Printer Friendly

Spatial distribution of major, some trace and rare earth elements and mineralogy of sediments of Buriganga River, Bangladesh.

Introduction

The river Buriganga is the main river flowing along the south-western side of the capital of Bangladesh, Dhaka, a megacity of 12 million people. City dwellers largely depend on the Buriganga's water for drinking, fishing and carrying merchandise. But unfortunately it is now considered as one of the dirtiest rivers of the world. The foul odor of the polluted black water of Buriganga can be sensed even from half a kilometer distance. The present head i.e. north-west of the Buriganga has now been so narrowed down due to siltation that some locations look like canal during winter but it opens during monsoon; however its lower part is still wider throughout the year. Since the 1980s, intensive human intervention, unplanned urbanization and population pressure have created the present unwanted situation of the river. Once a determining factor for trade and urbanization and source of small and medium industrial growth, it has now been degraded by unplanned industrial development specially tannery, knitting and dyeing industries and straggling expansion of households on its banks and its catchment, and due to the use of waterways as sewers for carrying urban solid and liquid waste. The situation deteriorated further because of the lack of appropriate waste management infrastructure and sewerage disposal system in the city, particularly in the vicinity of the river. Many landfill sites established close to the river, and also people living nearby areas directly dispose of their both solid and liquid waste into the river. Furthermore, since the early 1980s, unscrupulous people have started to capture the off-shore lands, building illegal encroachments keeping aside waste disposal and sanitation facilities. Out of 178 tanneries on the banks of the Buriganga at Hazaribagh area 158 are of "red category" (severe polluter) which have no effluent treatment facilities and there are still 311 of industries of "red category" in and around the capital yet to build effluent treatment plant (ETP), while 371 heavy polluter industries have so far completed the installation. Though, there are complains that many of them do not use their ETPs. They have spent money to install it but do not want to spend any more to run it. As a result of these human actions on the one hand, and failure by the authority to enforce rules and regulations to save the river on the other, the Buriganga is dying biologically and hydrologically [1]. Now a days, no fish and other aquatic organisms can be found in the river during the dry season.

Rivers are a dominant pathway for metals transport [2] and trace metals may become significant pollutants of many small riverine systems [3]. The behavior of metals in natural waters is a function of the substrate sediment composition, the suspended sediment composition, and the water chemistry [4]. During their transport, the trace metals undergo numerous changes in their speciation due to dissolution, precipitation, sorption and complexation phenomena [3,5] which affect their behavior and bioavailability [6]. Recent studies reveal that the accumulation and distribution of hydrocarbons, trace metals and chlorinated compounds in soil, water and environment are increasing at an alarming rate causing deposition and sedimentation in water reservoirs and affecting aquatic organisms as well [7-9]. The list of sites contaminated with heavy metals is increasing every year, posing a serious problem for human health and a formidable danger to the environment [10]. Trace elements are easily influenced by environmental factors such as surface runoff, groundwater, dissolution from sediment, deposition from the atmosphere and anthropogenic pollutants. Hence, trace metals may be sensitive indicators for monitoring changes in the water environment.

Rare earth elements (REE) have become important geochemical tracers in order to understand and describe the chemical evolution of the earth's continental crust [11-14]. Moreover, REE have been used, as analogues for actinide elements, in studies related to radioactive waste disposal in order to demonstrate their general immobility in weathering environments [15]. Despite this, many studies have indicated that REE may be significantly mobilized during weathering and that REE may behave nonconservatively [16-17]. However, little is known about REE distribution and fractionation during weathering and river transport.

The previous studies on the Buriganga River have focused on the river water chemistry and physicochemical properties in the river water [18-19] and few studies on seasonal and spatial distribution of heavy metals [20-21]. But, no study on oxides of major elements, mineralogy and rare earth element contents of sediments has so far been conducted. Keeping these views in mind, the present piece of research work was conducted to determine the spatial distribution, of major and rare earth element content in the sediments of the Buriganga River and to assess the enrichment factors and mineralogy of the sediments.

