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Species of thrips (Thysanoptera) in avocado orchards in Nayarit, Mexico.

Mexico is the main producer of avocado worldwide, with an annual production of 1,124, 565 tons harvested from 114,471 ha (FAOSTAT 2008) in 26 states. Nayarit is the second largest producer within a production area of 2,703 ha (SIAP 2009). The counties of Nayarit with the largest avocado acreage planted are Tepic, Xalisco and San Blas. The crop presents a large diversity of thrips species (Cambero et al. 2010), which are considered important pests because they cause lesions on leaves, flowers and fruits (Gonzalez et al. 2000). Studies performed on avocado in Nayarit by Cambero et al. (2010) showed the presence of 40 species associated with the avocado crop just in Xalisco. This study was performed with the following objectives: a) to determine thrips species associated with avocado in the counties of Tepic, Xalisco and San Blas, Nayarit, and b) to learn their importance as avocado pests, and their predaceous habits.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Captured thrips were monitored weekly by sampling from Jan to Dec 2008 in 5 commercial avocado orchards located in Tepic, Xalisco and San Blas, Nayarit. In Tepic, collections were conducted in 2 orchards planted to the 'Hass' cultivar, the first at the Ejido Camichin de Jauja named 'Tintilagua' (21[degrees]29 x 18.5"N, 104[degrees]46 x 18.4"W, 1,117 masl), and the second at 'El Fortin' at Ejido Venustiano Carranza (21[degrees]31 x 00.5"N, 104[degrees]58 x 57.8"W, 1,099 masl). In Xalisco 2 orchards of the cultivar Hass were sampled, i.e., 'La Chapula' at Ejido Xalisco (21[degrees]25 x 09.4"N, 104[degrees]54 x 53.9"W 1,035, masl), and 'La Carbonera' at Ejido El Cuarenteno (21[degrees]27 x 34.1"N, 105[degrees]00 x 19.1"W 1,787, masl). In San Blas samples were taken in the orchard 'El Cedro' at Ejido Mecatan (21[degrees]32 x 47.4"N, 105[degrees]08 x 23.1"W, 384 masl), which was planted to the 'Choquette' and 'Hall' cultivars.

Knockdown sampling and sweep netting were used (Cambero et al. 2010) to collect thrips from trees as well as from weeds within the orchards. The insects collected were placed in 5 cc transparent plastic vials containing 70% ethyl alcohol, and taken to the Entomology Laboratory of the Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro, where thrips were mounted and identified according to Johansen & Mojica (1997).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A grand total of 9,428 thrips of different stages were collected during this research. A total of 775 thrips adults in good condition were identified, which represented 8.22% of the grand total of captured specimens. The 775 thrips adults belong to 72 species. Ten species (273 specimens) were phytophagous (Table 1), 16 predaceous (Table 2) and 46 occasional visitors (Table 3).

The phytophagous species are those that feed on avocado trees and are commonly established on them. Johansen et al. (2007) reported 33 species in Mexico that can cause injury to avocado trees. in this research 10 species were found with such injurious habits (Table 1). Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouche) was the most abundant phytophagous species (13.42% of the total). Mound & Marullo (1996) observed that males of this species are very rare, and very few specimens are available in insect collections. in this work 24 H. haemorrhoidalis adult males were found. Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara is the most important pest of avocados of Mexico (Johansen et al. 2007). However, in this research it was not detected.

Sixteen predaceous species were detected (Table 2). Johansen et al. (2007) recognized 10 predaceous thrips species related to avocado agroecosystems. in this study the most representative were Franklinothrips vespiformis (D. L. Crawford) (8.26%), followed by Leptothrips primigenus Johansen (8.13%) and Franklinothrips orizabensis Johansen (7.22%). The rest of the species ranged from 0.13% to 5.5% of the total of 775 collected (Table 2). Several members of Franklinothrips are considered as successful biological control agents against thrips plant pests (Loomans & Vierbergen 1999). Hoddle et al. (2008) reported that Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Pergande) is found particularly in fruit trees and considered to be a significant mite predator comparable to various Leptothrips species.

Forty six visitor species were identified (Table 3). They are considered to be visitors because of their only occasional presence on avocado trees. Johansen et al. (2007) listed 40 visitor species that are phytophagous and that live on weeds within and around the orchards, or are transported by the wind as aerial biological material and dispersed into orchards. The mycophagous species within vegetable debris are also occasional visitors, and they include species in the Allothrips, Elaphrothrips, Macrophthalmothrips and Terthrothrips genera.

