Species richness and floral diversity around 'Teesta Barrage Project' in Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal, India with emphasis on invasive plants and indigenous uses.
The river Teesta is the most dynamic river in Sikkim and Darjeeling Himalayas and plays vital roles in conservation of diverse but fragile Himalayan as well as sub-Himalayan ecological and natural resources. It has originated in Cho Lhamu Lake at an elevation of 5,330m above sea level in the Sikkim Himalayas, and is then fed by rivulets, which arise in Thangu, Yumthang and Donkia-La ranges and flows past the town of Rangpo at the border between Sikkim and West Bengal up till Teesta Bazaar. At Teesta Suspension Bridge, which joins Kalimpong with Darjeeling, the river is met by its main tributary, the Rangeet River. At this point, it changes course southwards and hits the plains of West Bengal at Sevoke. The river then courses its way to Jalpaiguri and then to Lalmonirhat district of Bangladesh, before finally merging with the mighty Brahmaputra (Jamuna) in Gaibandha. The upper catchment receives a total annual rainfall of 1,328 mm, while the middle of the basin receives 2,619 mm with a mean of 2471.3 mm in Jalpaiguri district (WBSAPCC, 2010). It has been recorded that about 77-84% of the annual rainfall is received between June and September. Several barrages have been constructed in India and Bangladesh to tap the huge hydro-power resources of this mighty river of which TBP at Gajoldoba in Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal is an ambitious multipurpose project. It plans to irrigate 9.22 lakh ha of land in six districts of Indian north Bengal without any storage system.
However, due to excessive deforestation, human settlements, agriculture and diversion of river water through construction of barrages and possibly for climate change, the flow of Teesta is gradually dwindling, thus threatening a huge ecological catastrophe in Terai (western part of river) and Dooars (eastern part of river) of Eastern Himalayas (Sarker et al., 2011). The region is extremely rich in biodiversity, indigenous ethnic tribes and their cultural heritage and knowledge regarding ethno-medicinal and resource utilization, organic farming and tea plantations. The district of Jalpaiguri constitutes the major part of 'Dooars' in the foothills of Himalaya with numerous small and large rivers flowing through it. Despite rich in floral diversity, limited information is available regarding status and conservation of flora in this region, especially at 'Gajoldoba' where the TBP resides. Recently, zooplankton and avifaunal diversity have been studied in perspective of human interference around 'Gajoldoba' wetland (Datta, 2011a,b). No reports, however, are available regarding floral diversity and its indigenous uses by local people inhabiting around 'Gajoldoba beel'.
Alien and invasive plant species are second worst threat to native biodiversity after habitat destruction. Accumulating evidences indicate that threat by invasiveness increases with increasing water stress, drought, metal toxicity, environmental pollution and climate change (Vila et al., 2007; Yang et al., 2007). The 'Gajoldoba beel' and its surroundings are now exposed to huge transportation, tea garden activities, agriculture, human settlements, and tourism, all of which may pose huge risk to native biodiversity and indigenous knowledge-based medicine. As TBP is a trans-national issue, the status of floral diversity, invasiveness and ethno-medicinal uses need urgent inventory and documentation. Considering all the above perspectives, the present study was undertaken around TBP regions to document the plant diversity, and use of herbal plants by indigenous people in this biodiversity rich wetland. The main objectives were to 1) document the plant community, 2) perform ecological analysis, and 3) identify plants showing invasiveness and used in various purposes, especially for medicine by local people in the study area.
Materials and Methods
(a) Study area
The present study was conducted in and around TBP (26[degrees] 20' N/ 88[degrees] 4' E) covering 'Gajoldoba beel', Saraswatipur Village, Saraswatipur tea garden and adjoining forest areas. The 'Gajoldoba beel' is actually a perennial cut-off meander of river Teesta in the Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal (Figure 1), and about 22 km away from its nearest tourist destination, Lataguri. This beel is managed by state-owned TBP, Odlabari division, and as it is connected with river Teesta, its water level fluctuates with Teesta and rate of river water discharge through barrage. Saraswatipur village is situated just south-west of the wetland, after which Saraswatipur tea garden is located. The rest of the region is covered by mountainous dense forest, forest roads, canals, and a road connected to Lataguri. The area experiences about 78% rainfall during the monsoon (June to September) and only 0.98% rainfall during winter (December to February) (Datta, 2011b). The average rainfall of this region is about 3200 mm and the mean temperature ranges from 32.8[degrees]C (max) to 6.9[degrees]C (min).
