demma dimma [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *sma 'name' semma simma [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *snayya ~ *sne 'years' senne sinni *tmal 'yesterday' etmal timmal [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
Interestingly, Hertevin sometimes follows the western pattern and sometimes that of the NENA varieties to the east (e.g., ebra like [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ebra, Turoyo abro, but demma like NENA dimma; Jastrow 1990: 91-92). This suggests that the dialect of Hertevin belonged to the transition zone for this particular feature, and that the correspondence between MWA and Mlahso/Turoyo does indeed reflect the diffusion of a single sound change, rather than independent innovations.
2. Use of the deverbal adjectives in *[C.sub.1]a[C.sub.2][C.sub.2]i[C.sub.3]- as a verbal base for the perfect of intransitive verbs, e.g., *dammik- 'sleeping, having slept,' *nappiq- 'coming out, having come out.' The perfect of most verbs in MWA goes back to the old passive participle *CCiC-, but the majority of intransitive verbs have a perfect that continues *CaCCiC- (Arnold 1990: 76): cf. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'has carried,' f. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] vs. marrek 'has gone by,' f. marrika. Discrepancies within the three MWA-speaking villages indicate that there must have been variation in the choice of perfect formant at an earlier stage of pre-MWA, possibly going back to late Western Middle Aramaic: for instance, Arnold (1990: 76 n. 4) notes that many speakers of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] say dammex, f. dammixa for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] idmex, f. dmixa 's/has slept, is asleep.' Such variation must have characterized earlier stages of Turoyo as well; in the contemporary language, a majority of the most common intransitive verbs, and a handful of transitives, form their preterite on a stem [C.sub.1]a[C.sub.2]i[C.sub.3]-, e.g., 3sg. f. damix-o 'she slept,' [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'she heard,' gawir-o 'she married,' while others have adopted the pattern of transitive verbs, e.g., [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'she coughed' (Jastrow 1985a: 71ff.; Mengozzi 2005a: 244-45; see [section]3.1, no. 4). (53)
These shared innovations, although hardly impressive evidence of linguistic diffusion, need not be dismissed as mere coincidence or parallel evolution. They date from a time when MWA and Mlahso/Turoyo were still connected by a chain of Aramaic dialects--i.e., before most of the population of Syria shifted to Arabic, hence no later than c. A.D. 1000. Within this former dialect continuum, the speech of the Tur 'Abdin would naturally have more closely resembled that of nearby villages across the Tigris than the dialects of the Anti-Lebanon, but this is no reason to conclude that "Turoyo is closely connected with the other Neo-Syriac dialects, rather than with the Ma'lula group" (Blau 1968: 605 n. 1; emphasis mine). Only after the geographically intervening Aramaic varieties had all disappeared did the Anti-Lebanon dialects become completely isolated from developments taking place in northern Mesopotamia and points farther east. The consequences of this finding for the traditional Stammbaum model of Aramaic dialectology will be considered in [section]4.
We have examined a number of important post-Middle Aramaic innovations which characterize a subset of the MA dialects, and seen that their distribution calls into question the standard view of clearly defined subgroups. With these results in mind, let us return to the questions in [section]2.
As foreshadowed in [section]2.3, the Tigris River has lost much of its significance as a dialect boundary separating Turoyo from the NENA dialects. To the extent that Turoyo stands out, it is as a relatively conservative Central/Northeastern dialect which has escaped many of the innovations that originated farther to the east. Whereas the isoglosses that run between Turoyo/Mlahso and NENA are well known (e.g., *a > o in Turoyo/Mlahso, merger of MidAr *x, *h and *[gamma], *[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in NENA, or several innovations in personal pronouns in NENA; see [section]2.1), other features group Hertevin with Turoyo/Mlahso ([section]3.1, nos. 3 and 5), and still others separate Mlahso from Turoyo ([section]3.2, nos. 1 and 2), The Randarchaismen of [section]3.1, in which Turoyo patterns with peripheral dialects, in particular those of Qaraqosh and eastern Iraqi and Iranian Kurdistan, can be understood only if Turoyo belongs to the same dialect continuum as NENA. We may infer from their present distribution that the innovations studied here--shift of primary stress from final to penultimate syllables; leveling of the 3sg. m. and f. pronominal suffixes after nouns/prepositions and verbs; remodeling of the present 1sg. on the 2sg.; replacement of enclitic subject pronouns by l- + pronominal suffixes in the preterite of intransitive verbs; creation of an actual/continuous present from the infinitive, and of a perfect from the status emphaticus of the MidAr passive participle--originated somewhere in the center of the MA speech area, perhaps in northwestern Iraq, then spread east and west to varying degrees.
