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Species diversity and richness of wild birds in Dagona-Waterfowl Sanctuary, Nigeria.


Wetlands are of important ecological significance in the tropical region, which serves as a major link between the natural resource management and agricultural practices. They are a store house or hot-spot for the conservation of important species that rural inhabitants mostly depend upon for a source of protein, while at the same time serving deep interests of the conservationists for protection. In all the three types of wetlands (marine/coastal, inland or man-made), the most significant point of reference is water management. Therefore, a wetland or riparian ecosystem is a servicing point for diverse species of animals (fishes, birds, antelopes, primates and carnivores) that need water either for drinking, wallowing or abode [1].

Wetlands are unique biotic communities involving diverse plants and animals that are adapted to shallow and often dynamic water regimes. The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, commonly called the "Convention on Wetlands" (or the RAMSAR convention), signed in Ramsar, Iran in 1971, defines wetlands as "areas of marsh, fern, peat land or water, whether natural or artificial, temporary or permanent, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water, the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six meters". In addition, the Convention provides that wetlands "may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands and islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six meters at low tide lying within the wetland" [1]. There are also man-made wetlands such as fish and shrimp ponds, farm ponds, irrigated agricultural land, salt pans, reservoirs, gravel pits, sewage pits, sewage farms, and canals [2].

Although wetlands occupy a small portion of the earth's land area, they are very important in the biosphere. Over geologic time, wetland environments produced the vegetation that has been converted into coal. Salt water marshes are important breeding areas for many oceanic animals and many invertebrates. Dominant animal species in fresh water wetlands include many species of insects, birds, and amphibians; few mammals are also included this biome [3].

Wetlands are known for their abundance of birds. The use of wetlands and their resources is widespread among many diverse bird taxa of the world. Avian adaptation to utilize wetlands and other aquatic systems are diverse and include anatomical, morphological, behavioral changes. Anatomically, they include designs for diving and swimming, such as body compression to increase gravity, or adaptation for plunge diving from great heights [4]. Respiratory physiology differs dramatically in those bird species that engage in long period of time deep diving into the water body [5]. Morphological adaptations include bills that strain, peck, spear, store and grab, and feet that allow swimming, diving, walking on mudflat, wadding or grabbing and holding fish. Not only do body parts differ in general form, but also size of bills, legs, and flight patterns differ across a gradient of wetland edges [6]. As a result of these adaptations, birds are better equipped as a group to exploit wetland resources and are often used as indicators of conditions within a wetland ecosystem [4].

In Nigeria, the Hadeija-Nguru Lake (Marma channel) complex is a designated Ramsar site. The surface area enclosed is about 58,100 hectares, with an elevation of 340345m, located northeastern Nigeria (10[degrees] 22' N, 012[degrees] 46' E), with two-third of this site in Jigawa State and one-third in Yobe State. The Nguru Lake is a good representation of a natural or near-natural wetland, which embodies all the diverse flora and fauna of both the Sahel and the Sudan savanna in a single limited location. It regularly supports more than 20,000 water birds and is also a wintering ground for many palearctic migrant birds. A total of 377 wetland bird species have been recorded in the wetland and the total numbers of water birds recorded during the January African Water bird census counts were 259,769 in 1995; 201,133 in 1996 and 324,510 in 1997 [7]. The aim of this study was to assess species diversity and richness of wild birds and to provide a species list in Dagona Waterfowl Sanctuary. Birds are good environmental indicators, revealing the state of the ecosystems such as wetland. They also serve as dispersal agents in transferring nutrients and spores from one place to another during their migration and local movements [4].


The Dagona Wildlife Sanctuary is located within the Bade-Nguru Wetland Sector. The Sanctuary covers an area of and comprises the 1966 legislated Bade Native Authority Gogoram and Zurgum Baderi Forest Reserves. It is situated southwest of Bade and Jakusko local government areas of Yobe State. It is located between latitudes 12[degrees]13' and 13[degrees]00' and longitudes 10[degrees]00' and 11[degrees]00' (Figure 1--Map of Nigeria showing location of the Sectors). Dagona Waterfowl Sanctuary is significant to the internationally assisted conservation effort to protect the palaearctic migrant birds. It is open Sudan/scrub Sahelian vegetation, though a small part of the wetland is covered with water all year round yielding support for water birds and other wildlife found in that area.