Materials and methods

Sampling

Sediments samples were collected from twenty sites of the Buriganga River in summer 2009 (Table 1 and Fig. 1). The river bed sediment samples were taken at a depth of 0-15 cm which was quickly packed in air tight polythene bags. The sample mass collected in each case was about 500g. Sub-samples of the material were oven dried at 50[degrees]C for 48 hrs and ground using mortar and pestle. Then the samples were sieved with the help of a sieve (aperture 125 um). The lower particle size fraction was homogenized by grinding in an agate mortar and stored in carefully marked glass bottles until chemical analyses were carried out. Precautions were taken to avoid contamination during drying, grinding, sieving and storage.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Analysis of sediments

Organic carbon (OC) in sediment samples was measured by the wet oxidation method of Walkley and Black [22]. The concentration of oxides of major elements viz. silicon (Si), aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), sodium (Na), phosphorus (P) and titanium (Ti) of sediment samples were estimated by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, employing a Rigaku RIX 1000 (Tokyo, Japan) XRF; using glass bead samples. A Bruker AXS: D-8 Advance (Berlin, Germany) X-Ray Diffractometer was employed for XRD analysis at the central laboratory of Keio University. Fine powder sediment samples were used for XRD analysis following the manufacturer's recommendations. The XRD Commander is the control center for the diffractometer. The [DIFFRAC.sup.plus] software suite provided the measurement results, i.e. angle (2[theta]), d-value ([Angstrom]), peak intensity (count) and peak intensity (%). On the basis of these results, the mineralogical constituents in the sediment samples were indentified. For the determination of total trace and rare earth elements like vanadium (V), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), yttrium (Y), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb), tin (Sn), antimony (Sb), cesium (Cs), barium (Ba), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), and neodymium (Nd); the powdered sediment samples were hard-pressed at 60-65 mPa to prepare bead and were analyzed by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, employing a Rigaku RIX 1000 (Tokyo, Japan) XRF. Analysis by XRF were also performed on certified reference Japanese stream sediment samples (JSd-2 and JSd-3) provided by the Geological Survey of Japan using the same procedure as a check.

Statistical analysis

The experimental data were treated statistically using computer software package, STATISTICA[R] (StatSoft, 1984-2007). Pearson's product moment correlation matrix was used to identify the relationship among metals and support the results obtained by multivariate analysis.

Results and discussion

Major elemental composition of the sediment samples

Major oxide components in sediment samples of the Buriganga river are enlisted in Table 2. It is apparent that the oxides of Si, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Ti in sediment samples did not vary greatly among the sampling sites of the study area. The concentration of Si[O.sub.2] in Buriganga river sediment ranges from 63.11 to 82.24%, with average value of 71.1%, which exceed significantly than that of continental upper crust values (66.62%). Buriganga river used to dredged almost every years to deepen the waterways and to clean the riverbed, which may influence in higher Si[O.sub.2] content in bed sediments. Clays containing alumina are used in porcelain, pottery and bricks. The [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] in Buriganga river sediment ranges from 9.36 to 17.82%. Calcium oxide, commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, composed 3.59% of the continental upper crust. Buriganga river sediment contains lower CaO (2.1%) than that of continental upper crust values. There are sixteen known iron oxide and oxyhydroxides. Total iron oxide in Buriganga river sediment ranges from 0.85 to 8.7%. Total iron oxide content in sediments varies distinctly from site to sites. The average iron oxide content (5.6%) in Buriganga river is a bit higher than that of continental upper crust values. Potassium is the 7th most abundant element in the earth's crust, occurring principally as potassium feldspar and mica. Continental upper crust contains 2.8% [K.sub.2]O. Buriganga river sediments contain more or less same amount of [K.sub.2]O (2.7%) than that of continental upper crust. Magnesium oxide or magnesia occurs naturally as periclase is highly mobile in the form of [Mg.sup.2+]. Magnesia in Buriganga river sediment ranges from 0.53 to 2.39%. The concentration of the major components suggests, besides the obvious presence of silica and aluminosilicate minerals; that there exist other minerals like oxides of iron and to a lesser extent, sodium, manganese, titanium and phosphorus containing minerals.