(b) Field study
Field work was carried out from October 2011 to January 2012, and June-November 2012 to document vegetation and their uses by local communities. The stratified random sampling approach was followed for phyto diversity survey in the present study. Sampling was done in all the strata i.e. trees, shrubs and herbs, as followed earlier (Talukdar and Talukdar, 2012c) with some modifications for the present area. The size of the quadrat for sampling of trees, shrubs and herbs was determined by species-area-curve method (Misra, 1968; Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg, 1974). A 20 x 20 m quadrat for trees (C30 cm cbh), 5 x 5 m quadrats for shrubs and 1 x 1 m quadrats for herbs were laid at each sample site. In each quadrat, the circumference at breast height (cbh) of all the trees with [greater than or equal to] 30 cm was measured. Trees with <30 cm cbh were considered as shrubs. For herbs, the number of species in the four 1 x 1 m quadrats was recorded. A total of 200 quadrats were randomly laid in the study sites. The plant species were identified using regional flora, IPNI (International Plant Names Index; www.IPNI.org) and herbarium collection in the Central National Herbarium, Kolkata, and voucher specimen was deposited at departmental herbarium of Botany Department, RPM College, Hooghly, West Bengal.
(c) Ecological parameters
Base line data of total plant number, frequency (%), density and abundance were calculated following Talukdar and Talukdar (2012a,c). Invasive nature of alien species, enlisted by IUCN, was studied using techniques of Baider and Florens (2011) and other recent works (Huang et al., 2009; Feng and Zhu, 2010), namely through a combination of random walks through the area along with a more quantitative sampling of the seedlings and larger woody plants (flowering or fruiting stage) in a series of square quadrats as mentioned above. The specimens were identified through extensive survey of available literatures, monographic works, and confirmed by IPNI data base (www.IPNI.org).
(d) Ethno-botanical study
For ethno-botanical study, village elders and local tribal healers were interviewed on the basis of semi-structured questionnaires and interactions, as described earlier in detail (Talukdar and Talukdar, 2012c). In majority of cases, the respondents (both male and female; the male constituted over 70% of respondents) targeted were over 35 years of age. Also, younger generation was taken into confidence to get their awareness and interests in the traditional ethno-botanical practices. Local weekly markets (hats) in the vicinity of the Baikunthapur forest and Saraswatipur tea gardens were also surveyed to take a glimpse of availability and utilization of plant resources. Plant specimen was tabulated through interviews of knowledgeable people like temple priests, village head, old experienced folk, medicine men, farmers, teachers, etc. Gathered information was thoroughly cross-checked through "structured questionnaires, and documented thereafter. Voucher specimen was deposited at departmental herbarium of Botany Department, RPM College, Hooghly.
(e) Statistical analysis
Data of different seasons were pooled for analysis. A level of P < 0.05 was considered significant.
In the present study, as many as 81 plant species (77 angiosperms and 4 ferns) distributed in 75 genera in 45 families have been identified and documented. Among the flowering plants, 61 species belonged to dicots and 16 species were monocots. Among the 45 families, dicot plants belonged to 33 families, while monocots were represented by 8 families. Family Fabaceae contained highest number of plant species, represented by 12 taxa and was followed by monocot family Poaceae with 7 taxa, and dicot Asteraceae with 5 species. Family Malvaceae and Euphorbiaceae possessed 4 taxa each, and were closely followed by Rubiaceae, Lamiaceae, Verbenaceae in dicot and family Zingiberaceae in monocot with 3 taxa in each case. Rest of the families contained either 1 or 2 taxa in the study area (Table 1). Maximum numbers (60.49%) of plants were herbaceous, followed by trees (22.22%), climbers (9.87%), shrubs (6.19%) and epiphytes (1.23%). Four fern taxa (Marsilea, Salvinia, Ampelopteris and Ceratopteris) distributed in four families were also documented in the present study (Table 1).
Among the base line diversity parameters, plant frequency (%), density and abundance varied greatly in the study area. Plant frequency ranged between 3.50% and 99% with maximum frequency was recorded for Ageratum conyzoides, Eichhornia crassipes, and Lantana Camara, and minimum for rubiaceous climber Hedyotis scandens (Table 1). More than 90% frequency was estimated for the 9 taxa Alternanthera sessilis, Achyranthes aspera, Bauhinia variegata, Cassia alata, Cynodon dactylon, Lemna acquinoctialis Mikania indica, Mimosa pudica, and Trema orientalis, while Parthenium hysterophorus, Mallotus philippensis, Enhydra fluctuans, Echinochloa crusgalli, Commelina bengalensis, Bauhinia variegata, Crotalaria pallida, and the fern Ampelopteris prolifera either touched 90% or was very close to it. The density which denoted total number of individuals per quadrat crossed 1.0 value in 41 species with highest value of 17.88 recorded in grass Cynodon dactylon, and it was closely followed by verbenaceous shrub Lantana camara (11.84) and the two daisies, Mikania indica (11.66) and Parthenium hysterophorus (9.83). Rest of the species exhibited values <1.0 of which density of Spilanthes oleracea in the family Asteraceae, Polygonum hydropiper in Polygonaceae, and Phyllanthus fraternus 4in the family Euphorbiaceae was 0.99 in each case (Table 1). Lowest density was estimated for Ficus hispida (0.05) of Moraceae with very close value of 0.06 in rubiaceous member Hedyotis scandens. Highest abundance (19.33) was observed for Cynodon dactylon, and it was closely followed by Mikania indica (12.21), Lantana camara (12.02), and Parthenium hysterophorus (11.04). Low density but high abundance was observed for Anisomelis indica, Arundo donax, Bambusa tulda, Bombax ceiba, Calamus rotung, Cassia tora, Clitoria ternatea, Coix lacryma-jobi, Ficus hispida, Hedyotis scandens, and the epiphytic orchid Vanda tessellata (Table 1).
