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Species richness and floral diversity around 'Teesta Barrage Project' in Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal, India with emphasis on invasive plants and indigenous uses.


The river Teesta is the most dynamic river in Sikkim and Darjeeling Himalayas and plays vital roles in conservation of diverse but fragile Himalayan as well as sub-Himalayan ecological and natural resources. It has originated in Cho Lhamu Lake at an elevation of 5,330m above sea level in the Sikkim Himalayas, and is then fed by rivulets, which arise in Thangu, Yumthang and Donkia-La ranges and flows past the town of Rangpo at the border between Sikkim and West Bengal up till Teesta Bazaar. At Teesta Suspension Bridge, which joins Kalimpong with Darjeeling, the river is met by its main tributary, the Rangeet River. At this point, it changes course southwards and hits the plains of West Bengal at Sevoke. The river then courses its way to Jalpaiguri and then to Lalmonirhat district of Bangladesh, before finally merging with the mighty Brahmaputra (Jamuna) in Gaibandha. The upper catchment receives a total annual rainfall of 1,328 mm, while the middle of the basin receives 2,619 mm with a mean of 2471.3 mm in Jalpaiguri district (WBSAPCC, 2010). It has been recorded that about 77-84% of the annual rainfall is received between June and September. Several barrages have been constructed in India and Bangladesh to tap the huge hydro-power resources of this mighty river of which TBP at Gajoldoba in Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal is an ambitious multipurpose project. It plans to irrigate 9.22 lakh ha of land in six districts of Indian north Bengal without any storage system.

However, due to excessive deforestation, human settlements, agriculture and diversion of river water through construction of barrages and possibly for climate change, the flow of Teesta is gradually dwindling, thus threatening a huge ecological catastrophe in Terai (western part of river) and Dooars (eastern part of river) of Eastern Himalayas (Sarker et al., 2011). The region is extremely rich in biodiversity, indigenous ethnic tribes and their cultural heritage and knowledge regarding ethno-medicinal and resource utilization, organic farming and tea plantations. The district of Jalpaiguri constitutes the major part of 'Dooars' in the foothills of Himalaya with numerous small and large rivers flowing through it. Despite rich in floral diversity, limited information is available regarding status and conservation of flora in this region, especially at 'Gajoldoba' where the TBP resides. Recently, zooplankton and avifaunal diversity have been studied in perspective of human interference around 'Gajoldoba' wetland (Datta, 2011a,b). No reports, however, are available regarding floral diversity and its indigenous uses by local people inhabiting around 'Gajoldoba beel'.

Alien and invasive plant species are second worst threat to native biodiversity after habitat destruction. Accumulating evidences indicate that threat by invasiveness increases with increasing water stress, drought, metal toxicity, environmental pollution and climate change (Vila et al., 2007; Yang et al., 2007). The 'Gajoldoba beel' and its surroundings are now exposed to huge transportation, tea garden activities, agriculture, human settlements, and tourism, all of which may pose huge risk to native biodiversity and indigenous knowledge-based medicine. As TBP is a trans-national issue, the status of floral diversity, invasiveness and ethno-medicinal uses need urgent inventory and documentation. Considering all the above perspectives, the present study was undertaken around TBP regions to document the plant diversity, and use of herbal plants by indigenous people in this biodiversity rich wetland. The main objectives were to 1) document the plant community, 2) perform ecological analysis, and 3) identify plants showing invasiveness and used in various purposes, especially for medicine by local people in the study area.

Materials and Methods

(a) Study area

The present study was conducted in and around TBP (26[degrees] 20' N/ 88[degrees] 4' E) covering 'Gajoldoba beel', Saraswatipur Village, Saraswatipur tea garden and adjoining forest areas. The 'Gajoldoba beel' is actually a perennial cut-off meander of river Teesta in the Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal (Figure 1), and about 22 km away from its nearest tourist destination, Lataguri. This beel is managed by state-owned TBP, Odlabari division, and as it is connected with river Teesta, its water level fluctuates with Teesta and rate of river water discharge through barrage. Saraswatipur village is situated just south-west of the wetland, after which Saraswatipur tea garden is located. The rest of the region is covered by mountainous dense forest, forest roads, canals, and a road connected to Lataguri. The area experiences about 78% rainfall during the monsoon (June to September) and only 0.98% rainfall during winter (December to February) (Datta, 2011b). The average rainfall of this region is about 3200 mm and the mean temperature ranges from 32.8[degrees]C (max) to 6.9[degrees]C (min).