Mineralogy of the sediment:

Additional independent information on the component geochemical phases of the sample sites 1, 7, 15 and 20 was obtained by XRD analysis and the results are presented in Table 3. Quartz has the strongest peak in all the samples, with the relative intensity of 100. Other than quartz the second strongest peak were for anothrite for sample 1 and 7. However, quartz, feldspar (such as albite/ anorthite), several clay minerals (such as micas and illites, chamosite, chlorites, kaolinite and biotite), bayerite and calcite were common in sediment samples. It is worth mentioning that the presence of iron oxide and hydroxide group minerals, specifically goethite was very low or absent in sampling site 1, 7 and 20. Mica and illites were also missing in sampling site 7and 15. The mineral composition of all the samples agrees qualitatively with the major elemental composition.

Content of trace metals and rare elements in sediment samples

The content of total trace and rare earth elements viz. V, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, and Nd in sediment samples of the Buriganga river ant their comparison with continental upper crust values [23] and average shale values [24] are presented in Table 4. Metallic vanadium is not found in nature, but is known to exist in about 65 different minerals. Much of the world's vanadium production is sourced from vanadium-bearing magnetite found in ultramafic gabbro bodies. In Buriganga river sediment vanadium content ranges from 54 to 113.7[micro]g [g.sup.-1]. The average vanadium content in Buriganga river (90.4[micro]g [g.sup.-1]) is lower than that of continental upper crust values and average shale values. Rubidium is about the twenty-third most abundant element in the Earth's crust, roughly as abundant as zinc and rather more common than copper [25]. It is one of the incompatible elements due to its large ionic radius [26]. Rubidium in Buriganga river sediment ranges from 93.4 to 166.3[micro]g [g.sup.-1]. Average Rb content in Buriganga river (132.0 [micro]g [g.sup.-1]) is higher than continental upper crust values [23] but lower than average shale values [24]. Strontium commonly occurs in nature, the 15th most abundant element on earth, averaging 0.034% of all igneous rock and is found chiefly as the form of the sulfate mineral celestite (SrS[O.sub.4]) and the carbonate strontianite (SrC[O.sub.3]). Of the two, celestite occurs much more frequently in sedimentary deposits of sufficient size to make development of mining facilities attractive [27]. Strontium content in Buriganga river sediment ranges from 117.6 to 184.5 [micro]g [g.sup.-1]. Average Sr content in Buriganga river sediment (154.4 [micro]g [g.sup.-1]) is almost 50% of average shale and continental upper crust values. Yttrium has no known biological role, though it is found in most organisms and tends to concentrate in the liver, kidney, spleen, lungs, and bones of humans [28]. The similarities of yttrium to the lanthanides are so strong that the element has historically been grouped with them as a rare earth element, and is always found in nature together with them in rare earth minerals. The average Y content in Buriganga river sediment (36.3 [micro]g [g.sup.-1]) is a bit higher than that of average shale and continental upper crust values. Because of zirconium's excellent resistance to corrosion, it is often used as an alloying agent in materials that are exposed to corrosive agents, such as surgical appliances, explosive primers, vacuum tube getters and filaments. Zirconium has a concentration of about 193 [micro]g [g.sup.-1] within the earth's upper crust, though it is never found in nature as a native metal. But, Zr content in Buriganga river sediment ranges from 171.4 to 624.2 [micro]g [g.sup.-1], with an average of 424.8 [micro]g [g.sup.-1]. That means Buriganga river sediment contain relatively high amount of Zr. Niobium is estimated to be 33rd on the list of the most common elements in the Earth's upper crust with 12 [micro]g [g.sup.-1]. The abundance on earth should be much greater, but the "missing" niobium may be located in the Earth's core due to the metal's high density [29]. However, the average Nb content in Buriganga river sediment (17.1 [micro]g [g.sup.-1]) was relatively higher than standard values. Tin does not occur naturally by itself, and must be extracted from a base compound, usually cassiterite, stannite, cylindrite, franckeite, canfieldite, and teallite. Tin content of Buriganga river sediment ranges from 2.9 to 6.4 [micro]g [g.sup.-1]. Antimony is a silvery lustrous grey metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite ([Sb.sub.2][S.sub.3]). Relatively high toxicity of some antimony compounds, being similar to arsenic compounds, limits the applications. Antimony content in Buriganga river sediment ranges from 0.3 to 1.4 [micro]g [g.sup.-1] with an average of 1.2 [micro]g [g.sup.-1]. Due to large ionic radius of cesium, it is one of the "incompatible elements." During magma crystallization, cesium is concentrated in the liquid phase and crystallizes last. Therefore the largest deposits of cesium are zone pegmatite ore bodies formed by this enrichment process. Relatively few chemical applications exist for cesium. Average cesium content in Buriganga river sediment was 10.05 [micro]g [g.sup.-1], which is almost double than that of average shale and continental upper crust values. Barium is never found in nature in its pure form due to its reactivity with air. It occurs in the minerals barite and witherite. Barium content in Buriganga river sediment ranges from 410.9 to 563.8 [micro]g [g.sup.-1] with an average of 493.2 [micro]g [g.sup.-1] which is lower than that of average shale and continental upper crust values. Lanthanum is a silvery white metallic element that belongs to group 3 of the periodic table and is the first element of the lanthanide series. It is found in some rare-earth minerals, usually in combination with cerium and other rare earth elements. Lanthanum content in Buriganga river sediment ranges from 34.4 to 72.7 [micro]g [g.sup.-1], with an average of 56.4 [micro]g [g.sup.-1], which is lower than average shale values but higher than continental upper crust values. Cerium is a soft, silvery, ductile metal which easily oxidizes in air. It is the most abundant of the rare earth elements, making up about 0.0046% of the Earth's crust by weight. It is found in a number of minerals, the most important being monazite and bastnasite. Average Ce content in Buriganga river sediment is 105.5 [micro]g [g.sup.-1], which is higher than that of standard values. Praseodymium is available in small quantities in Earth's upper crust (7.1 [micro]g [g.sup.-1]). It is found in the rare earth minerals monazite and bastnasite, typically comprising about 5% of the lanthanides contained therein. Buriganga river sediment contain relatively higher (average 11.6 [micro]g [g.sup.-1]) amount of praseodymium. Neodymium is never found in nature as the free element; rather, it occurs in ores such as monazite and bastnasite that contain small amounts of all the rare earth metals. Although it belongs to rare earth metals, neodymium is not rare at all-its abundance in the upper continental crust is 27 [micro]g [g.sup.-1]. The Nd content in Buriganga river sediment ranges from 17.6 to 55.7 [micro]g [g.sup.-1], with an average of 42 [micro]g [g.sup.-1], which is relatively higher than that of average shale and upper continental crust values. The standard deviation for V, Rb, Zr, Ba, La, Ce and Nd were very high which reflects the relatively wide variation of these metal contents from sites to sites. It is clear from the Table 4 that the sampling sites 13, 14 and 15 were relative enriched with the analyzed elements and sampling site 18 and 19 contain relatively low amount of the analyzed trace metals.