The sanctuary is bordered by some villages and the main occupation is pastoral farming with high incidence of grazing by the Fulani community. The Waterfowl sanctuary is among the Hadeija-Nguru Wetlands while the management of the sanctuary is under the jurisdiction of the Chad Basin National Park. The sanctuary is under multiple-use management, and there is no free access to wild resources (wild animals, fish, birds). However, grazing and collection of wild resources are practiced by the local population illegally, and there is, therefore, need for more strict enforcement of laws [8].



The Line Transect method was used to survey birds. This method proved most efficient in terms of data collection per unit effort. This census involves an observer moving slowly along the routes and recording all birds detected on either side of the route. The length of transects depends on the type of survey but is usually constrained by accessibility and thus may not be fixed. Line transects are often used to collect data in large open areas and is more efficient than point counts as one tends to record more birds per unit time [9].

Surveys were carried out at three different lakes (Gatsu, Mariam and Oxbow, referred to as sites 1 to 3) in 2009 using the line transect method. A Garmin[TM] 12 Geographic Positioning System (GSP) was used to mark each point. At each site, bird observation was carried out twice daily. Morning between 0630hrs and 1000hrs and evening, between 1600hrs and 1800hrs by walking slowly along transects and making observations. The length of each transect was one kilometer and was subdivided into 50meters sub-sections to aid data collection and habitat measurements. At each site, transects were placed 100m apart.

Birds were counted as bird seen and heard and birds in flight were also recorded. A pair of binoculars with magnification 7x 50 was used in identification of birds visually alongside a field guide [1].

The data were tested with the Kolmogorov- Smirnov to determine whether or not they were normally distributed while parametric tests were applied for all data.

Birds' diversity was calculated using the Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index, H

H = -[s.summation over (i=1)] [P.sub.i] ln[P.sub.i]

[P.sub.i] = Proportion of individual species

S = Total number of species of the community (number of bird seen and heard).

Average bird diversity was calculated by getting a mean of the replicated surveys of bird diversity at each point for mornings and evenings for all sites. One-way ANOVA was used to determine if the differences in mean bird species diversity across sites were significant. A post hoc test was carried out to ascertain the level of variance in bird species diversity at the three sites.

The means of vegetation variables were calculated. Pearson's correlation was used to determine if there were significant associations between habitat variables and mean bird diversity. Using the bird diversity as the dependent variable, the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) was used to test if vegetation variables had any relationship with bird diversity. Model equation is given as:

Y = [b.sub.0] + [b.sub.1]x

Where Y = dependent variable

[b.sub.0] = corrected [R.sup.2] , [b.sub.1] = independent variables and x =error


Species Diversity

The results of this study showed that bird species diversity was normally distributed at all the sites (Table 2). A one-way ANOVA showed that bird diversity varied significantly (P<0.05) between the three sites. Site 2 (Maram) had the highest diversity (2.74) compared to site 1 (Gastu) (1.84) and site 3 (Oxbow) (1.62). Thus, site 2 had the highest diversity as indicated in Figure 2. Birds were more easily sighted and species easily identified; they were concentrated in the woodland forest ecosystem than in the riparian environment.


Species Richness

Bird species richness in the area was normally distributed among the three sites, (Table 3). There was a significant difference (P<0.05) within species richness at the three sites (Table 4). Site 1 had the highest species richness (16.36) compared to the other two sites 2 and 3 that gave 14.32 and 11.51 respectively.


Figure 3 showed that site 1(Gastu lake) had the highest number of bird species (16.36) as compared to site 2 (Maram lake) (14.32) and site 3(Oxbow lake) (11.51); site 3 had the least number of bird species.

Vegetation Distribution & Species Diversity

There was a significant relationship between vegetation densities and bird species diversity. As tree density increased, diversity of bird species decreasesd (figure 4). At tree density of 1.0 the bird species diversity recorded at evening was above 4,000; at 2.0 tree density the diversity of bird species was 2,500. It was noted that there was more human disturbance (anthropogenic activity) at the forested area of the lakes. Activities like firewood extraction collection, poaching, bush burning and forest fruit gathering were common. Likewise, more birds were recorded at evening time (>4,000 birds) than during the morning time (3,000 birds) within the vegetation area. This indicated greater bird activities at evening time before nest-roosting than early-morning hours' activity.


