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Sport ethic prediction based on spiritual intelligence in Omid & National adult football team.


Sport is the most important factors in the industrial modern societies that the major of population practice in each country & considerable parts of their times devoted to the sport, football is considered as most popular & common sport & being filled with the audience for various meeting & enjoy the competition & confirmed by several hundred millions watchers [TV viewers]. Football is one of the most popular in Iran as more than 8 decades, most people with different ages enjoyed by it as by standers & on lookers. Today, football is part of society & every day paid attention to it, so managers & authorities must be paid attention to it more than other field. Ethical standards observation in sport environment or in competition is attended by authorities & practitioners in sport fairs & out lookers & has worldly & national primer dial, ethical standards observation are obligatory for all persons but it is not in practice & every day behavioral disorders, aggression, fraud & conspiracy & violations of numbers of athletics that are fine & penalties & they are denied from sport competitions. In recent years, ethical abnormalities, till procedural & ethical behavior among athletes, coaches & other authorities caused to specialists & sport sociologists are paying attention to them. Repeated violation of lows & regulations in sport & non-compliance with ethical norms, disregard for social values, crime & criminal behavior & delinquency, violation of code of conduct & ignore the principle of fair games & use of doping in the sport of limitless abundance in the world of sport [16].

Spiritual intelligence caused to be able to institutionalize the behaviors in their selves. This intelligence is the basic of all principals that human believed it & accept the durability of believes, opinions & values in activities. The intelligence that caused to give concept to activities & by it can be aware of our operations & know that which behaviors & performance have more available & which lives have better usage that can be as life style [17].

King [7] said that, spiritual intelligence is showing "the groups of ability, capacity & spiritual resources that used in daily life that caused to increasing the personal adaptability & ability to finding concept, abstract reasoning & solving the problems". King surveyed that on literature & designed extensive research or reliable & comprehensive model to measure spiritual intelligence & considered 4 components for spiritual intelligence includes; 1-critical thinking: it means as critical ability for essence, reality, nature, world, space, time, death & other metaphysical aspects. 2-create a personal significance: it means the ability of significant implications & there is goal in all financial experiences & physical life, also includes the capacity to create & dominate the aim of life. 3-transcendental consciousness: the ability of his/her & others transcendent dimension recognition & all physical worlds as non-financial & holistic. These definitions are shown that the meaning of this capacity; personal experiences, physical & natural or separate entity from the limitations of the financial [material] words 4-expanded test of consciousness: it means the ability of enter to the peak modes of consciousness includes; absolute consciousness, infinite consciousness, unity, the common view of consciousness as an awareness of it & any things & individual accountability surroundings [7].

Today, with increasing the numbers of elite sports & sidelining the spirit of the game, issue of moral weakness & decay caused to expressing the morality in sport. In definition of sport ethics must be paid attention to the characteristics in each society about compliance with ethical issues in sport. Sport ethics include indexes, features & moral traits that champions are bound to observe them in their sport field of technical regulations. Non-conformity they caused to negative results, such as; variability in the characteristics of competition, maintaining their behavior in rivalry & resentment, fair game & generally, some of features caused to make hero [10].

Contemporary times caused to destruct the athletes & future generation in using the doping drugs because of financial perspectives governance, including result-oriented consumption, major contracts with athletes, compete to attract players to the club in terms of technical indicators, regardless to their qualities as an industry & advertising utilization of sport players & away from the champions & effective players from morality & spirituality & capturing the spirit with false value. Management groups' little attention & inattention to the ethical values nearby physical abilities or the lack of attention to the religious indexes in the fair & frankly games that despite the emphasis on the religious foundation of the sport, we witness the misconduct in championship sports. Now days, abnormalities such as; game rules violation, disrespect for the opponent objected to referee misplaced, lost in times of violence, win at all costs approach makes a valuable phenomenon that caused to corrupt the sports [13].

Lonckosit [8], "Describe how to enforce moral duties among professional athletes", understood that athletes in championship & more professional levels do not perform as well as their ethical duties. Abusing the drugs are done among athletes & paying little attentions to the athletes' healthy & illegally, take the drugs to win some rivals.

Bowler [2], "Professional sports", understood that ethical standards observations are decreased among professional athletes, group Medias caused to making false costs on a person or team by using advertisements. Players who capitalist contracted with them & they deal with the right to know that any behavior on the playground & even swore at referee to say & be sure that the team will not be friend. In other hands, effective factors on ethical standards non-conformity in sports & sport competitions as basic attention to the results of competitions or winning oriented.

Schinder [14] said that some of ethical issues happened that an ethic wants to show the frame of be good in sports, but wants him/her that show an appropriate technical performance. More attention to win caused to the athletic use each way to obtain the win or maybe some of them are opposite of ethical & human values.