Similarly, the isoglosses shared by MWA and Turoyo/Mlahso suggest that the latter occupy an intermediate position between MWA and the NENA dialects ([section]3.3). Although not nearly as numerous as those connecting Turoyo/Mlahso with the dialects east of the Tigris, these shared innovations imply the continued existence of an Aramaic dialect continuum across Syria during late antiquity and the early Islamic period, before the shift to Arabic.
The isoglosses in [section]3.1 also indicate that the Christian and Jewish dialects of northwestern Iraq have participated together in almost all major post-MidAr innovations, including the creation of an actual present and perfect. Many scholars have previously noted that the communal dialects are less far apart in this region but diverge greatly to the east, in Iran. Since it is improbable that identical formations would have arisen separately in the two communities by chance, the most likely explanation is that individual changes arose within one community and were adopted by the other. This in turn presupposes a degree of interaction and mutual linguistic accommodation between Christians and Jews which did not exist farther east, where certain innovations spread only to the Christian dialects (e.g., penultimate stress, intransitive preterites formed like transitive preterites), while others were confined to the Jewish varieties (e.g., the la- actual present and perfect in Arbil and surroundings, or the remodeling of preterite and perfect in Suleimaniyya/Halabja and Iranian Kurdistan). (54)
The above findings, then, have interesting implications for the prehistory of the surviving MA dialects. First, MWA need not be considered one half of Modern Aramaic, parallel to the ancient Anatolian branch of Indo-European, which most scholars now consider to have been the first to separate from the Proto-Indo-European speech community. (55) The few innovations which characterize all the dialects to the east, such as loss of the old Aramaic prefixed conjugation and of a separate feminine plural in adjectives and pronouns, do not support the notion of a monolithic ancestral Proto-Eastern-Aramaic or a deep division between those dialects and MWA. (56) There is no denying, of course, that Turoyo shares significantly more isoglosses with NENA than with MWA, yet the very existence of post-MidAr features shared by MWA and its nearest MA neighbor vitiates the widely held assumption that MWA has been diverging from the rest of MA for "well over two thousand years" (Hoberman 1997: 313). The relative linguistic isolation of MWA is due to relatively "recent" historical circumstances, i.e., the Islamic conquest and subsequent linguistic Arabization of Syria, which disrupted a previously continuous chain of Aramaic dialects stretching from Palestine up through Syria to northern Mesopotamia. (57)
Another significant result is that Mlahso constitutes an outlier, not only with respect to Turoyo, but to the rest of Central/Northeastern MA as well. This is not necessarily inconsistent with the founding legend of the village of Mlahso (Jastrow 1994a: 79), according to which the village was established by two monks from the Tur 'Abdin several centuries earlier. In that case, Mlahso must have split off from Turoyo at a time when the latter had not yet undergone certain characteristic innovations, i.e., when it still had word-final stress, unshortened vowels in closed syllables, and various MidAr lexical items now preserved only in Mlahso (e.g., avo 'father,' renyo 'trouble'). Like the loss of the prefixed and suffixed conjugations or the pronominal innovations on p. 508, vowel shortening in closed syllables and adoption of certain loanwords ([section]3.2) must have begun at one or more points within the Aramaic-speaking area and spread by diffusion to all surviving dialects except for Mlahso--just as the innovations in [section]3.1, which probably began at a later date, were adopted by a subset of contiguous dialects.