Checklist of Bird species in Dagona Waterfowl Sanctuary

A total of 135 bird species in 40 families were recorded during the survey (Table 5). Seventy-four percent were found in Gastu Lake, sixty-three percent in Maram Lake and seventy-one percent in Oxbow Lake. More bird species were recorded at disturbed areas (site 1) compared to least disturbed sites (2 and 3).


The majority of wetland birds observed during this study were resident species, migratory and palearctic bird species. Some of the palearctic species recorded included the Yellow Wagtail, the Warblers, Northern Shoveler, the Sandpipers and the migrants and residents were also of a considerable number. The species that were winter migrants used the wetlands area for resting and other activities while waiting for favorable condition in their home range. During this time, they store enough fat for the journey back to Europe [10]. Migrant species observed during the study were fairly few, especially the Family Accipitridae which were observed to have moved down South. The period of the study favoured the level of water that is deep enough for wetland birds, especially the water birds to carry out daily activities such as feeding, resting, nesting and predator escape. An important observation is that the bird diversity and abundance (richness) varies across sites and this was influenced by various factors, some of which included: the fact that wetlands provide food for birds in form of plants, vertebrates and invertebrates. Some of them forage for food in wetland soil, some in the water column, and others use the dry landscape, along the streams. They may be affected by quality and quantity of food. Vegetarian birds (follivore) like the White-Faced Whistling duck are likely to be affected by quality of the vegetation as it was observed during this study. Birds that are commonly found at the riparian vegetation need more protein, less of other tannins and poisonous substances which are required by the carnivorous birds such as the herons and the storks. This is because it is the quality of food which is important to the species but not the quantity [11].

The extent to which wetland birds utilize wetland as cover and hiding areas depends and varies among wetland birds; the absence of such hiding cover may result in some species being scarce. Well vegetated wetlands seem attractive to wetland bird species [12].

The absence of a specific and proper nesting site may affect the abundance and diversity of wetland bird species. Ducks nest over the water, while the Spur-winged Goose nests on the sand bars as observed during the study, the Spur-winged Lapwing are on the lake shore as shore feeder. The Jacanas were observed in the vegetated part of the lake at the three sites and so were the lily trotters. The bird species found in wetlands need specific areas to carry out reproductive activities such as roosting and nesting [13].

This study revealed a positive relationship between percentage ground cover, shrub density and tree density to bird recorded. More birds were observed in areas with higher percentage of ground cover (disturbed sites) and shrub density (135 bird species) but fewer birds were observed as tree density increased (71 bird species). This observation indicated that some wetland birds used the trees as roosting site. This was observed with some species such as the Egrets, Ibises, Herons and Storks. These species were found during the survey on the bare ground feeding on the mudflats fish and other vertebrate. Thus, habitat has long been used as a predictor of bird species abundance, and each variety of birds has developed different preferences for habitat [14]. Birds select vegetation variables according to the manner by which an individual habitat affects access to food, mates or its vulnerability to predators [15].


Bird communities are often referred to as an ideal indicator to monitor the ecological condition of any wetlands as they impact on all the trophic levels of an aquatic ecosystem. Dagona Waterfowl Sanctuary is a peculiar example of these bird communities. Aquatic ecosystems have significant impact on migratory birds. Birds carry out diverse ranges of ecological functions among vertebrates. As consumers, they help regulate populations of smaller animals they prey upon, disperse plant seeds, and pollinate flowering plants. As prey items, birds and bird eggs are consumed by a variety of larger predators. Birds also benefit humans by providing important ecosystem services such as regulating services by scavenging carcasses and waste, by controlling population of invertebrates and vertebrate pests, by pollinating and dispersing the seeds of plants; and supporting services by cycling nutrients. They served as indicators revealing the state of the wetland, as dispersal agents in transferring nutrients and spores from one wetland to another during migration and local movements [16].

Grazing, fishing and logging were the main illegal activities in the Dagona Waterfowl Sanctuary and this might be detrimental to bird species diversity in the long term. Fulani cattle grazers mostly invade the Sanctuary and fell trees to get leaves for their cattle. Several attempts by the authorities to curtail these activities were abortive. Studies have shown that selective logging can affect the diversity of bird species positively [17]. This can be introduced in some parts of the sanctuary that are experiencing fewer disturbances of bird species at sustainable management level.