Relationship among organic carbon and different heavy metals in sediments

Correlation matrix of analyzed elements in sediments was computed to see whether the elements were interrelated with each other and the results are presented in Table 5. Examination of the matrix also provides clues about the carrier substances and the chemical association of heavy metals in the study area [30,31]. There is no significant correlation between organic carbon (OC) and other analyzed metal content in sediments. OC is negatively correlated with Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, Pr and Nd which implies that the presence of organic matter may have no influence on abundance of these heavy metals in sediments of the Buriganga and weathering of parent material may influence in the presence of these elements. Vanadium showed significant correlation with Rb, Cs and Ba. But, Rb, La and Ce showed highly significant correlation with Cs, Ce and Pr, respectively.

Assessments of anthropogenic enrichment in sediments Enrichment factors (EFc)

Enrichment factors (EFc) is considered as an effective tool to evaluate the magnitude of contaminants in the environment, which are computed as relative to the abundance of species in source material to that found in the Earth's crust. The following equation was used to calculate the EFc:

EFc = [([C.sub.M]/[C.sub.A1).sub.sample]/([C.sub.M]/[C.sub.A1])Earth's crust

Where, [([C.sub.M]/[C.sub.A1]).sub.sample] is the ratio of concentration of heavy metal ([C.sub.M]) to that of Al ([C.sub.Al]) in the sediment sample, and [([C.sub.M]/[C.sub.Al]).sub.Earth's crust] is the same reference ratio in the Earth's crust. Samples having EFc value greater than 5 are considered to be contaminated with that particular element [32]. It is presumed that high EFc values indicate an anthropogenic source of the metals. Since, the bioavailability and toxicity of any metals in sediments depend upon the chemical form and concentration of the metals [33]. The EFc values close to unity indicate crustal origin, those less than 1.0 indicate a possible mobilization or depletion of metals, whereas EFc > 1.0 indicates that the element is of anthropogenic origin, EFc greater than 10 are considered to be non-crusted sources.