(b) Field study

Field work was carried out from October 2011 to January 2012, and June-November 2012 to document vegetation and their uses by local communities. The stratified random sampling approach was followed for phyto diversity survey in the present study. Sampling was done in all the strata i.e. trees, shrubs and herbs, as followed earlier (Talukdar and Talukdar, 2012c) with some modifications for the present area. The size of the quadrat for sampling of trees, shrubs and herbs was determined by species-area-curve method (Misra, 1968; Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg, 1974). A 20 x 20 m quadrat for trees (C30 cm cbh), 5 x 5 m quadrats for shrubs and 1 x 1 m quadrats for herbs were laid at each sample site. In each quadrat, the circumference at breast height (cbh) of all the trees with [greater than or equal to] 30 cm was measured. Trees with <30 cm cbh were considered as shrubs. For herbs, the number of species in the four 1 x 1 m quadrats was recorded. A total of 200 quadrats were randomly laid in the study sites. The plant species were identified using regional flora, IPNI (International Plant Names Index; and herbarium collection in the Central National Herbarium, Kolkata, and voucher specimen was deposited at departmental herbarium of Botany Department, RPM College, Hooghly, West Bengal.

(c) Ecological parameters

Base line data of total plant number, frequency (%), density and abundance were calculated following Talukdar and Talukdar (2012a,c). Invasive nature of alien species, enlisted by IUCN, was studied using techniques of Baider and Florens (2011) and other recent works (Huang et al., 2009; Feng and Zhu, 2010), namely through a combination of random walks through the area along with a more quantitative sampling of the seedlings and larger woody plants (flowering or fruiting stage) in a series of square quadrats as mentioned above. The specimens were identified through extensive survey of available literatures, monographic works, and confirmed by IPNI data base (

(d) Ethno-botanical study

For ethno-botanical study, village elders and local tribal healers were interviewed on the basis of semi-structured questionnaires and interactions, as described earlier in detail (Talukdar and Talukdar, 2012c). In majority of cases, the respondents (both male and female; the male constituted over 70% of respondents) targeted were over 35 years of age. Also, younger generation was taken into confidence to get their awareness and interests in the traditional ethno-botanical practices. Local weekly markets (hats) in the vicinity of the Baikunthapur forest and Saraswatipur tea gardens were also surveyed to take a glimpse of availability and utilization of plant resources. Plant specimen was tabulated through interviews of knowledgeable people like temple priests, village head, old experienced folk, medicine men, farmers, teachers, etc. Gathered information was thoroughly cross-checked through "structured questionnaires, and documented thereafter. Voucher specimen was deposited at departmental herbarium of Botany Department, RPM College, Hooghly.

(e) Statistical analysis

Data of different seasons were pooled for analysis. A level of P < 0.05 was considered significant.


In the present study, as many as 81 plant species (77 angiosperms and 4 ferns) distributed in 75 genera in 45 families have been identified and documented. Among the flowering plants, 61 species belonged to dicots and 16 species were monocots. Among the 45 families, dicot plants belonged to 33 families, while monocots were represented by 8 families. Family Fabaceae contained highest number of plant species, represented by 12 taxa and was followed by monocot family Poaceae with 7 taxa, and dicot Asteraceae with 5 species. Family Malvaceae and Euphorbiaceae possessed 4 taxa each, and were closely followed by Rubiaceae, Lamiaceae, Verbenaceae in dicot and family Zingiberaceae in monocot with 3 taxa in each case. Rest of the families contained either 1 or 2 taxa in the study area (Table 1). Maximum numbers (60.49%) of plants were herbaceous, followed by trees (22.22%), climbers (9.87%), shrubs (6.19%) and epiphytes (1.23%). Four fern taxa (Marsilea, Salvinia, Ampelopteris and Ceratopteris) distributed in four families were also documented in the present study (Table 1).

Among the base line diversity parameters, plant frequency (%), density and abundance varied greatly in the study area. Plant frequency ranged between 3.50% and 99% with maximum frequency was recorded for Ageratum conyzoides, Eichhornia crassipes, and Lantana Camara, and minimum for rubiaceous climber Hedyotis scandens (Table 1). More than 90% frequency was estimated for the 9 taxa Alternanthera sessilis, Achyranthes aspera, Bauhinia variegata, Cassia alata, Cynodon dactylon, Lemna acquinoctialis Mikania indica, Mimosa pudica, and Trema orientalis, while Parthenium hysterophorus, Mallotus philippensis, Enhydra fluctuans, Echinochloa crusgalli, Commelina bengalensis, Bauhinia variegata, Crotalaria pallida, and the fern Ampelopteris prolifera either touched 90% or was very close to it. The density which denoted total number of individuals per quadrat crossed 1.0 value in 41 species with highest value of 17.88 recorded in grass Cynodon dactylon, and it was closely followed by verbenaceous shrub Lantana camara (11.84) and the two daisies, Mikania indica (11.66) and Parthenium hysterophorus (9.83). Rest of the species exhibited values <1.0 of which density of Spilanthes oleracea in the family Asteraceae, Polygonum hydropiper in Polygonaceae, and Phyllanthus fraternus 4in the family Euphorbiaceae was 0.99 in each case (Table 1). Lowest density was estimated for Ficus hispida (0.05) of Moraceae with very close value of 0.06 in rubiaceous member Hedyotis scandens. Highest abundance (19.33) was observed for Cynodon dactylon, and it was closely followed by Mikania indica (12.21), Lantana camara (12.02), and Parthenium hysterophorus (11.04). Low density but high abundance was observed for Anisomelis indica, Arundo donax, Bambusa tulda, Bombax ceiba, Calamus rotung, Cassia tora, Clitoria ternatea, Coix lacryma-jobi, Ficus hispida, Hedyotis scandens, and the epiphytic orchid Vanda tessellata (Table 1).