Bird diversity and abundance are normally distributed among the sites in Dagona Waterfowl Sanctuary and some species are more abundant than others. This is due to the fact that some parts were more disturbed than others as it was observed that Gastu and Oxbow lakes had more disturbance than the Maram lakes. Also, the communities around the Gastu and Oxbow lakes were more than those of Maram, which means reduced human disturbance on the habitat and the bird communities. A check-list of 135 avian composition was generated and it was found that habitat structure affects avian diversity and the species abundance in this study. Therefore, it was recommended that regular monitoring of the site should be carried out so as to control changes in the state of wetland especially on the resident and palearctic species. Thus, protection of this ecosystem (Dagona wetland Sanctuary) will ensure better protection of resource richness (water, soil, animals and plants) and thereby enable future sustainable utilization of the resources. If this ecosystem is under threat by humans and is not properly managed by policy makers, then it will send a serious signal on environmental viability of the region and invariably affect the general ecosystem productivity.


[1.] Ramsar Convention Bureau: Background papers on Wetland values and Function. Gland, Switzerland: Ramsar convention Bureau,, 2000. (accessed in August 2011).

[2.] Ramsar Convention Bureau: What is Ramsar convention on Wetlands? Gland, Switzerland: Ramsar Convention Bureau. 2002.

[3.] Rana SVS Essentials of ecology and environmental sciences. Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Prentice- Hall of India, New Delhi-110001. 2005.

[4.] Niemi GJ Patterns of morphological evolution in bird genera of New World and Old World Peatland. Ecology 66, 1215-28. 1985.

[5.] Ezealor AU Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands. Critical Sites for Biodiversity Conservation in Nigeria, Nigerian Conservation Foundation, Lagos. pp 66-68. 2002.

[6.] Ezealor AU Nigeria: Important Bird Areas in Africa and associated islands: priority sites for Conservation. BirdLife Conservation series No.11. pp 673-682 in L.D.C and M.L. Evans, eds. Newbury, U.K.: Pisces publications. 2001.

[7.] Bibby CJ, Burgess N and DA Hill Bird Census Techniques. Academic Press, London. 2000.

[8.] Borrow N and R Demey Birds of Western Africa. Christopher Helm, London. 2001.

[9.] Yallop ML, Connell MJ and R Bullock Waterbirds Herbivory on a newly created wetland complex: Potential implication for site management and habitat creation. Wetland ecology and management 12:395-408. 2003.

[10.] Manu SA Effects of habitat fragmentation on the distribution of forest birds in south western Nigeria with particular reference to the Ibadan Malimbes and other Malimbes, PhD thesis. University of Oxford. 2000.

[11.] Cody ML An introduction in habitat selection in birds. In Habitat selection in birds (Cody ed.) Academic Press Inc. London pp 191-248. 1985.

[12.] Weins JA The Ecology of Bird Communities. Foundations and patterns Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Vol 1. Cambridge University press. Pp 539. 1997.

[13.] Hansen AJ, Knight RL and JM Marzluff Effects of exurban development on biodiversity: patterns, mechanism and research needs. Ecological Application vol.15 pp1893-1905. 2005.

[14.] Huston MA Biological Diversity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 1994.

[15.] Manu SA Effects of habitat fragmentation on the distribution of forest birds in South Western Nigeria with particular reference to the Ibadan Malimbes and other Malimbes, PhD thesis. University of Oxford. 2000.

[16.] Boecklen WJ Conservation status of insects: mass extinction, scientific interest, and statutory protection. Entomology serving society: emerging technologies and challenges (ed. by S.B Vinson and R.L Metcalf) pp 40-57. Entomological society of Africa, Lanham, Maryland. 1991.

[17.] Birdlife International. Threatened Birds of the World. BirdLife International, Cambridge. 2nd Edition, 2000.

Lammed G.A. (1) *

* Corresponding author email:;

(1) Associate Professor) Department of Wildlife and Ecotourism Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan; Nigeria.
Table 1: One-Sample Kolmogorov Smirnov Test for species diversity
of the sites

Site    Morning   Evening

             Z-score             N            Sig.

Gastu   0.6726    0.3680      18   2    0.7562   0.9992
Maram   0.52185   0.5928      10   10   0.8737   0.9482
Oxbow   0.5558    0.9047      33   15   0.9168   0.3862

Table 2: Least Significant Difference for Multiple Comparisons of
Species Diversity (Dependent Variable)

                       Mean Difference
(I) site  (J) site     (I-J)             Error      Sig.