EFc values for rare earth elements in the Buriganga river sediment varies in different sampling points (Fig. 2). Elements like Sr, Ba, V, Nd, Nb, Y and Pr possessing EFc values less than one indicating their mobilization and possible depletion. Whereas, Sn, Sb and Zr were relative highly enriched and Cs, Rb, La and Ce were relatively enriched in Buriganga river sediments.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Index of geoaccumulation ([I.sub.geo])

The geoaccumulation index ([I.sub.geo]) values were calculated for different metals as introduced by Muller [34], which is

[I.sub.geo] = [log.sub.2] [Cn/(1.5 x Bn)]

where [C.sub.n] is the measured concentration of element n in the sediment and [B.sub.n] is the geochemical background for the element n which is taken from the literature i.e. average shale value described by Turekian and Wedepohl, [24]. The factor 1.5 is introduced to include possible variations of the background values that are due to lithologic variations. The geoaccumulation index consists of seven grades or classes. Class 0 (practically uncontaminated): [I.sub.geo] [less than or equal to] 0; Class 1 (uncontaminated to moderately contaminated): 0 < [I.sub.geo] <1; Class 2 (moderately contaminated): 1 < [I.sub.geo] <2; Class 3 (moderately to heavily contaminated): 2 < [I.sub.geo] <3; Class 4 (heavily contaminated): 3 < [I.sub.geo] < 4; Class 5 (heavily to extremely contaminated): 4< [I.sub.geo] < 5; Class 6 (extremely contaminated): 5 < [I.sub.geo]. Class 6 is an open class and comprises all values of the index higher than Class 5. The elemental concentrations in Class 6 may be hundred fold greater than the geochemical background value. The [I.sub.geo] values for theanalyzed trace and rare earth elements of Buriganga river is not so high. It is evident from Figure 3 is that, on the basis of [I.sub.geo] the Buriganga river is uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with Sn, Sb, Zr, La, Cs, Rb and Ce. While [I.sub.geo] values for Sr, V, Nd, Y, Nb, Pr and Ba exhibit in class 0, indicates uncontaminated sediments with these elements.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Conclusions

The concentration of the oxides of major elements of Buriganga river suggests, besides the obvious presence of silica and aluminosilicate minerals; that there exist other minerals like oxides of iron and to a lesser extent, sodium, manganese, titanium and phosphorus containing minerals. Quartz, feldspar (such as albite/ anorthite), several clay minerals (such as micas and illites, chamosite, chlorites, kaolinite and biotite), bayerite and calcite were common in sediment samples. Elements viz. Y, Zr, Nb, Cs, Ce, Pr and Nd content in sediments were relatively higher than that of average shale and continental upper crust values. The sampling sites 13, 14 and 15 were relative enriched with the analyzed elements and sampling site 18 and 19 contain relatively low amount of the analyzed trace metals. On the other hand, Sr and Ba content were lower than that of average shale and continental upper crust values. Enrichment factor values suggest that elements like Sr, Ba, V, Nd, Nb, Y and Pr possessing EFc values less than one indicating their mobilization and possible depletion. Whereas, Sn, Sb and Zr were relative highly enriched and Cs, Rb, La and Ce were relatively enriched in Buriganga river sediments. On the basis of Index of geoaccumulation ([I.sub.geo]) the Buriganga river sediment is uncontaminated to moderately contaminate with Sn, Sb, Zr, La, Cs, Rb and Ce. While [I.sub.geo] values for Sr, V, Nd, Y, Nb, Pr and Ba exhibit in class 0, indicates uncontaminated sediments with these elements.

Acknowledgements

The corresponding author thankfully acknowledges the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, for financial support in the form of Monbukagakusho Scholarship.

References

[1] Alam, K., 2008, "Cost-Benefit Analysis of Restoring Buriganga River, Bangladesh" Water Resources Development, 24(4), 593-607.