We must conclude that Turoyo/Mlahso and the mass of NENA dialects are not descended from a single post-Middle Aramaic ancestor, and that the Stammbaum model does not adequately represent the linguistic history of Modern Aramaic, or for that matter of earlier stages of Aramaic (Boyarin 1981: 640-45; cf. Huehnergard 1995). I do not mean thereby to deny the linguistic distance between MWA and the rest of present-day Aramaic, or the isoglosses separating Turoyo (and Mlahso) from the NENA dialects. The former is obviously connected with the disappearance of all intervening dialects as a result of language shift; there is no reason to think that the spoken Aramaic dialects of Syria in the late first millennium A.D. would have exhibited any sharp breaks from one region to the next. As for the Turoyo-NENA divide, the bundle of isoglosses along the upper Tigris is surely due less to the meager physical barrier afforded by this river than to its importance as a border between the Eastern Roman and Persian empires in late antiquity, and likewise as a religious fault line between the Syrian Orthodoxy of the Tur 'Abdin and the Nestorian Church of the (ex-) Sassanian lands. (58) In any case, historical linguists now generally agree that there is no necessary contradiction between "tree" and "wave" models (cf. Hock 1991: 450-52 for Indo-European), but the branching nodes in a Stammbaum cannot in general be interpreted literally as "clean breaks" into two or more speech communities, and certainly not for Aramaic over the past two thousand years.
In sum, the multitude of Modern Aramaic dialects, with all their considerable phonological, morphosyntactic, and lexical diversity, do not lend themselves to clear-cut geographical division into Western, Central, and Northeastern subgroups, but constitute the surviving pieces of a dialect continuum whose geographic continuity was interrupted--in some cases, relatively recently--by language shift. This does not mean that we must dispense entirely with labels such as NENA, as long as we keep in mind that they are valid only as convenient "geographical expressions"--to appropriate Prince Metternich's notorious description of Italy--and not as historically justified linguistic subgroups. By viewing the Qalamun valley dialects, Mlahso, Turoyo, and the many Christian and Jewish NENA varieties as occupying western, central, and (north)eastern portions of a dialect continuum--one which became fragmented through population movements, interrupted communications, and especially language shift--we obtain a more precise understanding of the historical development of these individual dialects, as well as of medieval and modern Aramaic as a whole.
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A preliminary version of this paper was presented at the 28th North American Conference on Afroasiatic Linguistics in March 2000. I wish to thank the participants on that occasion, especially Samuel Ethan Fox, Simon Hopkins, Geoffrey Khan, and David Testen, for their helpful comments. The rapid appearance of descriptive grammars of Modern Aramaic dialects since then has necessitated extensive revisions, but I am pleased to learn that my conclusions have been confirmed and even strengthened by recent fieldwork discoveries. Thanks also to Wolfhart Heinrichs, Otto Jastrow, and Geoffrey Khan for reading part or all of earlier drafts, and to colleagues and students at Swarthmore College for inviting me to share my thoughts on Modern Aramaic dialectology in an informal lecture in February 2007.
(1.) See the comments by Hoberman (1990: 79-81) and Jastrow (1990: 89). Especially poignant is Jastrow's lament (1994a: 5ff.) that had he realized the enormous significance of the Mlahso dialect earlier on, he might have taken greater effort to locate and record more material from its surviving speakers.
(2.) Except for no. 1, where the relevant forms (prefixed conjugation) have all disappeared. The features are taken from Boyarin 1979: 614-15.
(3.) The change in Syriac may be assigned to approximately A.D. 200, since y- is attested in inscriptions and magic bowls from before that date (Drijvers and Healey 1999: 29-30).
(4.) Contracted from *-ayya, which survives only in monosyllabic stems such as bnayya 'sons,' snayya 'years,' pl. tant. mayya 'water.'
(5.) C. Urmia forms are cited in a modified version of the Soviet novyj alfavit, with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for the soft jer, and s for s.
(6.) Also in the (indeclinable) Turoyo elative, which continues the status absolutus of the m. sg. in predicative use: safiro 'beautiful,' hawri [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] mina-yo 'my friend is more beautiful than her.'