Status of four taxa i.e. Cynodon dactylon, Lantana camara, Parthenium hysterophorus and Mikania indica showing very high frequency, density as well as abundance in the study areas has been documented. Among the 200 quadrats laid, Lantana camara was recorded in maximum (197) number of quadrats, followed by presence of M. indica, C. dactylon and P. hysterophorus in 191, 185 and 178 number of quadrats, respectively. Among these four most abundant species, Lantana, Mikania and Parthenium exhibited tremendous capacity to grow along roadside as well as deep inside the study areas. Cultivated fields and banks of water bodies were preferred by 20% and 10% species, respectively. Quadrat studies revealed high frequency and abundance of some other taxa like Ageratum conyzoides, Cassia alata, Eichhornia crassipes, Leucaena esculenta, Mallotus philippensis, and Phragmites australis (Table 1). The ratio of number of plants (cumulative of 200 quadrats) between cultivated field and roadside varied between 0.23-0.90, but it was close to 1.0 for Mikania indica, Cynodon dactylon (0.98), and >1.0 for Lantana camara as the data pooled over different seasons (Table 1). Among these 7 species, Mallotus philippensis showed highest density (7.83) and abundance (8.69), followed by rest six species in different magnitudes (Table 1).
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Among the 81 plant species, 36 plants (44.44%) were documented as used by local people for diverse types of medicinal purposes including diabetes, diarrhea and dysentery, constipation, fever, cough and cold, jaundice, cut and wounds, as anthelmintic, in high blood pressure, inflammation and other disorders (Figure 2). Largest numbers of plants (16) have been used in treating cough and cold fever, followed by inflammation, diabetes, diarrhea and dysentery, intestinal/gastric disorder, skin disease/infection and other problems. One plant each was found used in high blood pressure (Rouvolfia serpentina) and in treating high blood cholesterol (Cassia tora). The plants used in diabetes involved Abutilon indicum, Cassia sophera, Cassia tora, Clitoria ternatea, Nymphaea nouchali, Tinospora cordifolia and the fern Ampelopteris prolifera. While tender fresh fronds of the fern was cooked with methi seeds and brinjal to prepare a dish of vegetables, leaves juices of Abutilon, Cassia and Clitoria were extracted and taken in empty stomach in diabetes. On the other hand, rhizomes of Nymphaea nouchali were boiled and roasted and roots extracts from Tinospora cordifolia were taken to reduce high blood sugar. The plant parts included leaves, stems, shoots, rhizomes, seeds, inflorescence, and the whole plant. Pharmacological preparations include aqueous extracts, paste, boiled or roasted, water-soaked seeds, juice and cooked (Table 2). Leaves were used by majority of cases (22 genera), followed by bark (5), whole shoot, rhizome, root and fruits (3 each) and other parts such as resin, flower buds and seeds. The 36 plant species identified with medicinal uses were distributed in 22 families, of which 8 genera belonged to Fabaceae, and 2 genera each in Malvaceae, Amaranthaceae, Acanthaceae, Moraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Zingiberaceae, and Poaceae. Rest of the families contained one taxon each.
Besides cultivation for medicinal purposes, a number of plants have been utilized by local people in the study area for food, forage, fuel wood, commercial wood, thatching, furniture making, preparation of pickles etc. Prominent plant species used as food source were fruit trees of Diillenia indica, Ficus hispida, F. racemosa, leaves of Lathyrus sativus L., and the fern Ampelopteris prolifera. Many plants such as Acacia catechu, Albizia lebbeck, Cassia alata, Lathyrus sativus, Leucaena, Arundo donax, and Bambusa have been used as fodder. Barring the latter two species, all belong to the family Fabaceae. The fuel wood was mainly collected from Trema orientalis, Solanum, Bauhinia variegata, Bambusa spp, and Albizia lebbeck, whereas trunk and branches of Gmelina arborea and Shorea robusta were used as commercial woods. Species of Bambusa, and Calamus rotang were utilized in making of household furniture and preparation of local pickles (young tender leaves of Bambusa), fishing food etc. A leguminous plant Aeschynomene aspera and a grass Coix have been extensively exploited for 'commercial shola' and preparation of village ornaments, respectively.