[2] Miller, C. V., Foster, G. D., and Majedi, B.F., 2003, "Baseflow and stormflow metal fluxes from two small agricultural catchments in the coastal plain of Chesapeake Bay Basin, United States" Appl. Geochem., 18(4), 483-501.

[3] Dassenakis, M., Scoullos, M., Foufa, E., Krasakopoulou, E., Pavlidou, A., and Kloukiniotou, M., 1998, "Effects of multiple source pollution on a small Mediterranean river" Appl. Geochem., 13(2), 197-211.

[4] Osmond, D. L., Line, D. E., Gale, J. A., Gannon, R. W., Knott C. B., Bartenhagen, K. A., Turner, M. H., Coffey, S. W., Spooner, J., Wells, J., Walker, J. C., Hargrove, L. L., Foster, M. A., Robillard P. D., and Lehning, D. W., 1995, "Water, Soil and Hydro-Environmental Decision Support System" URL:www.water.ncsu.edu/watersheds/info /hmetals.html

[5] Akcay, H., Oguz, A., and Karapire, C., 2003, "Study of heavy metal pollution and speciation in Buyak Menderes and Gediz river sediments" Water Res., 37(4), 813-822.

[6] Nicolau, R., Galera-Cunha A., and Lucas, Y., 2006, "Transfer of nutrients and labile metals from the continent to the sea by a small Mediterranean river" Chemosphere, 63(3), 469-476.

[7] Hobbelen, P. H. F., Koolhaas, J. E., and van Gestel, C. A. M., 2004, "Risk assessment of heavy metal pollution for detritivores in floodplain soils in the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, taking bioavailability into account" Environmental Pollution, 129(3), 409-419.

[8] Koukal, B., Dominik, J., Vignati, D., Arpagaus, P., Santiago, S., Ouddane, B., and Benaabidate, L., 2004, "Assessment of water quality and toxicity of polluted rivers Fez and Sebou in the region of Fez (Morocco)" Environmental Pollution, 131(1), 163-172.

[9] Cataldo, D., Colombo, J. C., Boltovskoy, D., Bilos, C., and Landoni, P., 2001, "Environmental toxicity assessment in the Parana river delta (Argentina): simultaneous evaluation of selected pollutants and mortality rates of Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia) early juveniles" Environmental Pollution, 112(3), 379-389.

[10] Marin, A., Lopez-Gonzalvez, A., and Barbas, C., 2001, "Development and validation of extraction methods for determination of zinc and arsenic speciation in soils using focused ultrasound: Application to heavy metal study in mud and soils" Analytica Chimica Acta, 442(2), 305-318.

[11] Goldstein, S. J., and Jacobsen, S. B., 1988, "Rare earth elements in river waters" Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 89, 35-47.

[12] McLennan S. M., 1989, "Rare earth elements in sedimentary rocks: influence of the provenance and sedimentary process" in: Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Rare Earth Elements, 21, 169-200.

[13] Gaillardet, J., 1995, "Geochimie comparee de deux grands systemes fluviaux tropicaux : le Congo et I'Amazone. Geochimie isotopique du bore dans les coraux" Thesis, Univ. Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, Paris, France, pp 427.

[14] Dupre, B., Gaillardet, J., Rousseau, D., and Allegre, C., 1996, "Major and trace elements of river-borne material: the Congo Basin" Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 60, 1301-l 321.

[15] Wood, S. A., 1990 "The aqueous geochemistry of rare-earth elements and yttrium" Chem. Geol., 82, 159-186.

[16] Braun, J. J., Pagel, M., Muller, J. P., Bilong, P., Michard, A., and Guillet B., 1990. "Cerium anomalies in lateritic profiles" Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 54, 781-795.

[17] Sholkovitz, E. R., Landing, W. M., and Lewis, B. L., 1994, "Ocean particle chemistry: the fractionation of rare earth elements between suspended particles and seawater" Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 58, 1567-1579.

[18] Ali, M. Y., Amin, M. N. and Alam, K., 2008. "Ecological Health Risk of Buriganga River, Dhaka, Bangladesh" Hydro Nepal, 3, 1-4.

[19] Moniruzzaman, M., Elahi, S. F., and Jahangir, M. A. A., 2009, "Study on Temporal Variation of Physico-chemical Parameters of Buriganga River Water through GIS (Geographical Information System) Technology" Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res., 44(3), 327-334.