Belaire & Young [1] studied on the effects of spiritual intelligence on ethical behavior & found that persons who obtained high score in components; cantered creed, inner peace,, meaning & purpose in life, spiritual experience, patience, tolerance, forgiveness.

Hong [4] stated in his research on restoration of fair play, fraud, error & regulation play in sport athlete who expresses that it is international foul [specified breaking rules]& win the play or obtaining unfair advantage, threat of penalty opponent accepts it is not clearly cheating but has committed misconduct because it is shown that respect to the sport goals.

Ghobari Bonab [3] studied on "Spiritual intelligence" & the effective positive in personal life & specified that the concept of it includes ethics for solving problems that are in the different compasses such as cognitive, ethics, emotion & inner personal & help the people in coordination with different phenomenon & obtaining internal & external integration. This intelligence give a person overviewed of life & is able him/her to framework & re-analysis of experiences & recognize it.

Sayad Talaiee [12] studied on "Relationship between spiritual intelligence & sport ethics among elite athletes; handball, water polo, basketball & Karate in Isfahan" & resulted that there was relationship between sport ethics & spiritual intelligence components expect concept & goal in life, spiritual experiences.

Saghravani [11] studied on spiritual intelligence based on different researchers. He said that spiritual intelligence not only be spirituality but also predict adoptability & give him/her abilities that can solve the problems & receive to the goals.

Soltan Hossein studied on the relationship between believes components of spiritual intelligence with sport ethics, among 168 elite athletes of Isfahan club in 2009, the obtained results showed that there was meaningful & positive between believes components of spiritual intelligence & sport believes.

In at all, regarding to the role of spiritual intelligence in increasing the sport ethics based on spiritual intelligence in Omid & National adult football players. This research helps coaches, authorities & relevant organizations.

Research methodology:

The methods of this research are correlation & practical & surveying. The [statistical] population includes Omid & National adult football players in the time section in 2012 [n=50], because of limitation of society values are selected as selection & surveyed sample, for collecting data was used 2 types of questionnaires. For measuring the football players' spiritual intelligence questionnaire & it was [0.80] by using Cornbach Alpha that includes 28 questions & the answers is based on 5 Likert scales values, for measuring the sport ethic was used Sayad Talaiee sport ethic questionnaire that includes 28 questions & the answers were valued based on 5 Likert scale values & the reliability of questionnaire was [0.71] based on Cornbach Alpha. For analyzing data was used descriptive statistics [table of frequency distribution, bar graph, central mean index, standard deviation of distribution index]& deductive statistics [Smirnov tests, Pearson correlation coefficient, variance analysis, regression liner]& all of them were done by SPSS software.


The sample of research includes 50 persons 21-34 years old, the age mean of them was 25.08 & standard deviation was 3.94 & about the level of education 16 percents of them were lower than diploma, 50 percents of them had diploma, 20 percents of them had associate's degree, 14 percents had bachelor's degree.. Moreover, 64 percents of sample persons were singles & 36 percents of them were married. Their experiences in national team; the maximum experience was 15 years & experience mean was 3.8 years in national team & standard deviation was 2.83, while the percentage of urban, provincial, national & global experience levels were respectively 2, 10, 58 & 32 percents.

Kolomogorov Smirnov test for normal dada distribution

Before doing regression analysis, the liner relation is surveyed between spiritual intelligence & sport ethic variables by scatter plot & coefficient determination was 0.711 based on above plot.

The results of table [3] showed that the liner relationship is determined between spiritual intelligence & sport ethic [F=6.35, p[less than or equal to]0.05] in the other words, the determined coefficient is meaningful.

Regarding to the table [4], regression analysis showed that spiritual intelligence [t=2.52, p[less than or equal to]0.05] can predict the sport ethic, based on the results of Beta coefficient sport ethics 0.342 is increased per unit of spiritual intelligence, regression equation includes; spiritual intelligence 0.395 & sport ethic 2.35 based on spiritual intelligence.


The analysis of research showed that spiritual intelligence [p[less than or equal to]0.05 & t=2.52] can predict the sport ethic based on Beta coefficient, one unit of spiritual intelligence increasing, the sport ethic will be increased. Moreover, the observed results of spiritual intelligence make calms for human & able him/her to face the problems & issues more stable & can present better way to solve problems, so player who has spiritual intelligence considers himself bound by sport ethics. Sayad Talaiee [12] said that athletes who have high power to tolerance the hard & pressures of sport competitions, he is champion in the performance & behavior areas [4]. This finding is same as Belaire & Young [1], King [5], Smith [15], Sayad Talaiee [12], Ghobari Bonab [3] & Sultan Hoossein, Kohberg said that phantasm of him is the corn stone of human behavior. In fact, the image that a human are framed him by behavior & action & reaction of family, neighbors, coaches & this self-awareness, specify the kind of behavior to others. The more recognition of himself is deeper & more sophisticated, can judge behavior & behave better.