Frankliniella was the genus with the largest number of species (18), followed by Elaphrothrips (3). Within the genera Heterothrips, Caliothrips, Humbolthrips, Microcephalothrips, Neohydatothrips and Macrophthalmothrips 2 species of each. it is important to point out the presence of 19 new species (sp. nov.) and 2 genera new to science (Gen. nov.); all are now in the process of description.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors express their gratitude to Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACyT) project number M0D-0RD-11-11-PCI-1103-06-11 and to avocado orchards owners for their valuable support.

REFERENCED CITED

CAMBERO, C. O. J., JOHANSEN, N. R., RETANA, S. A., GARCOA, M. O., CANTU S. M., AND CARVAJAL, C. C. 2010. Thrips (Thysanoptera) del aguacate (Persea americana) en Nayarit, Mexico. Rev. Colombiana Entomol. 36(1): 47-51.

FAOSTAT. 2008. Database results. Available at http:// faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?Page-ID=567#ancor (verified 13 Sep 2010).

GONZALEZ, H. H., JOHANSEN, N. R., GASCA, C. L., EQUIHUA, M. A., SALINAS, C. A., ESTRADA, V. E., DURAN, F., AND VALLE, A. 2000. Plagas del aguacate, pp. 117-121 In D. Teliz [ed.], El Aguacate y su Manejo Integrado. Editorial. Mundi Prensa Mexico, S. A. de C. v. Mexico.

HODDLE, M. S., MOUND, L. A., AND PARIS, D. 2008. Thrips of California. CBIT Publishing, Queensland. Available at http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/ thrips_of_california/Thrips_of_California.html (verified 11 XI 2010).

JOHANSEN, N. R. M., AND MOJICA, G. A. 1997. Importancia agricola de los thrips, pp. 11-18 In Manual sobre entomologla y acarologla aplicada del 22 al 24 de mayo. UPAEP, Puebla, Pue. SME-UPAEP.

JOHANSEN, N. R. M., MOJICA, G. A., GONZALEZ, H H., VALLE DE LA PAZ, A. R., CASTANEDA, G. E. L., AVILA, Q. G., AND SOSA, T. C. M. 2007. Trips asociados con el aguacate en Mexico, pp. 134-153 In M. Teliz and A. Mora [eds.], El Aguacate y su Manejo Integrado. Mundi Prensa Mexico, S. A. de C. V. Mexico. 321 pp.

LOOMANS, A. J. M., AND VIERBERGEN, G. 1999. Franklinothrips: perspectives for greenhouse pest control. IOBC/WPRS Bull. 22(1): 157-190.

MOUND, L. A., AND MARULLO, R. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: An Introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Mem. Entomol. int. 6: 487.

SIAP. 2009. Servicio de Informacion Agricola y Pecuaria. Available at http://reportes.siap.gob.mx/ Agricola_siap/ResumenProducto.do?producto=600&invitado=true&ciclo=3 (verified 10 X 2010).

JHONATHAN CAMBERO-CAMPOS (1,2), ROBERTO JOHANSEN-NAIME (3), OSWALDO GARCIA-MARTINEZ (2), ERNESTO CERNA-CHAVEZ (2), AGUSTIN ROBLES-BERMUDEZ (1) AND AXEL RETANA-SALAZAR (4)

(1) Unidad Academica de Agricultura, Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Xalisco, Nayarit, Mexico jhony695@gmail.com

(2) Departamento de Parasitologia Agricola, Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, C.P. 25315

(3) Instituto de Biologia Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico C.P. 04510. Mexico, D.F.

(4) Centro de Investigation en Estructuras Microscopicas (CIEMic), Universidad de Costa Rica 2060, San Jose, Costa Rica
TABLE 1. PHYTOPHAGOUS THRIPS SPECIES COLLECTED IN AVOCADO GROVES IN
XALISCO, TEPIC AND SAN BLAS, COUNTIES OF NAYARIT.