[20] Alam, A. M. S., Islam, M. A., Rahman, M. A., Siddique, M. N., and Matin, M. A., 2003, "Comparative study of the toxic metals and non-metal status in the major river system of Bangladesh" Dhaka Univ. J. Sci., 51(2), 201-208.

[21] Ahmad, M. K., Islam, S., Rahman, S., Haque, M. R., and Islam, M. M., 2010, "Heavy Metals in Water, Sediment and Some Fishes of Buriganga River, Bangladesh" Int. J. Environ. Res., 4(2), 321-332.

[22] Walkley, A., and Black, I. A., 1934, "An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method" Soil Sci., 37, 29-38.

[23] Rudnick, R. L., and Gao, S., 2003, "Treatise on Geochemistry". Editor: Rudnick. R. L., Executive Editors: Holland H. D., and Turekian K. K., Elsevier, 3, 1-64.

[24] Turekian, K. K., and Wedepohl, K. H., 1961, "Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth's crust" Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 72, 175-192.

[25] Butterman, W. C. and Reese, Jr., R. G., 2003, "Mineral Commodity Profile: Rubidium" United States Geological Survey. Retrieved from http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-045/of03-045.pdf

[26] McSween, Jr., H. Y., and Huss, G. R., 2010, "Cosmochemistry" Cambridge University Press, UK. ISBN 9780521878623, p. 224.

[27] Ober, J. A., 2008, "Mineral Commodity Summaries 2008: Strontium" United States Geological Survey. pp. 162-163. Retrieved from http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/strontium/mcs-2008 stron.pdf.

[28] MacDonald, N. S., Nusbaum, R. E., and Alexander G. V., 1952, "The Skeletal Deposition of Yttrium" Journal of Biological Chemistry, 195(2), 837-841. Retrieved from http://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/195/2/837.pdf.

[29] Patel, Z., and Khulka, K., 2001, "Niobium for Steelmaking" Metallurgist, 45, 477-480.

[30] Forstner, U., and Wittmann, G. T. W., 1983, "Metal Pollution in Aquatic Environment" 2nd ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 481.

[31] Jaquet, J. M., Davaud, E., Rapin, F., and Vernet, J. P., 1982, "Basic concepts and associated statistical methodology in geochemical study of lake sediments" Hydrobiologia, 91(1), 139-146.

[32] Atgin, R. S., El-Agha, O., Zararsiz, A., Kocatas, A., Parlak, H., and Tuncel, G., 2000, "Investigation of the sediment pollution in Izmir Bay: trace elements" Spectrochimica Acta-Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 55(7), 1151-1164.

[33] Kwon, Y. T., Lee, C. W., and Ahn, B. Y., 2001, "Sedimentation pattern and sediments bioavailability in a wastewater discharging area by sequential metal analysis" Microchemical Journal, 68, 135-141.

[34] Muller, G., 1969, "Index of geoaccumulation in sediments of the Rhine River" GeoJournal, 2(3), 108-118.

Authors Biography

K.M. Mohiuddin, Laboratory of Geochemistry, School of Science for Open and Environmental Systems, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama, Japan and Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Email: mohiagchem@gmail.com

Kazuo Otomo, Laboratory of Geochemistry, School of Science for Open and Environmental Systems, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama, Japan. Email: kazuo420305@yahoo.co.jp

Yasumasa Ogawa, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. Email:ogawa@geo.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp

Naotatsu Shikazono, Professor, Laboratory of Geochemistry, School of Science for Open and Environmental Systems, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama, Japan Email: sikazono@applc.keio.ac.jp

Mohiuddin K.M. (1,2) *, Otomo K. (1), Ogawa Y. (3), Shikazono N. (1)

(1) Laboratory of Geochemistry, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama, Japan

(2) Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh

(3) Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
Table 1: Name of the locations of different sampling sites of
the river Buriganga, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Sample No. Location

1 Kholamura lonch terminal
2 Signboard area
3 Borishur lonch terminal
4 Kamrangirchor tara mosjid
5 Losongonj, Zingira
6 Jahuchar, Kamrangirchar
7 Kalunagar, Hazaribagh
8 Companighat
9 Hatirghat, Nowabgonj
10 Purba Rasulpur bridge
11 Sohidnagar jama mosjid
12 Sohidnagar bridge
13 Kamalbagh
14 Korimbagh
15 Raghunathpur
16 Swarighat
17 Badamtali bridge
18 Sadharghat
19 Merarbagh
20 Postogola bridge

Table 2: Concentration of oxides of major elements (mass %) in
the sediments of different sampling sites of the Buriganga River.