Status of four taxa i.e. Cynodon dactylon, Lantana camara, Parthenium hysterophorus and Mikania indica showing very high frequency, density as well as abundance in the study areas has been documented. Among the 200 quadrats laid, Lantana camara was recorded in maximum (197) number of quadrats, followed by presence of M. indica, C. dactylon and P. hysterophorus in 191, 185 and 178 number of quadrats, respectively. Among these four most abundant species, Lantana, Mikania and Parthenium exhibited tremendous capacity to grow along roadside as well as deep inside the study areas. Cultivated fields and banks of water bodies were preferred by 20% and 10% species, respectively. Quadrat studies revealed high frequency and abundance of some other taxa like Ageratum conyzoides, Cassia alata, Eichhornia crassipes, Leucaena esculenta, Mallotus philippensis, and Phragmites australis (Table 1). The ratio of number of plants (cumulative of 200 quadrats) between cultivated field and roadside varied between 0.23-0.90, but it was close to 1.0 for Mikania indica, Cynodon dactylon (0.98), and >1.0 for Lantana camara as the data pooled over different seasons (Table 1). Among these 7 species, Mallotus philippensis showed highest density (7.83) and abundance (8.69), followed by rest six species in different magnitudes (Table 1).



Among the 81 plant species, 36 plants (44.44%) were documented as used by local people for diverse types of medicinal purposes including diabetes, diarrhea and dysentery, constipation, fever, cough and cold, jaundice, cut and wounds, as anthelmintic, in high blood pressure, inflammation and other disorders (Figure 2). Largest numbers of plants (16) have been used in treating cough and cold fever, followed by inflammation, diabetes, diarrhea and dysentery, intestinal/gastric disorder, skin disease/infection and other problems. One plant each was found used in high blood pressure (Rouvolfia serpentina) and in treating high blood cholesterol (Cassia tora). The plants used in diabetes involved Abutilon indicum, Cassia sophera, Cassia tora, Clitoria ternatea, Nymphaea nouchali, Tinospora cordifolia and the fern Ampelopteris prolifera. While tender fresh fronds of the fern was cooked with methi seeds and brinjal to prepare a dish of vegetables, leaves juices of Abutilon, Cassia and Clitoria were extracted and taken in empty stomach in diabetes. On the other hand, rhizomes of Nymphaea nouchali were boiled and roasted and roots extracts from Tinospora cordifolia were taken to reduce high blood sugar. The plant parts included leaves, stems, shoots, rhizomes, seeds, inflorescence, and the whole plant. Pharmacological preparations include aqueous extracts, paste, boiled or roasted, water-soaked seeds, juice and cooked (Table 2). Leaves were used by majority of cases (22 genera), followed by bark (5), whole shoot, rhizome, root and fruits (3 each) and other parts such as resin, flower buds and seeds. The 36 plant species identified with medicinal uses were distributed in 22 families, of which 8 genera belonged to Fabaceae, and 2 genera each in Malvaceae, Amaranthaceae, Acanthaceae, Moraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Zingiberaceae, and Poaceae. Rest of the families contained one taxon each.

Besides cultivation for medicinal purposes, a number of plants have been utilized by local people in the study area for food, forage, fuel wood, commercial wood, thatching, furniture making, preparation of pickles etc. Prominent plant species used as food source were fruit trees of Diillenia indica, Ficus hispida, F. racemosa, leaves of Lathyrus sativus L., and the fern Ampelopteris prolifera. Many plants such as Acacia catechu, Albizia lebbeck, Cassia alata, Lathyrus sativus, Leucaena, Arundo donax, and Bambusa have been used as fodder. Barring the latter two species, all belong to the family Fabaceae. The fuel wood was mainly collected from Trema orientalis, Solanum, Bauhinia variegata, Bambusa spp, and Albizia lebbeck, whereas trunk and branches of Gmelina arborea and Shorea robusta were used as commercial woods. Species of Bambusa, and Calamus rotang were utilized in making of household furniture and preparation of local pickles (young tender leaves of Bambusa), fishing food etc. A leguminous plant Aeschynomene aspera and a grass Coix have been extensively exploited for 'commercial shola' and preparation of village ornaments, respectively.