(7.) With the sole exception of the perfect of [square root of (hwy)], which survives as Turoyo enclitic (Midyat) -wo, ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) -wa 's/he was' < *hwa, *hway- (cf. Syriac 3sg. m. hwa, 2sg. m./f. hwayt), and as an invariant past-tense clitic -wa in the NENA dialects. Modern Mandaic has preserved the perfect but, like Turoyo/[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and NENA, eliminated the imperfect in favor of the MidAr periphrasis based on the present active participle in status absolutus (Macuch 1993: 68ff.; Jastrow 1997a: 360ff., 370).
(8.) Certain varieties of NENA also appear to have raised and rounded stressed MidAr *a to *o, e.g., the Bohtan dialect spoken in Georgia (Fox 2002: 167). In these dialects, however, o < *a in open syllables regularly alternates with short a in closed syllables, e.g., potax 'he opens' vs. patxa 'she opens,' revealing that this is a relatively recent change (cf. Jastrow 1997a: 352). See also below, [section]3.3 and n. 51.
(9.) Jastrow (1985a: xxi) describes this change as "Degeminierung mit Ersatzdehnung des vorhergehenden Vokals," but phonemic vowel length was eliminated in all non-MWA dialects through shortening of inherited long vowels in closed syllables and lengthening of short vowels in open syllables; subsequently it was reintroduced through loanwords (from Kurdish, Arabic, and Turkish), reanalysis of later phonological developments, etc.
(10.) Except for II-y verbs, e.g., Turoyo (Midyat) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], pl. sumu 'do!' to [square root of (sym)].
(11.) And Modern Mandaic, e.g., m. getol, f. [g.sup.e]/[.sub.u]tul, although Macuch (1993: 70) also gives forms with stem vowel a, e.g., obad, obod vs. f. obud. Exceptions to this pattern are the result of local innovations, e.g., J. Rustaqa and Sulemaniyya qatil, pl. qatilmun ~ qatlun 'kill!' [left arrow] present stem qatil with retracted stress, after the pattern of derived stems (e.g., mazdir, pl. mazdirmun ~ mazdirun 'send!' beside present mazdir; Khan 2002b: 405-6, 2004: 93).
(12.) This leveling was facilitated by the loss of the old imperfect in the eastern Aramaic dialects, which left the imperative stem synchronically isolated.
(13.) And the now extinct dialect of the villages of Mlahso and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], discovered by Jastrow in the late 1960s. See Jastrow 1985 and 1994a.
(14.) For a complete list, see Tsereteli 1977: 245-47.
(15.) I follow Huehnergard (1995: 266ff.) in assuming that the dialectal diversity of early Aramaic (beginning of the 1st millennium B.C.) was to a large extent leveled by the spread of Imperial Aramaic, and that this latter is the approximate ancestor of the subsequent dialects, standing in much the same relationship to Middle and Modern Aramaic as, say, Hellenistic Koine to (almost all) medieval and modern Greek dialects.
(16.) Hoberman's diagram (1989: 5) actually has Turoyo, NENA, and Modern Mandaic branching off from different points within East Aramaic, with the first two much closer to each other than to Mandaic. Although this model comes closer to the notion of a dialect continuum (see below, [section]2.3), it still treats the NENA dialects as having a single common intermediate ancestor separate from both Turoyo and Mandaic, i.e., a "Proto-NENA," the personal pronouns and suffixes of which he attempts to reconstruct in Hoberman 1988.
(17.) Nakano 1973 gives a collection of texts recorded from a speaker of the Jewish dialect of Gzira (Cizre), just east of the Tur 'Abdin, but provides no grammatical analysis.
(18.) This interpretation is followed by Kaufman 1997: 117-18, who distinguishes three Middle Aramaic varieties (Western, Syrian, and Eastern) rather than the traditional Western vs. Eastern dichotomy.
(19.) On the dialectal position of Modern Mandaic, see n. 56.