Present investigation for the first time revealed base line information about floral diversity, plant invasiveness and indigenous uses of plants by local people residing around TBP. Results in Table 1 indicated dominance of dicot flora over monocot, and among the dicot families, Fabaceae dominated over others. Screening of 81 plant species, including 4 fern species, distributed in 75 genera under 45 families suggested rich biodiversity in the study area. This diversity was also manifested in plant habits which included herbs, shrubs, trees, lianes, climbers and epiphytes with clear dominance by herbaceous species in the study areas. Among the monocots, Poaceae with 7 members dominated over others. However, the dominance of leguminous members in the present study area is noteworthy, as these groups of plants exhibit diverse plant habits and are adapted in diverse agro-climatic regions showing higher tolerant to multiple stress factors like low temperature, drought, high rainfall, water stress, salinity, metal contaminations and biotic pressures (Talukdar, 2009a, 2011a, b). Wide range of frequency in plant species suggested significant variations in ecological parameters as revealed by quadrat study and uneven distribution of taxa. At least 20 species showed frequency around 90%, of which 3 species Ageratum conyzoides, Eichhornia crassipes, and Lantana Camara manifested frequency 99%, while distributions of Cynodon dactylon, Mikania indica, Parthenium hysterophorus, Crotalaria pallida and Cassia alata were >90%. Among these genera, Ageratum conyzoides, Eichhornia crassipes, Lantana Camara, Mikania indica, and Parthenium hysterophorus have been regarded as worst invasive flora by IUCN species survival commission (Lowe et al., 2000). The invasive nature of these taxa was also supported by high density as well as high abundance value in the present study area. It is also noteworthy that Leucaena esculenta, a mimosoid legume, exhibited abundant distribution in the study area, as revealed by randomly laid quadrats in different seasons. This observation has immense significance as a sister genus of L. esculenta, Leucaena leucocephala has been enlisted by IUCN in 100 worst invasive species (Lowe et al., 2000), and Leucaena reportedly exerts allelopathic effect on native flora during its invasion (Sahoo et al., 2007; Talukdar and Talukdar, 2012a). The absence of L. leucocephala in the present study area can be expected as plant cannot tolerate acidic soil and soils in North Bengal show acidic pH (Chakraborty et al., 2010). By contrast, the spread of L. esculenta in the present study sites revealed its tolerance to grow in acidic soil and indicated inter-specific differences in biological success of invasion for Leucaena species in different geographic and climatic conditions. Similar aggressive spread was also documented for Cynodon dactylon, Lantana camara, Parthenium hysterophorus and Mikania indica. This was evidenced by ratio of number of plants (cumulative of 200 quadrats) between cultivated field and roadside close to 1.0 in case of M. indica, C. dactylon and P. hysterophorus and >1.0 for L. camara. The results strongly indicated aggressive spread of species in open, under storey of forest and other ecotones with more successful establishment for L. camara. Results in Table 1 were pooled for three varieties of L. camara, showing distinct differences in flower color as red (L. camara var. aculeata), pink (L. camara var. armata) and brownish yellow (L. camara var. mista). The former two showed lower density but higher abundance than the latter (data not in Table). One of the strategies Lantana adopted during its successful invasion is a strong allelopathic effect through alteration of cellular and metabolic responses in target plants (Oudhia, 1999; Choyal and Sharma, 2011; Talukdar, 2013), and the plants possess strong bioactive compounds against bacterium (Bhadauria and Singh, 2011). Similar mechanism has been reported for Parthenium hysterophorus (Oudhia et al., 1997), Mikania indica (Ai-Ping et al., 2010), and Eichhornia crassipes (Chen et al., 2006). The spread of these alien and invasive weeds in the present study area is quite alarming to the conservation of native biodiversity in a disturbed area like TBP. Low density but high abundance as observed for Anisomelis indica, Arundo donax, Bambusa tulda, Bombax ceiba, Calamus rotang, Cassia tora, Clitoria ternatea, Coix lacryma-jobi, Ficus hispida and Hedyotis scandens indicated their sparse distribution in the study area. Among these taxa, gradual disappearance of C. rotang was evidenced by its low frequency in the quadrats which has very high economic value in the study area and is obviously under threat due to its low density. High frequency and abundance of Shorea robusta, as observed in the present study, is in agreement with an earlier study which revealed that plant diversity in moist Shorea forests of northern Bengal are higher than the dry forests of south-west Bengal (Kushwaha and Nandy, 2012).