Species                                        Number of specimens

                                               Cha   Car   For   Tin

Frankliniella invasor Sakimura 1972 (T)         -     2     2     7
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouche 1833) (T)   9    26    28     -
Neohydatothrips signifer (Priesner 1932) (T)    7     2     -     1
Neohydatothrips gracilipes (Hood 1924) (T)      4    30    15    12
Scirtothrips bisbravoae Johansen 1983 (T)       -     1     7     -
Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard 1901) (T)      -     -     -     -
Pseudophilothrips perseae (Watson 1923) (P)     -     -     -     -
Pseudophilothrips sp. 1 (P)                     -     -     1     -
Pseudophilothrips sp. 2 (P)                     -     2     3     -
Pseudophilothrips sp. 3 (P)                     -    14     5     -

Total 10                                       20    77    61    20

Species                                        Number of specimens

                                               Ced   Total     %

Frankliniella invasor Sakimura 1972 (T)         8      19     2.45
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouche 1833) (T)  41     104    13.42
Neohydatothrips signifer (Priesner 1932) (T)    1      11     1.42
Neohydatothrips gracilipes (Hood 1924) (T)      3      64     8.26
Scirtothrips bisbravoae Johansen 1983 (T)       -       8     1.03
Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard 1901) (T)      6       6     0.77
Pseudophilothrips perseae (Watson 1923) (P)     2       2     0.26
Pseudophilothrips sp. 1 (P)                    14      15     1.93
Pseudophilothrips sp. 2 (P)                    18      23     2.97
Pseudophilothrips sp. 3 (P)                     2      21     2.71

Total 10                                       95     273    35.22%

Avocado groves where specimens were sampled: Cha--Chapula,
Car--Carbonera, For--Fortin, Tin--Tintilagua, and Ced--Cedro.

(T) Thripidae, (P) Phlaeothripidae.

TABLE 2. PREDACEOUS SPECIES OF THRIPS COLLECTED IN AVOCADO GROVES IN
XALISCO, TEPIC AND SAN BLAS, COUNTIES OF NAYARIT.

                                      Number of specimens

Species                        Cha   Car    For   Tin   Ced   Total

Aeolothrips mexicanus           5     3      4     2     -     14
  Priesner 1924 (A)
Erythrothrips durango           9     12     9     9     4     43
  Watson 1924 (A)
Franklinothrips lineatus        -     6      4     1     -     11
  Hood 1949 (A)
Franklinothrips orizabensis     6     20    20    10     -     56
  Johansen, 1974 (A)
Franklinothrips vespiformis     8     6     12    17    21     64
  (D. L. Crawford 1909) (A)
Franklinothrips caballeroi      -     -      -     1     -      1
  Johansen 1980 (A)
Franklinothrips sp. nov. (A)    1     -      1     2     2      6
Scolothrips sexmaculatus        4     1      1     4     -     10
  (Pergande 1894) (T)
Leptothrips astutus             -     -      1     -     -      1
  Johansen 1978 (P)
Leptothrips longicapitis        -     5      2     1     -      8
  Johansen 1987 (P)
Leptothrips obesus              1    1---                       2
  Johansen 1987 (P)
Leptothrips primigenus         15     25    11     9     3     63
  Johansen 1987 (P)
Leptothrips sp. nov. 2 (P)      1     1      1     -     -      3
Leptothrips sp. nov. 3 (P)      -     -      -     1     1      2
Leptothrips sp. nov. 4 (P)      2    1---                       3
Trybomia brevitubus             -     -      -     2     5      7
  (Moulton 1929) (P)

Total 16                       52     81    66    59    36     294

                                Number
                                  of
                               specimens

Species                            %

Aeolothrips mexicanus            1.80
  Priesner 1924 (A)
Erythrothrips durango            5.55
  Watson 1924 (A)
Franklinothrips lineatus         1.42
  Hood 1949 (A)
Franklinothrips orizabensis      7.22
  Johansen, 1974 (A)
Franklinothrips vespiformis      8.26
  (D. L. Crawford 1909) (A)
Franklinothrips caballeroi       0.13
  Johansen 1980 (A)
Franklinothrips sp. nov. (A)     0.77
Scolothrips sexmaculatus         1.30
  (Pergande 1894) (T)
Leptothrips astutus              0.13
  Johansen 1978 (P)
Leptothrips longicapitis         1.03
  Johansen 1987 (P)
Leptothrips obesus               0.26
  Johansen 1987 (P)
Leptothrips primigenus           8.13
  Johansen 1987 (P)
Leptothrips sp. nov. 2 (P)       0.39
Leptothrips sp. nov. 3 (P)       0.26
Leptothrips sp. nov. 4 (P)       0.39
Trybomia brevitubus              0.90
  (Moulton 1929) (P)

Total 16                         37.93

Avocado groves where specimens were sampled: Cha--Chapula,
Car--Carbonera, For--Fortin, Tin--Tintilagua, and Ced--Cedro.