Present investigation for the first time revealed base line information about floral diversity, plant invasiveness and indigenous uses of plants by local people residing around TBP. Results in Table 1 indicated dominance of dicot flora over monocot, and among the dicot families, Fabaceae dominated over others. Screening of 81 plant species, including 4 fern species, distributed in 75 genera under 45 families suggested rich biodiversity in the study area. This diversity was also manifested in plant habits which included herbs, shrubs, trees, lianes, climbers and epiphytes with clear dominance by herbaceous species in the study areas. Among the monocots, Poaceae with 7 members dominated over others. However, the dominance of leguminous members in the present study area is noteworthy, as these groups of plants exhibit diverse plant habits and are adapted in diverse agro-climatic regions showing higher tolerant to multiple stress factors like low temperature, drought, high rainfall, water stress, salinity, metal contaminations and biotic pressures (Talukdar, 2009a, 2011a, b). Wide range of frequency in plant species suggested significant variations in ecological parameters as revealed by quadrat study and uneven distribution of taxa. At least 20 species showed frequency around 90%, of which 3 species Ageratum conyzoides, Eichhornia crassipes, and Lantana Camara manifested frequency 99%, while distributions of Cynodon dactylon, Mikania indica, Parthenium hysterophorus, Crotalaria pallida and Cassia alata were >90%. Among these genera, Ageratum conyzoides, Eichhornia crassipes, Lantana Camara, Mikania indica, and Parthenium hysterophorus have been regarded as worst invasive flora by IUCN species survival commission (Lowe et al., 2000). The invasive nature of these taxa was also supported by high density as well as high abundance value in the present study area. It is also noteworthy that Leucaena esculenta, a mimosoid legume, exhibited abundant distribution in the study area, as revealed by randomly laid quadrats in different seasons. This observation has immense significance as a sister genus of L. esculenta, Leucaena leucocephala has been enlisted by IUCN in 100 worst invasive species (Lowe et al., 2000), and Leucaena reportedly exerts allelopathic effect on native flora during its invasion (Sahoo et al., 2007; Talukdar and Talukdar, 2012a). The absence of L. leucocephala in the present study area can be expected as plant cannot tolerate acidic soil and soils in North Bengal show acidic pH (Chakraborty et al., 2010). By contrast, the spread of L. esculenta in the present study sites revealed its tolerance to grow in acidic soil and indicated inter-specific differences in biological success of invasion for Leucaena species in different geographic and climatic conditions. Similar aggressive spread was also documented for Cynodon dactylon, Lantana camara, Parthenium hysterophorus and Mikania indica. This was evidenced by ratio of number of plants (cumulative of 200 quadrats) between cultivated field and roadside close to 1.0 in case of M. indica, C. dactylon and P. hysterophorus and >1.0 for L. camara. The results strongly indicated aggressive spread of species in open, under storey of forest and other ecotones with more successful establishment for L. camara. Results in Table 1 were pooled for three varieties of L. camara, showing distinct differences in flower color as red (L. camara var. aculeata), pink (L. camara var. armata) and brownish yellow (L. camara var. mista). The former two showed lower density but higher abundance than the latter (data not in Table). One of the strategies Lantana adopted during its successful invasion is a strong allelopathic effect through alteration of cellular and metabolic responses in target plants (Oudhia, 1999; Choyal and Sharma, 2011; Talukdar, 2013), and the plants possess strong bioactive compounds against bacterium (Bhadauria and Singh, 2011). Similar mechanism has been reported for Parthenium hysterophorus (Oudhia et al., 1997), Mikania indica (Ai-Ping et al., 2010), and Eichhornia crassipes (Chen et al., 2006). The spread of these alien and invasive weeds in the present study area is quite alarming to the conservation of native biodiversity in a disturbed area like TBP. Low density but high abundance as observed for Anisomelis indica, Arundo donax, Bambusa tulda, Bombax ceiba, Calamus rotang, Cassia tora, Clitoria ternatea, Coix lacryma-jobi, Ficus hispida and Hedyotis scandens indicated their sparse distribution in the study area. Among these taxa, gradual disappearance of C. rotang was evidenced by its low frequency in the quadrats which has very high economic value in the study area and is obviously under threat due to its low density. High frequency and abundance of Shorea robusta, as observed in the present study, is in agreement with an earlier study which revealed that plant diversity in moist Shorea forests of northern Bengal are higher than the dry forests of south-west Bengal (Kushwaha and Nandy, 2012).

Inventorying medicinal importance and resource utilization of plant species by local people was an integral part of the present study. The vast number of medicinal plants present in the region is an integral part of the livelihood of local communities. Results in Table 2 indicated extensive use of plant products by local people in different types of disorders including cough and cold fever, inflammation, diabetes, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, diarrhea and dysentery, intestinal/ gastric disorder, skin disease/infection, and other problems. A wide variety of plants (were used through diverse modes of pharmacological preparations, in which largest number of species were utilized from Fabaceae and was distantly followed by other 21 families. Extensive use and mode of pharmacological preparations of leguminous plant products/parts by ethnic tribes was also reported very recently in different altitudes of Sikkim Himalayas (Talukdar and Talukdar, 2012b), Sub-Himalayan as well as in plains of Gangetic West Bengal (Talukdar and Talukdar, 2012b,c). The revelation of seven plants used in diabetes in the present study is also noteworthy, in which fresh extracts of leaves were taken in majority of cases and has high significance as metabolic stress markers have recently been identified for Sikkimese diabetes (Bhutia et al., 2011). Preparations like aqueous extracts, paste, boiling or roasting, water-soaking of seeds, juice and cooking utilizing variety of plant parts strongly suggested richness of local knowledge-based traditional medicine among the forest dwellers, villagers, plantation workers, and mountain people. The raising awareness towards the importance of Himalayan and outer-Himalayan biodiversity and alarming rate at which they are being exploited from natural habitats leads to initiate various conservation actions to mitigate such uncontrolled resource exploitation and its management (Ray et al., 2011). Rich knowledge regarding use of plants in ethno-medicinal purposes was also reported in different geographical regions of Indian subcontinent (Pareek and Trivedi, 2011; Singh and Rawat, 2011).