(20.) As Warren Cowgill put it in his survey of the Indo-European family, "Two or more languages, related to one another, are placed together in a subgroup when they have a significant number of innovations in common which are not present in any other related language (or when they can be proven to have arisen independently elsewhere)" (Cowgill and Mayrhofer 1986: 16; my translation).
(21.) See Harrison 2003: 233-38, although his confessed "despair" is not entirely justified. After all, many phonetically "natural" and/or crosslinguistically common sound changes are much more likely to occur in one direction than the other, e.g., debuccalization, rhotacism of *z > *r, palatalization of velars before front vocalics, etc. Similarly, the distribution of lexical features is often not probative for subgrouping, but unidirectional semantic shifts can be: e.g., Proto-Indo-European *wiH-ro- and *[yeb.sup.h]- preserve their original meanings of 'young' resp. 'enter' in Tocharian, but have shifted to 'man' resp. 'f*ck' in most other Indo-European languages. Nevertheless, morphological innovations do usually play a crucial role in subgrouping arguments. Note for instance that of the 37 non-lexical characters in Ringe et al.'s (2002) computational investigation of the best-fitting cladistic tree for Indo-European, fully 15 are morphological.
(22.) With variable retraction to the preceding syllable, especially in certain categories such as vocatives; for examples, see Khan 2002b.
(23.) Data for this dialect are based on Hoberman 1993 and Sabar 1995.
(24.) I.e., the so-called Fellihi dialects. Data for these are drawn from the classic descriptions of Sachau 1895 and Rhetore 1912, along with Sabar 1978.
(25.) I will argue elsewhere (R. Kim forthcoming a) that within the latter group, Turoyo, Hertevin, and C. Aradhin have underlying final stress which is retracted one syllable by a (near-)categorical constraint against word-final surface stress, whereas other dialects (e.g., Jilu) have gone one step further and reanalyzed underlying stress placement on the penultimate.
(26.) The 3sg. m. must go back to *-ayhu, the allomorph after plural nouns and prepositions which originally ended in *-ay (cf. Imperial Aram. -auhi, Babylonian Aram. -e(h)); this presumably served as the basis for the creation of f. *-ahu. On the complicated history of these variants, see Boyarin 1981: 615-18 and (for MA) Polotsky 1961: 16-17.
(27.) The variant -o is "au[beta]erst selten gebraucht" (Jacobi 1973: 204 n. 1).
(28.) The variants m./f. -u(h), f. -aw in the speech of Rev. Harboli (Sabar 1995: 34-35) may reflect interference from his native MA dialect of Harbol, in the Bohtan area (cf. Bohtan -ew, -aw, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] n -u, -aw).
(29.) In this and some neighboring Christian dialects (e.g., Alqosh -eh, -ah, C. Zakho -eh, -ah; cf. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] -eh, -ah), final *-u in *-ehu, *-ahu was apparently apocopated, and the now word-final *h was strengthened to a pharyngeal (Khan 2002a: 17). The dialect of Hassane has -ah for both m. and f., e.g., betah 'his, her house' (Jastrow 1997b: 277-78).
(30.) Admittedly, the somewhat irregular distribution of the two groups might make one wonder whether the leveling of the two sets of suffixes in Turoyo might have been independent of the same change in the northwest Iraqi dialects. The Tiyari dialects now spoken along the Khabur River in Syria present a mixed picture: four tribal varieties have leveled m. -e, f. -a, while the rest retain separate nominal and verbal suffixes (Talay 1999: 171).
(31.) Forms from Jastrow 1997a: 363; Hopkins 1989: 427.
(32.) These dialects have substituted [C.sub.1]a[C.sub.2][C.sub.3]-ena (with the ending -ena from III-y verbs, cf. Syr. hazena) for the older 1sg. m. [C.sub.1]a[C.sub.2]i[C.sub.3]-na, no doubt under the influence of 1sg. f. [C.sub.1]a[C.sub.2][C.sub.3]a-na, which could be reanalyzed as [C.sub.1]a[C.sub.2][C.sub.3]-ana.