(A) Aeolothripidae, (T) Thripidae, (P) Phlaeothripidae.

TABLE 3. OCCASIONAL VISITOR SPECIES OF THRIPS COLLECTED IN AVOCADO
GROVES IN XALISCO, TEPIC AND SAN BLAS, COUNTIES OF NAYARIT.

                                        Number of specimens

Species                             Cha   Car   For   Tin   Ced

Heterothrips xolismae Hood           -    10     -     -     -
  1936 (H) *
Heterothrips pubescens Hood          -     1     1     -     -
  1934 (H) *
Chirothrips spiniceps (Hood          -     -     -     -     1
  1915) 9T)
Bregmatothrips sp. nov. (T)          1     -     -     -     -
Caliothrips punctipennis             1     3     -     1     3
  (Hood 1912) (T)
Caliothrips sp. nov. (T)             -     -     2     -     -
Ceratothripoides silvestris          -     -     1     2     -
  Hood 1935 (T)
Chaetisothrips reticulatus           -     -     1     -     -
  (D. L. Crawford 1910) (T)
Echinothrips mexicanus Moulton       1     -     -     3     1
  1911 (T)
Exophtalmothrips chiapaensis         -     -     -     -     1
  Johansen 1980 (T)
Frankliniella aurea Moulton          -     -     -     1     -
  1948 (T)
Frankliniella cephalica (D. L.       4     -     1     -     3
  Crawford 1910) (T)
Frankliniella fulvipes Bagnall       1     2     3     5     2
  1919 (T)
Frankliniella gardeniae Moulton      1     5     5    12     3
  1948 (T)
Frankliniella insularis (Franklin    -     -     2     1     1
  1908) (T)
Frankliniella minuta (Moulton        -     1     -     1     2
  1907) (T)
Frankliniella microchaeta Retana,    -     2     1     -     -
  Cambero, Sanchez & Rodriguez
  2010 (T)
Frankliniella ramirezi Mound &       -     -     1     -     -
  Marullo 1996 (T) *
Frankliniella rostrata Priesner      1     -     -     1     1
  1932 (T)
Frankliniella sp. nov. 1 (T)         3     -     -     -     -
Frankliniella sp. nov. 2 (T)         -     2     2     2     1
Frankliniella sp. nov. 3 (T)         1     -     -     -     -
Frankliniella sp. nov. 4 (T)         1     2     -     1     1
Frankliniella sp. nov. 5 (T)         1     -     -     1     1
Frankliniella sp. nov. 6 (T)         -     -     -     -     1
Frankliniella sp. nov. 7 (T)         -     3     1     6     2
Frankliniella nr. musaeperda sp.     -     1     -     -     -
  nov. (T)
Frankliniella sandovalensis          1     -     1     -     1
  Retana 1998 (T) *
Humbolthrips incomparabilis          -     1     -     -     -
  Johansen 1983 (T)
Humbolthrips piperaffinis            1     -     -     -     -
  Johansen 1986 (T)
Leucothrips nigripennis Reuter       -     7     -     -     1
  1904 (T)
Microcephalothrips abdominalis       -     -     2     -     4
  (D. L. Crawford 1910) (T)
Microcephalothrips sp. nov. (T)      -     -     -     -     1
Neohydatothrips sp. nov. 1 (T)       2    13     -     1     -
Neohydatothrips sp. nov. 2           1     -     2     -     1
  nr. (T)
Scirtothrips sp. nov. (T)            -     3    13     1     3
Gen. nov. 1 (T)                      -     -     -     1     -
Allothrips megacephalus              -     1     -     -     -
  mexicanus Stannard 1955 (P)
Elaphrothrips affinis                -     -     1     -     -
  (Bagnall 1908) (P)
Elaphrothrips angusticeps            1     -     -     -     3
  (D. L. Crawford 1910) (P)
Elaphrothrips laevicollis            -     -     -     -     3
  (Bagnall 1910) (P)
Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin        -     -     1     1     -
  1908) (P)
Macrophthalmothrips helenae          -     1     -     -     2
  Hood 1934 (P)
Macrophthalmothrips heinzei          -     1     -     -     -
  Mound 1972 (P) *
Terthrothrips sp. nov. (P)           -     1     -     -     -
Gen. nov. 3 (P)                      -     1     -     -     -
TOTAL 46                            22    61    41    41    43