Besides cultivation for medicinal purposes, a number of plants have been utilized for food, fodder, fuel, commercial fishing, manuring, and other household purposes in the study areas. Food preparations included raw fruits (Dillenia indica. Ficus spp), and cooked leafy vegetables (Ampelopteris prolifera, Lathyrus sativus). Most of the leguminous plants like Acacia catechu, Albizia lebbeck, Cassia alata, Lathyrus sativus, and Leucaena were used as forage for cattle feed. Among these taxa, Lathyrus sativus or grass pea has been used as dual purpose crop in the study area. Use of this papilionoid crop legume by different ethnic tribes has been reported in different climatic conditions (Talukdar and Talukdar, 2012b, c), and has great significance as the plant is rich in high protein, flavonoids and other antioxidative compositions with introduction of ilow seed neurotoxin containing genotypes through mutagenesis (Talukdar, 2008, 2009a,b, 2010a,b, 2012a,b,c). Among the small scale cottage industries, commercial 'shola' using Aeschynomene americana were found highly beneficial for local economics. Different types of wood works like furniture making are carried out with woods from Gme/ina arborea and Shorea robusta, while house hold requirements were mainly met by Bambusa spp. However, extensive use of Trema orienta/e and Leucaena as fuel crop by local people might have favored spread of these two alien trees in the TBP area. Cynodon dacty/on was the most efficient riparian species in conservation of soil, water and nutrients in surface runoff, as also reported earlier (Srivastava and Singh, 2012).


The present investigation for the first time revealed rich floral diversity and traditional knowledge in utilization of local flora for medicine and other economic purposes. The TBP region where the present study was carried out is gradually witnessing urbanization due to pressure from local tourism and barrage related activities. Present inventory, therefore, may give vital clues in conservation of floral diversity in and around lower Teesta basin.

Conflict of Interests

None declared.


Author is grateful to local people for their continuous support to the present investigation.


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Dibyendu Talukdar

Department of Botany, RPM College (University of Calcutta), Uttarpara, Hooghly, West Bengal, India.


Accepted: 7th Dec 2012, Published: 9th Jan 2013
Table 1: Documentation of floral diversity around TBP,
Jalpaiguri, West Bengal. Data pooled over 20 selected
study sites and 10 quadrats/site (200 quadrats).

S. No.            Botanical name,               Total      Number of
                habit, use, family            number of     quadrats
                                             individuals   in which a
                                               of the      particular
                                             species (a)    species
                                                           occur (b)

1             * Abutilon indicum (L.)            90            95
             Sweet, M, Herb, Malvaceae
2          * Acacia catechu (L.) willd.,         109          150
               oliv., tree, M, food,
                 fodder, Fabaceae
3            * Aeschynomene aspera L.,           337           65
                commercial sola, M,
                  Herb, Fabaceae
4              Albizia lebbeck (L.)              191          116
               Benth., tree, forage,
                  wood, Fabaceae
5             Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.)            133          122
            Burtt. Herb, Zingiberaceae
6            * Alternanthera sessilis            390          195
                (L.) R.Br.ex DC, M,
                Herb, Amaranthaceae
7            * Achyranthes aspera L.,            498          190
              M, Herb, Amaranthaceae
8               Ageratum conyzoides              836          198
               L., herb, Asteraceae
9            * Ampelopteris prolifera            765          176
               (Retz.) Copel Veg, M,
            Herb fern, Thelypteridaceae
10               Anisomelis indica               77            39
                L., herb, Lamiaceae
11              * Annona reticulata              145          151
                   L., M, tree,
                 fruit, Annonaceae
12               Arundo donax L.,                85            76
              shrub, fodder, Poaceae
13          Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.)          265           67
             Willd., pickles, Fishing,
              shelter, tree, Poaceae
14            Bambusa tulda L, tree,             139           54
               fuel, constructions,
                  fodder, Poaceae
15           * Bauhinia variegata L.,            414          181
               tree, ornamental, M,
                fuel wood, Fabaceae
16          * Bombax ceiba L., tree, M,          71            80
               Ornamental, Malvaceae