(33.) The Cudi dialects have actually extended the pattern of 1sg. m. -[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ~ -ena to 2sg. m. -[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ~ -etena and 1pl.-ux ~ -uxena, whereas C. Nerwa has created 3sg. m. y-damxena beside [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'he sleeps.' Interestingly, the J. Koy Sanjaq long variants in e.g., 2sg. m. baxet([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), f. baxyat([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) 'you cry' and 1pl. baxex([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) 'we cry' could be from earlier *-etena, *-atena, *-ixena/*-exena, comparable to the long forms in Cudi.
(34.) These are the "neutrische Verben" of Jastrow (1985a: 71ff.). For more details, and the situation in Mlahso, see [section]3.3, no. 2 and n. 53.
(35.) On the intransitive perfects Hertevin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]iz-en 'I (m.) have gone' and J. Azerbaijani qim-en 'I (m.) have stood,' see no. 6 below.
(36.) Cf. also J. Sakkiz (Iranian Kurdistan) intransitive (y)tiw-na 'I (m.) sat down' vs. transitive xze-li 'I saw' (Goldenberg 1998: 68).
(37.) Attested in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and Mandaic, e.g., Mand. mpaqode 'order(ing)," matsote 'hear(ing)' (Noldeke 1875: xxvii, 142-44, 233-34). The Jewish Azerbaijani dialects have eliminated the distinction between [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and collapsed them into a single binyan for all verb roots, with continuous present [C.sub.1]a[C.sub.2]o[C.sub.3]- originally proper to the [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] conjugation (Garbell 1965: 62ff.; Hoberman 1991:60-61); similarly for J. Sulemaniyya and Halabja, with garose 'pulling,' 3sg. m. garosa-y 'he is pulling' like mardoxe 'boiling,' mardoxa-y 'he is boiling' (Khan 2004: 80-82, 2005: 360-61).
(38.) This is still largely true in dialects such as J. Sulemaniyya and Halabja, where the actual/continuous present with active participle + copula (e.g., 'o kwasa-y tex 'he is coming down'; Khan 2004: 318-19) is "not very extensively attested in the text corpus." Khan infers that this formation is "losing ground to the indicative qatil form, with which it overlaps in function," but it seems more likely that the grammaticalization of the actual present was just getting underway in these dialects, and that the inherited *[C.sub.1]a[C.sub.2]i[C.sub.3]- type continued to be used for most present functions. (Cf. Qaraqosh, where the construction copula + active participle is restricted to the verbs 'go' and 'come,' e.g., [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'azola 'he is going' [Khan 2002a: 349].)
(39.) Cf. also the copula + finite verb constructions in [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]n and J. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], e.g., [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 3sg. m. hole [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'he is opening' (Hoberman 1989: 45; Sinha 2000: 131), beside the usual infinitive + copula.
(40.) Khan 2002a: 18 describes la-palix as a "typologically more advanced form of the progressive construction that is used in the Qaraqosh dialect, since this particle appears to be a fossilized form of the copula that has come to be used in an invariable form throughout the paradigm." The Jewish dialect of Dobe has na- for Arbel la- (Khan 1999b: 219, 2000: 323).
(41.) Goldenberg 1992: 131-33 examines a sample of such forms and suggests that their common value is rather one of "facts realized or presumed inferentially on the part of the persons involved," i.e., completed action inferred but not personally attested. But as it is often difficult to draw a clear line between perfect and narrative value (cf. the Turkish suffix -mis-, which Goldenberg cites in this connection), I retain the label "perfect" for the Turoyo formation for the time being. On the perfect in Mlahso and its prehistory, see n. 53.
(42.) This particle recurs in Christian Koy Sanjaq, but there it is prefixed to the past participle (and in the first and second persons, the copula) to form a stative perfect. Cf. 3sg. m. l-skira, f. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'is lost,' 1sg. m. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], f. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] vs. dynamic perfect skirele, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'has lost; has gotten lost,' 1sg. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Mutzafi 2004a: 255-56, 260-62).
(43.) In contrast, the Cudi dialects immediately to the east do have transitive perfects, although only the full (tonic) copula is attested, e.g., hole mlita 'he has filled' (Sinha 2000: 106).
