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Spectrometric parameters of serum samples from pregnant women with preeclampsia.

Introduction

According to Shalyna (1997) the study of biochemical aspects in the development of pathological reactions in preeclampsia led to the establishment of the role of reactions free radical lipid peroxidation (LPO) as a universal mechanism of damage cellular membranes. Shalyna (1997) and Burlev (1991) consider that peroxidation processes are main factor in regulation the condition of the lipid bilayer membrane and occurs in cell membranes in normal and in various pathological conditions. Vladimirov and Verbolovish argue that free radical lipids oxidation is an integral part not only of normal cell physiology; it often can act as a key link in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Hallivel (1981) and Kulakov (1995) shows in analysis of some experimental data that preeclampsia leads to increase concentration of primary lipid peroxidation products in pregnant women with various severity of preeclampsia and a direct dependence between the severity of preeclampsia and the concentration of malon dialdehyde (final product LPO) in plasma. Determination of lipo-peroxidation intensity level is not a routine method and requires use of special reagents.

We performed research using the optical spectroscopy of serum samples from 67 pregnant women in risk group for the development of preeclampsia; out of them 56 pregnant women were complicated by preeclampsia of varying severity (main group). The comparison group included 11 pregnant women with uncomplicated preeclampsia during gestation. Spectrometric research of serum was performed in different pregnancy groups 12-16, 26-30, 34-36 weeks of pregnancy.

As a result of mass spectrometric investigations we obtained the following results (Figure 1). In the measurement of optical radiation water, repeatability of absorption spectra for a long period of ranges from 1%, and this value should be taken as the error measurement.

The Figure 1 shows that in physiological pregnancy the spectral signature is in the zone of normal metabolism, thus confirming that the levels of oxygen active forms is within the normal range.

In pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia the spectral signature is characterized by increased absorption of optical radiation, and the spectral signature is much lower than spectral signature which is characteristic for physiological pregnancy. At preeclampsia the quantity of oxygen active forms in serum was increased.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Kulakov (1995) and Lankin (1995) in their clinical studies confirmed the presence of correlation. Currently there are a large number of clinical studies that reliably confirms the correlation between the intensity of free radical oxidation and the development of various pathological processes.

In the result development of placental ischemia, occurring in preeclampsia, disorder the process of oxidative phosphorylation, decreased activity of respiratory enzymes and cells become unable to utilize the available oxygen. This leads to a significant formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS have negative effects on the biological structure; through the initiation and maintaining of uncontrolled lipid peroxidation the lead to changes in the structural and functional organization of cell membranes, changes in permeability and ion imbalance.

Despite the fact, that oxygen and oxidation reactions are crucial meaning for the generation of energy, undesirable side effects are inevitable. There are protective mechanisms for the control of oxygen levels. One of them is the four-electron reduction of molecular oxygen to water, as intermediate products form free oxygen radicals superoxide anion (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxylation (OH-).

Oxygen radicals act as intra--and intercellular mediators of signal transduction. Excessive formation of free radicals underlies pathological processes and is accompanied by dysfunction of the vascular endothelium which is specific to preeclampsia.

According to Lankin (1995) the amount of water in the body reaches 60-80%. Therefore, all biochemical processes in the body occur in water media; moreover, many intracellular processes in principle are impossible without the participation of water. Water molecules, those in direct contact with the surface of phospholipids bilayer cell membrane, form with head of phospholipid molecules in hydrogen bonds. This part of the water molecules is the first layer that has the strongest connection with the phospholipids of cell membranes. This layer of water molecules can be considered as a monolayer adsorbed on the phospholipid surface. The strict orientation of water molecules occurs only in the first and second monolayers. The ordering of water molecules in the subsequent, adjacent to the bio-membrane water, layers pronounces already less; and at a distance of more than 15A (fourth or fifth monolayer) their properties similar to the properties of conventional water.