17          Calamus rotang L., climber,          70            69
               furniture, Arecaceae
18             * Cassia sophera L.,              87            90
                 M, Herb, Fabaceae
19               * Cassia tora L.,               79            75
                 Herb, M, Fabaceae
20              * Cassia alata L.,               880          190
                  Herb, Fabaceae
21           * Centella asiatica (L.)            339          101
             Urban, M, Herb, Apiaceae
22         * Ceratopteris thalictroides          202          165
             (L.) Brongn M, Herb-fern,
23             Chenopodium album L.,             116           80
             Veg, Herb, Chenopodiaceae
24           Clerodendrum infortunatum           230          128
               L, herb, Verbenaceae
25            * Clitoria ternatea L,             39            19
               M, Climber, Fabaceae
26              * Costus speciosus               98            69
                 (Koenig ex Retz.)
                 Smith, herbs, M,
27            * Coix lacryma-jobi L.,            55            26
             M, Herb, Fishing, Poaceae
28           Commelina bengalensis L.,           148          180
                Herb, Commelinaceae
29             * Crotalaria pallida              763          176
               L., M, herb, Fabaceae
30            * Croton bonplandianum             147          115
            L., M, Herb, Euphorbiaceae
31           * Curcuma longa L, Herb,            343           80
              M, spice, Zingiberaceae
32            * Cynodon dactylon (L.)           3576          185
              Pers., M, Herb, Poaceae
33         Dentella repens (L.) Forst.,          549          140
               Veg, Herb, Rubiaceae
34              Dillenia indica L.,              354          177
             Food, tree, Dilleniaceae
35             Echinochloa crusgalli             303          180
             (L.) P.Beauv., fish feed,
              compost, Herb, Poaceae
36         Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.),         760          198
               Manure, aquatic herb,
37          * Enhydra fluctuans Lour.,           404          180
           M, compost, Herb, Asteraceae
38          Evolvulus nummularius (L.)           270          130
              L. Herb, Convolvulaceae
39           * Ficus hispida Linn.f.,            67            20
              M, Veg, Tree, Moraceae
40             * Ficus racemosa L.,              88            49
              Veg, M, Tree, Moraceae
41            Gmelina arborea Roxb.,             398          173
               tree, wood, Lamiaceae
42           Grewia tiliaefolia Vahl.,           105           95
                  tree, Tiliaceae
43              Hibiscus vitifolius              337          138
                L., herb, Malvaceae
44          * Hedyotis scandens Roxb.,           11            7
               M, Climber, Rubiaceae

45       * Hygrophila schulli (Buch. Ham)        187           90
              M.R. and S.M. Almeida,
               M, Herb, Acanthaceae
46         Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.)          212          107
              Royle, fish food, Herb,
47          * Ipomoea aquatica Forrsk.,          190           79
              M, Herb, Convolvulaceae
48            * Justicia adhatoda L.,            139          111
               shrub, M, Acanthaceae
49            Lantana Camara L, var.            2367          197
            aculeata, var. armata, and
             mista, shrub, Verbenaceae
50          Lathyrus sativus L., Herb,           70           100
           pulse, forage, veg, Fabaceae
51          Lemna acquinoctialis Welw.           557          189
         A.Pont, compost, Herb, Lemnaceae
52             Leucaena esculenta L,             878          165
                  shrub, Fabaceae
53            Leucas lavandulaefolia             238          106
            Rees, Veg, Herb, Lamiaceae
54               Mikania indica L,              2332          191
                climber, Asteraceae
55        * Mallotus philippensis (Lam.)        1565          180
                Muell. Arg., tree,
                 M, Euphorbiaceae
56           Marsilea minuta L., Veg,            200           85
              Herb, fern Marsileaceae
57       Mimosa pudica L., Herb, Fabaceae        779          192
58         * Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f.,          433           98
            Veg, M, Herb, Nymphaeaceae
59            * Ocimum basilicum L.,             118           79
                M, Herb, Lamiaceae
60             * Oxalis corniculata              439          162
                  (DC.) Raeusch.,
             M, Veg, Herb, Oxalidaceae
61           Parthenium hysterophorus           1965          178
               L., herb, Asteraceae
62          Phragmites australis (cav.)          769          139
             trin. ex. Steud., herbs,
                thatching, Poaceae
63             Phyllanthus fraternus             198          113
           Webster, Herb, Euphorbiaceae
64             Phyla nodiflora (L.)              185           89
             Greene Herb, Verbenaceae
65             Pistia stratiotes L.,             222           77
               manure, Herb, Araceae
66            Polygonum barbatum L.,             187          156
                Herb, Polygonaceae
67            * Polygonum hydropiper             198          119
             L., M, Herb, Polygonaceae
68        * Rauvolfia serpentina (Linn.)         232           82
                 Benth. ex Kurz.,
               M, Herb, Apocynaceae
69          Ricinus communis L., shrub,          178          155
            oil yielding, Euphorbiaceae
70           Salvinia cuculata Roxb.,            178           70
            manure, fern, Salviniaceae
71           Scoparia dulcis L., herb,
                 Scrophulariaceae                434          163