Inventorying medicinal importance and resource utilization of plant species by local people was an integral part of the present study. The vast number of medicinal plants present in the region is an integral part of the livelihood of local communities. Results in Table 2 indicated extensive use of plant products by local people in different types of disorders including cough and cold fever, inflammation, diabetes, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, diarrhea and dysentery, intestinal/ gastric disorder, skin disease/infection, and other problems. A wide variety of plants (were used through diverse modes of pharmacological preparations, in which largest number of species were utilized from Fabaceae and was distantly followed by other 21 families. Extensive use and mode of pharmacological preparations of leguminous plant products/parts by ethnic tribes was also reported very recently in different altitudes of Sikkim Himalayas (Talukdar and Talukdar, 2012b), Sub-Himalayan as well as in plains of Gangetic West Bengal (Talukdar and Talukdar, 2012b,c). The revelation of seven plants used in diabetes in the present study is also noteworthy, in which fresh extracts of leaves were taken in majority of cases and has high significance as metabolic stress markers have recently been identified for Sikkimese diabetes (Bhutia et al., 2011). Preparations like aqueous extracts, paste, boiling or roasting, water-soaking of seeds, juice and cooking utilizing variety of plant parts strongly suggested richness of local knowledge-based traditional medicine among the forest dwellers, villagers, plantation workers, and mountain people. The raising awareness towards the importance of Himalayan and outer-Himalayan biodiversity and alarming rate at which they are being exploited from natural habitats leads to initiate various conservation actions to mitigate such uncontrolled resource exploitation and its management (Ray et al., 2011). Rich knowledge regarding use of plants in ethno-medicinal purposes was also reported in different geographical regions of Indian subcontinent (Pareek and Trivedi, 2011; Singh and Rawat, 2011).
Besides cultivation for medicinal purposes, a number of plants have been utilized for food, fodder, fuel, commercial fishing, manuring, and other household purposes in the study areas. Food preparations included raw fruits (Dillenia indica. Ficus spp), and cooked leafy vegetables (Ampelopteris prolifera, Lathyrus sativus). Most of the leguminous plants like Acacia catechu, Albizia lebbeck, Cassia alata, Lathyrus sativus, and Leucaena were used as forage for cattle feed. Among these taxa, Lathyrus sativus or grass pea has been used as dual purpose crop in the study area. Use of this papilionoid crop legume by different ethnic tribes has been reported in different climatic conditions (Talukdar and Talukdar, 2012b, c), and has great significance as the plant is rich in high protein, flavonoids and other antioxidative compositions with introduction of ilow seed neurotoxin containing genotypes through mutagenesis (Talukdar, 2008, 2009a,b, 2010a,b, 2012a,b,c). Among the small scale cottage industries, commercial 'shola' using Aeschynomene americana were found highly beneficial for local economics. Different types of wood works like furniture making are carried out with woods from Gme/ina arborea and Shorea robusta, while house hold requirements were mainly met by Bambusa spp. However, extensive use of Trema orienta/e and Leucaena as fuel crop by local people might have favored spread of these two alien trees in the TBP area. Cynodon dacty/on was the most efficient riparian species in conservation of soil, water and nutrients in surface runoff, as also reported earlier (Srivastava and Singh, 2012).
The present investigation for the first time revealed rich floral diversity and traditional knowledge in utilization of local flora for medicine and other economic purposes. The TBP region where the present study was carried out is gradually witnessing urbanization due to pressure from local tourism and barrage related activities. Present inventory, therefore, may give vital clues in conservation of floral diversity in and around lower Teesta basin.