1         2            -0.88419          0.173621   <0.0001
          3            0.22575           0.135651   0.098056
2         1            0.884193          0.173621   <0.0001
          3            1.109942          0.155255   3.05E-11
3         1            -0.22575          0.135651   0.098056
          2            -1.10994          0.155255   <0.0001

          95%        Confidence

(I) site  Interval
          Lower      Upper
          Bound      Bound

1         -1.22711   -0.54128
          -0.04217   0.493673
2         0.541275   1.22711
          0.803299   1.416585
3         -0.49367   0.042174
          -1.41659   -0.8033

Table 3: One-Sample Kolmogorov Smirnov Test for bird species richness
in each site

Site    Morning    Evening

              Z-score            N          Sig.

Gastu   1.049485   0.368049   2    18   0.22   0.99
Maram   0.550998   0.654709   10   10   0.92   0.78
Oxbow   1.869643   0.810866   15   33   0.00   0.53

Table 4: Least Significant Difference for Multiple Comparisons of
Species Richness (Dependent Variable)

                      Mean Difference

(I) site   (J) site   (I-J)             Std. Error   Sig.

1          2          2.047969481       2.503185     0.414506
           3          4.850705329       1.955752     0.014178
2          1          -2.047969481      2.503185     0.414506
           3          2.802735848       2.238395     0.212377
3          1          -4.850705329      1.955752     0.014178
           2          -2.802735848      2.238395     0.212377

(I) site   95% Confidence Interval

           Lower        Upper
           Bound        Bound

1          -2.89605     6.99199
           0.987916     8.713495
2          -6.99199     2.896051
           -1.6183      7.223772
3          -8.71349     -0.98792
           -7.22377     1.6183

Table 5: Checklist of Bird species in Dagona Waterfowl Sanctuary

Family                  Scientific name          Common name

1. Accipitridae         Accipiter tachiro        African goshawk
                        Circus ranivorus         African marsh harrier
                        Accipitridae             Bird of prey
                        Elanus caeruleus         Black-shouldered kite
                        Melierax metabates       Dark chanting goshawk
                        Kaupifalco               Lizard buzzard
                        Circus ranivorus         Marsh harrier
                        Accipiter ovampensis     Ovambo sparrowhawk
                        Circus macrourus         Pallid harrier
                        Acccipiter badius        Shikra

2. Alcedinidae          Ceyx lecontei            African dwarf
                        Halcyon leucocephala     Grey-headed
                        Ceryle rudis             Pied kingfisher

3. Ardeidae             Egretta ardesiaca        Black heron
                        Bubulcus ibis            Cattle egret
                        Egretta alba             Great egret
                        Ardea cinerea            Grey heron
                        Egretta intermedia       Intermediate egret
                        Egretta garzetta         Little egret
                        Egretta garzetta         Lesser egret
                        Ardea purpurea           Purple heron
                        Ardeola ralloides        Squacco heron

4. Anatidae             Dendrocygna viduata      White-faced whistling
                        Anas querquedula         Garganey
                        Sarkidiornis             Knob-billed duck
                        Anas clypeata            Northern shoveler
                        Plectropterus            Spur-winged goose

5. Alaudidae            Galerida modesta         Sun lark
                        Eremopterix nigriceps    Black-crowned sparrow
                        Eremopterix leucotis     Chestnut-backed
                                                   sparrow lark
                        Galerida cristata        Crested lark

6. Bucerotidae          Tokus camurus            Red-billed hornbill
                        Tokus nasutus            African grey hornbill

7. Columbidae           Streptopelia             African collared dove
                        Streptopelia             African mourning dove
                        Turtur abyssinicus       Black-billed wood
                        Streptopelia spp         Dove
                        Streptopelia             Laughing dove
                        Oena capensis            Namaqua dove
                        Streptopelia vinacea     Vinaceous dove
                        Streptopelia             Red-eyed dove
                        Columba guinea           Speckled pigeon

8. Ciconiidae           Anastomus                African openbill
                          lamelligerus             stork
                        Ciconia nigra            Black stork
                        Leptoptilos              Marabou stork
                        Anastomus                Open-bill stork

9. Collidae             Urocolius macrourus      Blue-naped mousebird

10. Corvidae            Corvus albus             Pied crow

11. Coraciidae          Coracias abbyssinicus    Abyssian rollerS
12. Capitonidae         Pogoniulus scolopaceus   Yellow-fronted
                        Lybius vieilloti         Veillot barbet