72        Shores robusta Gaertn.f., tree,       1009          153
          wood, leaves, Dipterocarpaceae
73            Sida cordata (Burm. f.)            176           90
              Borssum Herb, Malvaceae
74           Solanum torvum L., Shrub,           228           68
                 fuel, Solanaceae
75         Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad &         75            40
           Wendl, Herb, fuel, Solanaceae
76              Spermacoce hispida,              250          158
                  herb, Rubiaceae
77            Spilanthes oleracea L.,            197          160
               Veg, Herb, Asteraceae
78          * Terminalia bellirica L.,           158          100
               tree, M, Combretaceae
79        * Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.)        276          174
              Hook & Thoms., Lianes,
                 M, Menispermaceae
80           Trema orientals (L.) Bl.,           380          187
             tree, fuel wood, Ulmaceae
81           Vanda tessellata. (Roxb.)           93            87
            Hook, epiphyte, Orchidaceae

S. No.    F (%)      D        AB
         = b/200   = a/200   = a/b
          x 100

1         47.5      0.45     0.94

2         75.0      0.55     0.73

3         32.5      1.69     5.18

4         58.0      0.96     1.65

5         61.0      0.67     1.09

6         97.5      1.95      2.0

7         95.0      2.49     2.62

8         99.0      4.18     4.22

9         88.0      3.83     4.35

10        19.5      0.39     1.97

11        75.5      0.73     0.96

12        38.0      0.43     1.12

13        33.5      1.33     3.96

14        27.0      0.70     2.57

15        90.5      2.07     2.29

16        40.0      0.36     0.89

17        34.5      0.35     1.01

18        45.0      0.44     0.97

19        37.6      0.40     1.05

20        95.0      4.40     4.63

21        50.5      1.70     3.36

22        82.5      1.01     1.22

23        40.0      0.58     1.45

24        64.0      1.15     1.80

25        9.50      0.20     2.05

26        34.5      0.49     1.42

27        13.0      0.28     2.12

28        90.0      0.74     0.82

29        88.0      3.82     4.34

30        57.5      0.74     1.28

31        40.0      1.72     4.29

32        92.5      17.88    19.33

33        70.0      2.75     3.92

34        88.5      1.77      2.0

35        90.0      1.52     1.68

36        99.0      3.80     3.84

37        90.0      2.02     2.24

38        65.0      1.35     2.08

39        10.0      0.05     3.35

40        25.0      0.44     1.80

41        86.5      1.99     2.30

42        47.5      0.53     1.11

43        69.0      1.69     2.44

44        3.50      0.06     1.57

45        45.0      0.94     2.08

46        53.5      1.06     1.98

47        39.6      0.95     2.41

48        55.5      0.70     1.25

49        99.0      11.84    12.02

50        50.0      0.35     0.70

51        94.5      2.79     2.95

52        82.5      4.39     5.32

53        53.0      1.19     2.25

54        95.5      11.66    12.21

55        90.0      7.83     8.69

56        42.5      1.00     2.35

57        96.0      3.90     4.06
58        49.0      2.17     4.42

59        39.5      0.59     1.49

60        81.0      2.20     2.71

61        89.0      9.83     11.04

62        69.5      3.85     5.53

63        56.5      0.99     1.75

64        44.5      0.93     2.08

65        38.5      1.11     2.88

66        78.0      0.94     1.20

67        59.5      0.99     1.66

68        41.0      1.16     2.83

69        77.5      0.89     1.15

70        35.0      0.89     2.54

71        81.5      2.17     2.60

72        76.5      5.05     6.59

73        45.0      0.88     1.96

74        34.0      1.14     3.35

75        20.0      0.38     1.88

76        79.0      1.25     1.58

77        80.0      0.99     1.23

78        50.0      0.79     1.58

79        87.0      1.38     1.59

80        93.5      1.90     2.03

81        43.5      0.47     1.07

Note: * Plants used for medicinal purposes,
data pooled over several trips in different seasons.

Table 2: Mode of preparation and use of medicinal
plant/parts by local community in the study area.

S. No.      Botanical name      Plant parts used

1              Abutilon           Flower, stem
             indicum (L.)         cut, leaves,

2           Acacia catechu            Bark
             (L.) willd.,
3            Aeschynomene            Leaves
              aspera L.,
4           Alternanthera            Leaves
            sessilis (L.)
              R.Br.ex DC
5            Achyranthes             Leaves
              aspera L.
6            Ampelopteris         Fresh frond
              prolifera             (leaves)
            (Retz.) Copel
7               Annona               Bark,
             reticulata L             root

8              Bauhinia           Bark, root,
             variegata L.         flower buds

9          Bombax ceiba L.       Resin, leaves,
10         Cassia sophera L          Leaves

11          Cassia tora L.       Leaves, seeds

12         Cassia alata L.           Leaves

13        Centella asiatica          Shoots
              (L.) Urban
14           Ceratopteris       Leaves (fronds)
             (L.) Brongn
15             Clitoria              Leaves
              ternatea L

16         Costus speciosus         Rhizome
              (Koenig ex
             Retz.) Smith
17               Coix                Seeds
            lacryma-jobi L