Conflict of Interests
Author is grateful to local people for their continuous support to the present investigation.
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Department of Botany, RPM College (University of Calcutta), Uttarpara, Hooghly, West Bengal, India.
Accepted: 7th Dec 2012, Published: 9th Jan 2013
Table 1: Documentation of floral diversity around TBP, Jalpaiguri, West Bengal. Data pooled over 20 selected study sites and 10 quadrats/site (200 quadrats). S. No. Botanical name, Total Number of habit, use, family number of quadrats individuals in which a of the particular species (a) species occur (b) 1 * Abutilon indicum (L.) 90 95 Sweet, M, Herb, Malvaceae 2 * Acacia catechu (L.) willd., 109 150 oliv., tree, M, food, fodder, Fabaceae 3 * Aeschynomene aspera L., 337 65 commercial sola, M, Herb, Fabaceae 4 Albizia lebbeck (L.) 191 116 Benth., tree, forage, wood, Fabaceae 5 Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.) 133 122 Burtt. Herb, Zingiberaceae 6 * Alternanthera sessilis 390 195 (L.) R.Br.ex DC, M, Herb, Amaranthaceae 7 * Achyranthes aspera L., 498 190 M, Herb, Amaranthaceae 8 Ageratum conyzoides 836 198 L., herb, Asteraceae 9 * Ampelopteris prolifera 765 176 (Retz.) Copel Veg, M, Herb fern, Thelypteridaceae 10 Anisomelis indica 77 39 L., herb, Lamiaceae 11 * Annona reticulata 145 151 L., M, tree, fruit, Annonaceae 12 Arundo donax L., 85 76 shrub, fodder, Poaceae 13 Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.) 265 67 Willd., pickles, Fishing, shelter, tree, Poaceae 14 Bambusa tulda L, tree, 139 54 fuel, constructions, fodder, Poaceae 15 * Bauhinia variegata L., 414 181 tree, ornamental, M, fuel wood, Fabaceae 16 * Bombax ceiba L., tree, M, 71 80 Ornamental, Malvaceae 17 Calamus rotang L., climber, 70 69 furniture, Arecaceae 18 * Cassia sophera L., 87 90 M, Herb, Fabaceae 19 * Cassia tora L., 79 75 Herb, M, Fabaceae 20 * Cassia alata L., 880 190 Herb, Fabaceae 21 * Centella asiatica (L.) 339 101 Urban, M, Herb, Apiaceae 22 * Ceratopteris thalictroides 202 165 (L.) Brongn M, Herb-fern, Parkeriaceae 23 Chenopodium album L., 116 80 Veg, Herb, Chenopodiaceae 24 Clerodendrum infortunatum 230 128 L, herb, Verbenaceae 25 * Clitoria ternatea L, 39 19 M, Climber, Fabaceae 26 * Costus speciosus 98 69 (Koenig ex Retz.) Smith, herbs, M, Zingiberaceae 27 * Coix lacryma-jobi L., 55 26 M, Herb, Fishing, Poaceae 28 Commelina bengalensis L., 148 180 Herb, Commelinaceae 29 * Crotalaria pallida 763 176 L., M, herb, Fabaceae 30 * Croton bonplandianum 147 115 L., M, Herb, Euphorbiaceae 31 * Curcuma longa L, Herb, 343 80 M, spice, Zingiberaceae 32 * Cynodon dactylon (L.) 3576 185 Pers., M, Herb, Poaceae 33 Dentella repens (L.) Forst., 549 140 Veg, Herb, Rubiaceae 34 Dillenia indica L., 354 177 Food, tree, Dilleniaceae 35 Echinochloa crusgalli 303 180 (L.) P.Beauv., fish feed, compost, Herb, Poaceae 36 Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.), 760 198 Manure, aquatic herb, Pontederiaceae 37 * Enhydra fluctuans Lour., 404 180 M, compost, Herb, Asteraceae 38 Evolvulus nummularius (L.) 270 130 L. Herb, Convolvulaceae 39 * Ficus hispida Linn.f., 67 20 M, Veg, Tree, Moraceae 40 * Ficus racemosa L., 88 49 Veg, M, Tree, Moraceae 41 Gmelina arborea Roxb., 398 173 tree, wood, Lamiaceae 42 Grewia tiliaefolia Vahl., 105 95 tree, Tiliaceae 43 Hibiscus vitifolius 337 138 L., herb, Malvaceae 44 * Hedyotis scandens Roxb., 11 7 M, Climber, Rubiaceae 45 * Hygrophila schulli (Buch. Ham) 187 90 M.R. and S.M. Almeida, M, Herb, Acanthaceae 46 Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) 212 107 Royle, fish food, Herb, Hydrocharitaceae 47 * Ipomoea aquatica Forrsk., 190 79 M, Herb, Convolvulaceae 48 * Justicia adhatoda L., 139 111 shrub, M, Acanthaceae 49 Lantana Camara L, var. 2367 197 aculeata, var. armata, and mista, shrub, Verbenaceae 50 Lathyrus sativus L., Herb, 70 100 pulse, forage, veg, Fabaceae 51 Lemna acquinoctialis Welw. 557 189 A.Pont, compost, Herb, Lemnaceae 52 Leucaena esculenta L, 878 165 shrub, Fabaceae 53 Leucas lavandulaefolia 238 106 Rees, Veg, Herb, Lamiaceae 54 Mikania indica L, 2332 191 climber, Asteraceae 55 * Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) 1565 180 Muell. Arg., tree, M, Euphorbiaceae 56 Marsilea minuta L., Veg, 200 85 Herb, fern Marsileaceae 57 Mimosa pudica L., Herb, Fabaceae 779 192 58 * Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f., 433 98 Veg, M, Herb, Nymphaeaceae 59 * Ocimum basilicum L., 118 79 M, Herb, Lamiaceae 60 * Oxalis corniculata 439 162 (DC.) Raeusch., M, Veg, Herb, Oxalidaceae 61 Parthenium hysterophorus 1965 178 L., herb, Asteraceae 62 Phragmites australis (cav.) 769 139 trin. ex. Steud., herbs, thatching, Poaceae 63 Phyllanthus fraternus 198 113 Webster, Herb, Euphorbiaceae 64 Phyla nodiflora (L.) 185 89 Greene Herb, Verbenaceae 65 Pistia stratiotes L., 222 77 manure, Herb, Araceae 66 Polygonum barbatum L., 187 156 Herb, Polygonaceae 67 * Polygonum hydropiper 198 119 L., M, Herb, Polygonaceae 68 * Rauvolfia serpentina (Linn.) 232 82 Benth. ex Kurz., M, Herb, Apocynaceae 69 Ricinus communis L., shrub, 178 155 oil yielding, Euphorbiaceae 70 Salvinia cuculata Roxb., 178 70 manure, fern, Salviniaceae 71 Scoparia dulcis L., herb, Scrophulariaceae 434 163 72 Shores robusta Gaertn.f., tree, 1009 153 wood, leaves, Dipterocarpaceae 73 Sida cordata (Burm. f.) 176 90 Borssum Herb, Malvaceae 74 Solanum torvum L., Shrub, 228 68 fuel, Solanaceae 75 Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad & 75 40 Wendl, Herb, fuel, Solanaceae 76 Spermacoce hispida, 250 158 herb, Rubiaceae 77 Spilanthes oleracea L., 197 160 Veg, Herb, Asteraceae 78 * Terminalia bellirica L., 158 100 tree, M, Combretaceae 79 * Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) 276 174 Hook & Thoms., Lianes, M, Menispermaceae 80 Trema orientals (L.) Bl., 380 187 tree, fuel wood, Ulmaceae 81 Vanda tessellata. (Roxb.) 93 87 Hook, epiphyte, Orchidaceae S. No. F (%) D AB = b/200 = a/200 = a/b x 100 1 47.5 0.45 0.94 2 75.0 0.55 0.73 3 32.5 1.69 5.18 4 58.0 0.96 1.65 5 61.0 0.67 1.09 6 97.5 1.95 2.0 7 95.0 2.49 2.62 8 99.0 4.18 4.22 9 88.0 3.83 4.35 10 19.5 0.39 1.97 11 75.5 0.73 0.96 12 38.0 0.43 1.12 13 33.5 1.33 3.96 14 27.0 0.70 2.57 15 90.5 2.07 2.29 16 40.0 0.36 0.89 17 34.5 0.35 1.01 18 45.0 0.44 0.97 19 37.6 0.40 1.05 20 95.0 4.40 4.63 21 50.5 1.70 3.36 22 82.5 1.01 1.22 23 40.0 0.58 1.45 24 64.0 1.15 1.80 25 9.50 0.20 2.05 26 34.5 0.49 1.42 27 13.0 0.28 2.12 28 90.0 0.74 0.82 29 88.0 3.82 4.34 30 57.5 0.74 1.28 31 40.0 1.72 4.29 32 92.5 17.88 19.33 33 70.0 2.75 3.92 34 88.5 1.77 2.0 35 90.0 1.52 1.68 36 99.0 3.80 3.84 37 90.0 2.02 2.24 38 65.0 1.35 2.08 39 10.0 0.05 3.35 40 25.0 0.44 1.80 41 86.5 1.99 2.30 42 47.5 0.53 1.11 43 69.0 1.69 2.44 44 3.50 0.06 1.57 45 45.0 0.94 2.08 46 53.5 1.06 1.98 47 39.6 0.95 2.41 48 55.5 0.70 1.25 49 99.0 11.84 12.02 50 50.0 0.35 0.70 51 94.5 2.79 2.95 52 82.5 4.39 5.32 53 53.0 1.19 2.25 54 95.5 11.66 12.21 55 90.0 7.83 8.69 56 42.5 1.00 2.35 57 96.0 3.90 4.06 58 49.0 2.17 4.42 59 39.5 0.59 1.49 60 81.0 2.20 2.71 61 89.0 9.83 11.04 62 69.5 3.85 5.53 63 56.5 0.99 1.75 64 44.5 0.93 2.08 65 38.5 1.11 2.88 66 78.0 0.94 1.20 67 59.5 0.99 1.66 68 41.0 1.16 2.83 69 77.5 0.89 1.15 70 35.0 0.89 2.54 71 81.5 2.17 2.60 72 76.5 5.05 6.59 73 45.0 0.88 1.96 74 34.0 1.14 3.35 75 20.0 0.38 1.88 76 79.0 1.25 1.58 77 80.0 0.99 1.23 78 50.0 0.79 1.58 79 87.0 1.38 1.59 80 93.5 1.90 2.03 81 43.5 0.47 1.07 Note: * Plants used for medicinal purposes, data pooled over several trips in different seasons. Table 2: Mode of preparation and use of medicinal plant/parts by local community in the study area. S. No. Botanical name Plant parts used 1 Abutilon Flower, stem indicum (L.) cut, leaves, roots 2 Acacia catechu Bark (L.) willd., oliv. 3 Aeschynomene Leaves aspera L., 4 Alternanthera Leaves sessilis (L.) R.Br.ex DC 5 Achyranthes Leaves aspera L. 6 Ampelopteris Fresh frond prolifera (leaves) (Retz.) Copel 7 Annona Bark, reticulata L root 8 Bauhinia Bark, root, variegata L. flower buds 9 Bombax ceiba L. Resin, leaves, bark 10 Cassia sophera L Leaves 11 Cassia tora L. Leaves, seeds 12 Cassia alata L. Leaves 13 Centella asiatica Shoots (L.) Urban 14 Ceratopteris Leaves (fronds) thalictroides (L.) Brongn 15 Clitoria Leaves ternatea L 16 Costus speciosus Rhizome (Koenig ex Retz.) Smith 17 Coix Seeds lacryma-jobi L 18 Crotalaria Leaves, roots pallida L. 19 Croton Leaves bonplandianum L. 20 Curcuma longa L, Rhizome 21 Cynodon dactylon Leaves (L.) Pers. 22 Enhydra Shoots fluctuans Lour. 23 Ficus hispida Leaves, fruits Linn.f. 24 Ficus Fruits racemosa L. 25 Hedyotis Leaves, roots scandens Roxb. 26 Hygrophila schulli Leaves (Buch. Ham) M.R. and S.M. Almeida 27 Ipomoea aquatica Leaves Forrsk 28 Justicia adhatoda Leaves 29 Mallotus Fruit philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. 