(44.) In the dialects of southern Iranian Azerbaijan, m. grislen.
(45.) Contracted from the longer forms, and reanalyzed as consisting of past participle + subject suffixes (1sg. m. -en, f. -an).
(46.) In a few dialects, the preterite has now become completely resistant to pronominal object marking, so that one must have recourse to preterite prefix (qam-, kim-, etc.) + present: cf. C. Nerwa [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'I took' vs. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'I (m.) took her,' C. Koy Sanjaq [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'he opened' vs. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'he opened it (m.),' or Senaya pseh-le vs. qam-pseh-le 'id.' (Talay 2001: 18; Mutzafi 2004a: 256; Heinrichs 2002: 242-43).
(47.) Less clear is the prehistory of the pattern first documented in Hertevin, whereby the subject marker takes the endings of the present when followed by an (extraconjugational) object marker, e.g., hze-li 'I saw,' gwer-roh 'you (m.) married' (< *-loh) but hze-len-nah 'I (m.) saw you (f.)' (< *-len-lah), gwer-ret-ta 'you (m.) married her' (< *-let-la) (Jastrow 1988: 61-62). The subsequent discovery of examples in early MA manuscripts from northern Iraq, e.g., maxwaw li zuza de-hvel-len-nawxon 'show me the money that I gave you!' (seventeenth century), dex d-mer-ren-nux 'as I told you' (nineteenth century; Pennacchietti 1991, 1994: 272-75; Goldenberg 1993: 300-302, 2000: 84-86; Mengozzi 2002: 34-35, 45-47), leads Mengozzi to the conclusion that this is "an archaic feature preserved in marginal areas, rather than an innovation of the Hertevin dialect." More precisely, forms such as *hze-lin-lax, *gwir-lit-la arose as variants of original *hze-li-lax. *gwir-lux-la sometime before the seventeenth century in dialects of southeastern Turkey and western Iraqi Kurdistan, but were later eliminated everywhere except in Hertevin.
(48.) Heinrichs 2002 makes the same observation for the distribution of the (general) present with prefix kV-(258-59, 260) and the perfect based on the passive participle in status emphaticus, i.e., feature no. 6 here (261). In a similar vein, Khan 2002a: 17 ascribes certain morphological peculiarities of the Qaraqosh dialect to "a greater tendency to archaism ... rather than to the sharing of innovations with other dialects. These archaisms may have been preserved in the Qaraqosh dialect on account of its location on the periphery of the NENA area." Especially striking is the preservation of the original form of derived stem imperatives and infinitives in Qaraqosh, whereas Mlahso, Turoyo, and the rest of NENA have generalized prefixal m- from the present and preterite (as already in Syriac; Khan 2002a: 11-13, 86, 2007: 10-13).
(49.) Mutzafi 2004b: 212 derives the latter forms from an unattested masculine *[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] corresponding to Syr. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'paternal aunt,' but this will not account for the geminate of Turoyo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
(50.) And perhaps other pre-1915 villages to the north and west of the Tur "Abdin, including those whose MA speakers had shifted to Anatolian Arabic in comparatively recent times (e.g., the Christian villagers of Quturbul, who reportedly spoke a MA dialect until c. 1850; Heinrichs 2002: 246 n. 28).
(51.) Specifically, raising and rounding of *a > *o in Turoyo and Mlahso must have preceded *VCC > *V:C ([section]2.1) as well as the Turoyo shortening of vowels in closed syllables, which in turn preceded *iw, *uw > u (e.g., subjunctive 3sg. kotu 'that he writes' < *kotiw). For details, see R. Kim forthcoming b.
(52.) The inherited word for 'son' has been extended to brona (C. Urmia [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) everywhere east of Hertevin.