18            Crotalaria         Leaves, roots
              pallida L.

19              Croton               Leaves
           bonplandianum L.
20         Curcuma longa L,         Rhizome

21         Cynodon dactylon          Leaves
              (L.) Pers.

22             Enhydra               Shoots
           fluctuans Lour.
23          Ficus hispida        Leaves, fruits
24              Ficus                Fruits
             racemosa L.
25             Hedyotis          Leaves, roots
            scandens Roxb.
26        Hygrophila schulli         Leaves
           (Buch. Ham) M.R.
           and S.M. Almeida
27         Ipomoea aquatica          Leaves
28        Justicia adhatoda          Leaves

29             Mallotus              Fruit
         philippensis (Lam.)
             Muell. Arg.
30             Nymphaea         Leaves, flower,
               nouchali             rhizomes
31              Ocimum               Leaves
             basilicum L.
32        Oxalis corniculata         Leaves
            (DC.) Raeusch.
33            Polygonum           Whole shoot
            hydropiper L.,
34            Rauvolfia            Bark, root
           Benth. ex Kurz.

35            Terminalia             Fruit
             bellirica L.

36            Tinospora            Stem, root
            (Willd.) Hook
               & Thoms.

S. No.     Mode of preparation                   Uses

1           Sun-dried powder,         Anti-diabetic, digestive,
          decoction of the whole        expectorant, diuretic,
            plant, poultice of          astringent, analgesic,
            the leaves, roots             anti-inflammatory,
                                    anthelmintic and aphrodisiac.
                                        Decoction in toothache
                                      and tender gums, boils and
                                    ulcers (leaves), fever, chest
                                     pain and urethiritis (roots)
2              Dried powder                fungal infection

3              Leaf extract             Cough, cold and fever

4              Fresh juice                      Fever

5              Fresh juice               Cough and cold fever

6              Cooked with                   In diabetes
              'methi' seeds

7            Root decoction,             During fever (root),
            bark powdered and              in diarrhea and
             mixed with honey              dysentery (bark)
8           Bark is sun-dried,           Bark is astringent,
              powdered, root             anthelmintic, roots
         decoction, flower juice         in snake poisoining,
                                            flower buds in
                                        diarrhea and dysentery
9           Resin, Leaf juice,             Cough and cold,
               bark powder                  cut and wounds
10         Fresh juice or mixed          In high blood sugar
             with little salt
11         Decoction of leaves,          In high blood sugar,
           seed powder alone or           carminative, anti
             mixed with water         -cholesterol, seed powder
                                           in skin disease
12          Dried, ground in a             In ringworm and
            mortar, mixed with             fungal infection
              vegetable oil
                to a paste
13          Powder, leaf juice             Anthelmintic, in
                                           stomach disorder
14         Fresh juice prepared              Skin-disease

15         Decoction of leaves,         Used in inflammation,
               fresh juice             as analgesic, diuretic,
                                      in diabetes (fresh juice)

16         Dried powder, paste        used to treat fever, rash,
                                         asthma, bronchitis,
                                         and intestinal worms
17       Powdered and mixed with        In stiffness of limbs
            oil to make paste

18            Leaf extract,           to treat urinary problems
              root poultice         and fever, a poultice applied
                                     to swelling of joints and an
                                         extract of leaves to
                                        expel intestinal worms
19              Fresh leaf                In cut and wounds
              juice or paste
20       Raw, Dried and powdered,          In inflammation,
          paste made with water             liver disorder

21       Fresh juice, paste with     Cough and cold, carminative,
           turmeric and ginger           pains, inflammation,
22          Dried shoot powder              Analgesic and
                                           in inflammation
23            Cooked fruit,               In treating fever
                leaf juice                   and jaundice
24          Directly or dried             used for treating
               pulp powder           intestinal worms, leucorrhea
25             Leaf cooked,         In gastro-intestinal problems
                root paste
26                Cooked                 In stomach disorder

27              Decoction                In high blood sugar,
                                           gastric disorder
28         Decoction of leaves            In cough and cold,
           alone or mixed with
            Ocimum, tal-misri'
29           Brown powder on              In treating fever,
               fruit cover              cut and wounds, ulcers

30             Fresh juice,              Used in indigestion
           dried flower, boiled         and treating diabetic
            or roasted rhizome
31          Fresh juice, mixed               In cough and
               with 'vasak'                 cold, as tonic
32             Fresh juice                 Treating bloody
33         Cold water infusion,           Used in cough and
          mixed with wheat bran        cold, in bowel syndrome
34         Bark powdered, root           Used in treatment of
            extract with water       insomnia, hypertension, and
                                        blood pressure related
                                      symptoms, root extracts in
                                     intestinal problem, diarrhea
                                       and dysentery, root used
                                       as an antidote of snake
35           Raw or powdered            Used as expectorant in
                                        cough and cold, tonic

36             Aqueous stem               As anti-spasmodic,
             and root extract             anti-inflammatory,
                                     antiarthritic, anti-allergic
                                          and anti-diabetic
                                      (root extract), febrifuge
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Talukdar, Dibyendu
Publication:Biology and Medicine
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jan 1, 2013
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