13. Charadriidae        Charadrius marginatus    White-fronted plover
                        Vanellus spinosus        Spur-winged lapwing
14. Cuculidae           Centropus sensgalensis   Senegal coucal

15. Estrildidae         Euodice cantans          African silverbill
                        Estrilda troglodytes     Black rumped waxbill
                        Amadina fasciatus        Cut-throat
                        Lagonosticta Senegal     Red-billed firefinch
                        Estrilda troglodytes     Black-rumped waxbill
                        Uraeginthus bengalus     Red-cheeked cordon
                        Serinus leucopygius      White rumped
16. Falconidae          Falco ardosiaceus        Grey kestrel

17. Jacanidae           Actophilornis            African jacana
                        Microparra capensis      Lesserjacana

18. Laniidae            Lanius meridionalis      Southern grey Shrike

19. Malaconotidae       Laniaruus barbarous      Yellow-crowned

20. Motacillidae        Motacilla flava          Yellow wagtail
                        Motacilla flava          Common wagtail

21. Meropidae           Merops pusillus          Little bee-eater
                        Merops orientalis        Little green

22. Musophagidae        Crinifer piscator        Western grey
                        Crinifer piscator        Plantain eater

23. Nectariniidae       Cinnyris pulchellus      Beautiful sunbird
                        Hedydipna platura        Pygmy sunbird

24. Ploceidae           Ploceus spp              Weavers
                        Bubalornis albirostris   Buffalo weaver
                        Plcepasser               Chestut-crowned
                          superciliosus            sparrow weaver
                        Anomalospiza imberbis    Cuckoo finch
                        Quelea quelea            Red-billed quelea
                        Ploceidae                Bishop
                        Ploceus luteolus         Little weaver
                        Anaplectes rubriceps     Red-headed quelea
                        Ploceus cucullatus       Village weavers
                        Sporopipes frontalis     Speckle-fronted
                        Ploceus vitellinuus      Vitelline masked

25. Passeridae          Passer luteus            Sudan golden sparrow
                        Petronia dentate         Bush petronia
                        Passer griseus           Northern grey-headed
26. Phasianidae         Ptilopachus petroosus    Stone partridge
                        Francolinus              Clapperton's
                          clappertoni              francolin
27. Phalacrocoracidae   Phalacrocorax            Long-tailed comorant

28. Picidae             Dendropicos goertae      Grey woodpecker

29. Psittacidae         Psittacula krameri       Rose-ringed parakeet
                        Poicephalus sensgalus    Senegal parrot

30. Phoeniculidae       Phoeniculus purpureus    Green woodhoopoe

31. Pycnonotidae        Pycnonotus barbatus      Common bulbul

32. Recurvirostridae    Himantopus himantopus    Black-winged stilt

33. Sturnidae           Lamprotornis pulcher     Chestnut-bellied
                        Lamprotornis purpureus   Purple glossy
                        Lamprotornis caudatus    Long-tailed starling

34. Scolopacidae        Actitis hypoleucos       Common sandpiper
                        Calidris minuta          Little stint
                        Philomachus pugnax       Ruff
                        Tringa glareola          Wood sandpiper

35. Sylviidae           Sylvia communis          Common whitethroat
                        Sylvia curruca           Lesser whitethroat
                        Hippolias polyglotta     Melodious warbler
                        Sylvietta brachyuran     Northern combrec
                        Hippolais spp            Sedge wabler
                        Acrocephalus             Tawny-flanked prinia
                        Prinia subflava          Warbler
                        Sylvia spp               Willow warbler

36. Threskiornithidae   Plegadis falcinellus     Gossy ibis
                        Threskiornis             Sacred ibis

37. Timaliidae          Turdoides plebejus       Brown babblers

38. Turdidae            Cercotrichas podobe      Black scrub robin
                        Myrmecocichla aethiops   Northern anteater
39. Upupidae            Upupa epops              Hoopoe

40. Viduidae            Vidua macroura           Pin-tailed whydah
                        Vidua orientalis         Sahel paradise whydah
                        Vidua chalybeate         Village indigobird
                        Euplectes spp            Widow bird
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Author:Lameed, Gbolagade A.
Publication:African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6NIGR
Date:Aug 1, 2012
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