According to Le Chatelier-Braun principle in an equilibrium system the disturbance must be compensated by change. Dissolution in water, a polar substance leads to a concentration around its molecules of free water molecules. The dipoles of these water molecules are oriented so that weakens the electric field of polar solute. The interaction of water and biopolymers is determined by the interaction, both polar and apolar groups. Around biomolecules, dissolved in water with apolar groups, the water layers in the form of chains and radially arranged layers are structured; such layers of water are called "bound water". These chains of 'bound water" contribute to a sharp acceleration directed reactions when exposed to a proton at one of their ends, and there is a rearrangement of the chain with the formation of his optical isomer.

Molecules of organic substances have complex geometry form and therefore can be packed more densely than spherical particles. In condition a more dense packing formation of hydrogen bonds water-macromolecule becomes more favorable. This determines the principle of the introduction of water molecules in bio-macromolecule implemented in the form of accession of single molecules. Polar chains of biomolecules ended anions and cations, such as amino acids, can exist in the form of a continuous anion-cation communication, hydrated by a single molecule of water. Thus, biomolecules are capable of establishing H-bonds with water and to play the role of matrix for giant crystal lattices of water, called clusters. Cluster-forming actions of bio-macromolecule increase the structural organization of water; on the other hand, the structuring of water contributes to the stabilization of macromolecules.

The polar groups of proteins, directing water in proximity, limit the freedom of individual molecules movement. Non-polar radicals of biomolecme develop around the area of structured water that support in the space of their configuration.

Bio-macromolecular structure is very strongly connected to water, thus on the surface of biological structures the lifetime connection of "water cell membrane" can reach 10-5 seconds ("bound" water), remaining water is in a quasi-free state and the lifetime is 10-11 seconds (the so-called 'free" water). "Free" water is the source of short-lived reactive oxygen species (ROS). The lifetime of short-lived ROS is very small (10-13 s) and their influence on oxidative processes is small. "Bound" water is the source of long-lived forms of ROS, the lifetime of which is 10-5-10-6 seconds. So, long-lived forms of ROS, participating in the processes of biomolecules oxidation, lead to destruction of cell membranes.

In conditions when reactive oxygen formation is increased the number of hydrogen bonds in the clusters will be reduced; in these conditions the dense pack biomolecules is disturbed and leads to electronic breakdown of bio-membrane. Disorder of water molecules structure leads to slower reaction and to increases reactive oxygen species

Our research revealed a high content of oxygen active forms in the blood of patients with preeclampsia, evidenced by increased intensity of the absorption of serum by pregnant women with preeclampsia. Spectroscopic research of serum samples from pregnant high-risk groups for the development of preeclampsia can be used as a prognostic test for the development of this pregnancy complication.

References

Burlev V., 1991. A Free-radical oxidation of lipids in the system mother-placenta--fetus in obstetric pathology, Russia, Moscow

Hallivel B. et al., 1981. "Free radicals, antioxidants and human disease",

Journal Heart, Vol.1, pp.598-620

Lankin V.Z., Tikhadze A.K., Rakita L.Z., 1995. "Utilization of active forms of oxygen and lipoperoxides in the blood of patients with myocardial infarction", Journal Therapeutic archive, Vol. 5, pp.58-62

Kulakov V.Y., Murashko L.E., Burlev V.A. 1995. "Clinical and biochemical aspects of the pathogenesis of gestosis", Journal Obstetrics and gynecology, Vol.3, pp.3-5

Shalyna R.Y., 1997. "Membrane disorder in the pathogenesis of SPH-gestosis", Journal of the Russian Association of obstetricians and gynecologists, Vol.1, pp.36-43

Verbolovish V.P., Teplova L.L., Podgornaya L.M., 1996. "Regulation of oxidative homeostasis in certain pathological conditions", Journal Clinical physician, Vol.2, pp.4-18

Vladimirov U.A., 1985. The role of disorders of the barrier and the matrix functions of the lipid bilayer of biological membranes in pathology. Moscow

Nagima Mamedalieva, Talgat Patsaev, Aliya Aimbetova, Nagima Mamedalieva

Scientific Center of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Kazakhstan S.D.Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University (KazNMU)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15208/mhsj.2015.02
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Author:Mamedalieva, Nagima; Patsaev, Talgat; Aimbetova, Aliya
Publication:Medical and Health Science Journal
Article Type:Report
Date:Jan 1, 2015
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