Based on Smith [15], spiritual intelligence need to better adoption of environment & persons who have high spiritual intelligence their tolerance face to life pressures will be increased & show ourselves high power to adoption to environment [??] Smith. S [15].

King [2008] said that spiritual intelligence caused to find new overview about confidence. Spiritual intelligence help to be a stable person & can increase our stress & worry & also can relate to others [6]. So, since athletes need to some factors such as cal, non-worried, the power of tolerance, realism & optimism, & all of these factors derived from spiritual affairs, so we can hope to the improvement players" sport ethics by strengthen the spiritual intelligence components. In at all, based on the findings ca say that if strengthen the spiritual intelligence & its components, so will be increased the level of players' sport will be increased by increasing each unit of spiritual intelligence as [0.342]. In other words, strengthen the spiritual intelligence in athletes & players give those groups of abilities, capacities & spiritual resources & then equip them to kinds of psychological weapon that then, they can represent the daily adoption in life, in fact, spiritual intelligence give persons' ability of final concept, abstract reasoning & solving the problems, based on it the athletes can control himself to facing problems & conflicts, also if wants to the unethical & non-sport [for example; doping, irritability, betting & collusion], feature critical thought caused to prevent them from these behaviors, so, strengthen the athletes' spiritual intelligence & players' spiritual intelligence & players of sport teams are necessary for sport behavior improvements, in other words, spiritual intelligence give human ability to institutionalize behaviors from inner of himself, we believe this intelligence & all things that related to it; believes, norms, values & opinions in our activities & we can concept our activities by this intelligence by this intelligence & know the concept of them & which of them are correct & logical so athletes who have high level of spiritual intelligence not only they have adoption ability & solving problems ability & they are better situation & cognitively, but also they have insight & overview of e vents & life experiences. They are able to deal with frames & reinterpret their experiences, knowledge & depth of their knowledge. These persons think to the high & better goals in their lives or in play ground as they know the competition parts of their life & don't values to winning & losing that sacrifice their life to it. For these persons spirituality ethical & human values are in priority, such persons prevent to conflict to others & think to behaviors.

Regarding to the findings of spiritual intelligence showed that it is can predict the football players'' sport ethics & caused to decrease the anomalies & deviancy & it must be strengthen for prevent the corruption, ethical & moral wholesome athlete.

Finally, proposed that for improvement the sport situation, the investment will be increased in this area more than designing & implement the strengthening classes for athletes, coaches & authorities of sport teams.

Article history:

Received 11 September 2013

Received in revised form 21 November 2013

Accepted 25 November 2013

Available online 31 December 2013


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Elaheh Jahaniyan Najaf Abadi, Azam Nourollah, Mohhamad Reza Keshani, Reihaneh Ghaheri

Department of physical Education, Mobarakeh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mobarakeh, Iran

Corresponding Author: Elaheh Jahaniyan Najaf Abadi, Department of physical Education, Mobarakeh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mobarakeh, Iran

Table 1: The results of Smirnov test for data normal

Indexes          Mean    SD       Z       P

Spiritual        4.04   0.372   0.474   0.978
Sport ethics     4.1    0.344   0.927   0.356

The results of table [1] showed that the data distribution
is normal in spiritual intelligence [p = 0.978, z = 0.474] &
sport ethics are [p = 0.358, z = 0.927]

Table 2: Durbin-Watson results of coefficient determination

Model   Correlation   r Square   Adjusted   Estimated   Durbin-Watson
           value                 r Square      SD

1          0.342       0.117      0.098       0.52          2.29

Table 3: Variance analysis test about sport ethics
prediction based on spiritual intelligence.

Prediction       Model      Total    df   Square    F        P
variable                    square         mean

Intelligence   Regression    1.69    1     1.68
               Remaining    12.73    48   9.265    6.35   0.015 *
                 totals     14.41    49

* It is meaningful in the p [less than or equal to] 0.05

Table 4: Liner regression coefficient.

Model            Non-standardized    Standard      T        P
                   coefficients      Coefficient

                   B     Standard      Beta

Constant         2.35     0.642        0.342      3.66   0.0001 *
Spiritual        0.395    0.157                   2.52   0.015 *

* it is meaningful in the [P [less than or equal to] 0.05]
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Author:Abadi, Elaheh Jahaniyan Najaf; Nourollah, Azam; Keshani, Mohhamad Reza; Ghaheri, Reihaneh
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Nov 1, 2013
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