(53.) The discrepancy in preterite and perfect formation between Turoyo and Mlahso (Jastrow 1994a: 14-15) is due to later innovations in both languages. The generalization of *CaCCiC- > *CaCiC- as the perfect of intransitives led to an asymmetry in the verbal system, as no corresponding perfect existed for transitive verbs. Mlahso resolved this imbalance by extending the intransitive perfect *CaCiC- to transitives, whereas Turoyo lost the aspectual distinction between preterite and perfect. Subsequently, Turoyo reintroduced an aspectual contrast by prefixing ko- to the preterite to form a new perfect. Cf. the paradigms for 'sleep' and 'pull' in Mlahso, Turoyo, and the latest stage ancestral to both:
preterite perfect pre-M/T intrans. (*dmix-le) *damix trans. *gris-le -- Mlahso intrans. dmix-le damix trans. gris-le garis Turoyo intrans. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE [TEXT NOT IN ASCII] REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] trans. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE [TEXT NOT IN ASCII] REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
(54.) Heinrichs 1990; xii, 2002: 245 suggests that the main opposition within NENA is not one of Christian vs. Jewish, but rather of Christian and Northwestern Jewish vs. the remaining Jewish dialects. Although this is largely true for the features examined in [section]3.1, the distribution of nos. 2 and 3 and the variation at the western edge of nos. 4-6 are best explained by the geographical diffusion of innovations originating in a focal area in northwestern Iraq.
(55.) Edgar H. Sturtevant first suggested this interpretation in the 1930s (in rather extreme form as the "Indo-Hittite hypothesis"); it was largely abandoned in following decades, but since the 1970s has emerged as the consensus view among Indo-Europeanists. See Cowgill 1974 and more recently Ringe et al. 1998; Jasanoff 2003: passim.
(56.) The survival of the MidAr perfect in Modern Mandaic suggests that the prefixed conjugation was lost before the suffixed conjugation in spoken Aramaic of the eastern regions.
Although I have not investigated it in detail, the relation between Modem Mandaic (MM) and the rest of MA also supports the historical interpretation of MA as a dialect continuum. In many cases, MM, like Mlahso/Turoyo (and MWA), preserves MidAr forms which have been lost or remodeled in NENA. Thus the MM 3sg. pronoun is m. huy, f. hid (cf. Turoyo [Midyat] huwe, hiya), without the initial a- of the NENA dialects; and the 1pl. verbal suffix ends in -en (cf. Turoyo -ina, Syr. m.- innan), not -ax as in NENA. For other features, MM sides with NENA, at least partially: e.g., the 3pl. pronoun can end in -i (hanni, beside hannex), like NENA ani. Note also that Mandaic retains pres. 1sg. -na (m. qa-gatelna, f. qa-gatlana 'I kill') like Mlahso/Turoyo, Qaraqosh, and the eastern Jewish dialects, confirming this as a Randarchaismus. (All data are from Macuch 1993.)
(57.) And down into central Mesopotamia, where Jewish Babylonian Aramaic was spoken through the first millennium A.D., and the homeland of the Mandaeans in Khuzistan; perhaps also east into present-day Kurdistan and Iranian Azerbaijan, although the early migratory history of these MA speech communities remains largely obscure (cf. Hopkins 1999: 326 on the Aramaic-speaking Jews of northwestern Iran).
(58.) On isogloss bundles and their frequent correlation with cultural traits, see Chambers and Trudgill 1998: 94-96, 100-102.
Interestingly, the cascade model, in which innovations begin in larger population centers and diffuse to smaller communities, and later to rural areas (Chambers and Trudgill 1998: 166ff.), is of limited usefulness for MA dialectology: most of the Turoyo/NENA innovations discussed in [section]3 appear to have spread in a largely horizontal manner, among adjacent dialects. However, the existence of so many changes common to the dialects of northwestern Iraq and Iranian Azerbaijan suggests that cascade-style diffusion from the Mosul plain to the Urmia area may have played a role. That, for example, the C. Urmia dialect shares penultimate stress and a fully grammaticalized perfect (formed from the status emphaticus of the MidAr passive participle) with nearly all the Christian and Jewish varieties of Iraq, whereas the Jewish dialects of Iranian Azerbaijan retain the older features, implies that such contacts between the two regions were more significant and/or longer-lasting within the Christian communities than the Jewish ones.