30 Nymphaea Leaves, flower, nouchali rhizomes Burm.f., 31 Ocimum Leaves basilicum L. 32 Oxalis corniculata Leaves (DC.) Raeusch. 33 Polygonum Whole shoot hydropiper L., 34 Rauvolfia Bark, root serpentina (Linn.) Benth. ex Kurz. 35 Terminalia Fruit bellirica L. 36 Tinospora Stem, root cordifolia (Willd.) Hook & Thoms. S. No. Mode of preparation Uses 1 Sun-dried powder, Anti-diabetic, digestive, decoction of the whole expectorant, diuretic, plant, poultice of astringent, analgesic, the leaves, roots anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic and aphrodisiac. Decoction in toothache and tender gums, boils and ulcers (leaves), fever, chest pain and urethiritis (roots) 2 Dried powder fungal infection 3 Leaf extract Cough, cold and fever 4 Fresh juice Fever 5 Fresh juice Cough and cold fever 6 Cooked with In diabetes 'methi' seeds 7 Root decoction, During fever (root), bark powdered and in diarrhea and mixed with honey dysentery (bark) 8 Bark is sun-dried, Bark is astringent, powdered, root anthelmintic, roots decoction, flower juice in snake poisoining, flower buds in diarrhea and dysentery 9 Resin, Leaf juice, Cough and cold, bark powder cut and wounds 10 Fresh juice or mixed In high blood sugar with little salt 11 Decoction of leaves, In high blood sugar, seed powder alone or carminative, anti mixed with water -cholesterol, seed powder in skin disease 12 Dried, ground in a In ringworm and mortar, mixed with fungal infection vegetable oil to a paste 13 Powder, leaf juice Anthelmintic, in stomach disorder 14 Fresh juice prepared Skin-disease 15 Decoction of leaves, Used in inflammation, fresh juice as analgesic, diuretic, in diabetes (fresh juice) 16 Dried powder, paste used to treat fever, rash, asthma, bronchitis, and intestinal worms 17 Powdered and mixed with In stiffness of limbs oil to make paste 18 Leaf extract, to treat urinary problems root poultice and fever, a poultice applied to swelling of joints and an extract of leaves to expel intestinal worms 19 Fresh leaf In cut and wounds juice or paste 20 Raw, Dried and powdered, In inflammation, paste made with water liver disorder 21 Fresh juice, paste with Cough and cold, carminative, turmeric and ginger pains, inflammation, toothache 22 Dried shoot powder Analgesic and in inflammation 23 Cooked fruit, In treating fever leaf juice and jaundice 24 Directly or dried used for treating pulp powder intestinal worms, leucorrhea 25 Leaf cooked, In gastro-intestinal problems root paste 26 Cooked In stomach disorder 27 Decoction In high blood sugar, gastric disorder 28 Decoction of leaves In cough and cold, alone or mixed with Ocimum, tal-misri' 29 Brown powder on In treating fever, fruit cover cut and wounds, ulcers 30 Fresh juice, Used in indigestion dried flower, boiled and treating diabetic or roasted rhizome 31 Fresh juice, mixed In cough and with 'vasak' cold, as tonic 32 Fresh juice Treating bloody diarrhea 33 Cold water infusion, Used in cough and mixed with wheat bran cold, in bowel syndrome 34 Bark powdered, root Used in treatment of extract with water insomnia, hypertension, and blood pressure related symptoms, root extracts in intestinal problem, diarrhea and dysentery, root used as an antidote of snake 35 Raw or powdered Used as expectorant in cough and cold, tonic 36 Aqueous stem As anti-spasmodic, and root extract anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, anti-allergic and anti-diabetic (root extract), febrifuge
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|Title Annotation:||Research Article|
|Publication:||Biology and Medicine|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2013|
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