                                     Number of
                                     specimens

Species                             Total     %

Heterothrips xolismae Hood           10     1.30
  1936 (H) *
Heterothrips pubescens Hood           2     0.26
  1934 (H) *
Chirothrips spiniceps (Hood           1     0.13
  1915) 9T)
Bregmatothrips sp. nov. (T)           1     0.13
Caliothrips punctipennis              8     1.03
  (Hood 1912) (T)
Caliothrips sp. nov. (T)              2     0.26
Ceratothripoides silvestris           3     0.38
  Hood 1935 (T)
Chaetisothrips reticulatus            1     0.13
  (D. L. Crawford 1910) (T)
Echinothrips mexicanus Moulton        5     0.65
  1911 (T)
Exophtalmothrips chiapaensis          1     0.13
  Johansen 1980 (T)
Frankliniella aurea Moulton           1     0.13
  1948 (T)
Frankliniella cephalica (D. L.        8     1.03
  Crawford 1910) (T)
Frankliniella fulvipes Bagnall       13     1.68
  1919 (T)
Frankliniella gardeniae Moulton      26     3.35
  1948 (T)
Frankliniella insularis (Franklin     4     0.52
  1908) (T)
Frankliniella minuta (Moulton         4     0.52
  1907) (T)
Frankliniella microchaeta Retana,     3     0.38
  Cambero, Sanchez & Rodriguez
  2010 (T)
Frankliniella ramirezi Mound &        1     0.13
  Marullo 1996 (T) *
Frankliniella rostrata Priesner       3     0.38
  1932 (T)
Frankliniella sp. nov. 1 (T)          3     0.38
Frankliniella sp. nov. 2 (T)          7     0.90
Frankliniella sp. nov. 3 (T)          1     0.13
Frankliniella sp. nov. 4 (T)          5     0.65
Frankliniella sp. nov. 5 (T)          3     0.38
Frankliniella sp. nov. 6 (T)          1     0.13
Frankliniella sp. nov. 7 (T)         12     1.54
Frankliniella nr. musaeperda sp.      1     0.13
  nov. (T)
Frankliniella sandovalensis           3     0.38
  Retana 1998 (T) *
Humbolthrips incomparabilis           1     0.13
  Johansen 1983 (T)
Humbolthrips piperaffinis             1     0.13
  Johansen 1986 (T)
Leucothrips nigripennis Reuter        8     1.03
  1904 (T)
Microcephalothrips abdominalis        6     0.77
  (D. L. Crawford 1910) (T)
Microcephalothrips sp. nov. (T)       1     0.13
Neohydatothrips sp. nov. 1 (T)       16     2.06
Neohydatothrips sp. nov. 2            4     0.52
  nr. (T)
Scirtothrips sp. nov. (T)            20     2.58
Gen. nov. 1 (T)                       1     0.13
Allothrips megacephalus               1     0.13
  mexicanus Stannard 1955 (P)
Elaphrothrips affinis                 1     0.13
  (Bagnall 1908) (P)
Elaphrothrips angusticeps             4     0.52
  (D. L. Crawford 1910) (P)
Elaphrothrips laevicollis             3     0.38
  (Bagnall 1910) (P)
Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin         2     0.26
  1908) (P)
Macrophthalmothrips helenae           3     0.38
  Hood 1934 (P)
Macrophthalmothrips heinzei           1     0.13
  Mound 1972 (P) *
Terthrothrips sp. nov. (P)            1     0.13
Gen. nov. 3 (P)                       1     0.13
TOTAL 46                             208    26.83

Avocado groves where specimens were sampled: Cha--Chapula,
Car--Carbonera, For--Fortin, Tin--Tintilagua, and Ced--Cedro.

(T) Thripidae, (P) Phlaeothripidae.

* New record for Mexico.
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Author:Cambero-Campos, Jhonathan; Johansen-Naime, Roberto; Garcia-Martinez, Oswaldo; Cerna-Chavez, Ernesto;
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1MEX
Date:Dec 1, 2011
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