Sampling Si[O.sub.2] [Al.sub.2] CaO Fe[O.sub.T]
Sites [O.sub.3]

1 66.87 16.27 1.74 7.36
2 65.58 17.08 1.79 7.48
3 72.59 13.36 2.11 5.18
4 70.66 17.82 2.24 0.85
5 82.24 9.36 1.34 2.20
6 71.50 13.98 2.05 5.35
7 68.36 14.23 3.12 6.62
8 77.69 10.56 2.07 3.77
9 72.80 13.54 1.87 5.16
10 76.77 11.13 1.90 4.38
11 67.65 15.30 2.63 6.97
12 66.42 16.28 2.13 7.40
13 67.53 15.54 1.85 6.95
14 69.54 13.55 3.43 6.26
15 63.11 17.61 2.60 8.70
16 67.60 15.66 2.00 6.92
17 67.32 16.28 1.77 7.05
18 77.34 10.61 2.29 3.95
19 72.91 13.08 1.85 5.41
20 78.30 10.71 1.63 3.56
Average 71.1 14.1 2.1 5.6
CUC[23] 66.62 15.40 3.59 5.04

Sampling [K.sub.2]O MgO MnO [Na.sub.2]O
Sites

1 2.90 2.16 0.12 1.55
2 2.98 2.39 0.10 1.51
3 2.56 1.56 0.08 1.64
4 3.12 2.35 0.10 1.56
5 2.35 0.53 0.04 1.60
6 2.57 1.84 0.08 1.60
7 2.71 2.07 0.11 1.78
8 2.21 1.08 0.07 1.88
9 2.54 1.54 0.08 1.53
10 2.30 1.11 0.08 1.60
11 2.63 2.04 0.09 1.32
12 2.88 2.20 0.09 1.46
13 2.98 2.38 0.11 1.66
14 2.51 1.85 0.09 1.45
15 2.84 2.24 0.09 1.23
16 2.89 2.17 0.10 1.56
17 2.94 2.04 0.09 1.46
18 2.28 1.13 0.06 1.56
19 2.57 1.61 0.08 1.71
20 2.43 0.98 0.06 1.79
Average 2.7 1.8 0.1 1.6
CUC[23] 2.80 2.48 0.10 3.27

Sampling [P.sub.2] Ti[O.sub.2] LOI
Sites [O.sub.5]

1 0.17 0.86 5.1
2 0.16 0.93 6.0
3 0.25 0.67 6.0
4 0.33 0.97 8.0
5 0.06 0.28 1.5
6 0.28 0.76 9.1
7 0.20 0.81 6.8
8 0.12 0.55 1.3
9 0.25 0.70 6.8
10 0.17 0.58 3.6
11 0.47 0.90 14.2
12 0.30 0.86 9.8
13 0.14 0.86 4.0
14 0.51 0.80 18.8
15 0.66 0.93 18.0
16 0.24 0.86 6.4
17 0.22 0.82 6.9
18 0.29 0.50 7.4
19 0.13 0.66 3.1
20 0.08 0.46 1.5
Average 0.3 0.7 7.2
CUC[23] 0.15 0.64 --

Note: LOI-Loss on ignition, CUC-Continental upper Crust values

Table 3: Mineralogical constituents of the sampling sites 1, 7, 15
and 20 of Buriganga river sediments.

Minerals Angle (2[theta]) d-value
 ([Angstrom])

Quartz 26.63 3.35
" 20.84 4.26
Feldspar 27.74 3.21
" 21.96 4.04
" 23.63 3.75
" 24.23 3.67
Feldspar/chlorites 31.68 2.82
Anorthite 27.94 3.19
Micas & illites 8.84 9.99
Chamosite 12.46 7.09
Chlorites 25.14 3.54
" 59.92 1.54
" 6.20 14.2
Biotite/chlorites 19.83 4.46
" 36.53 2.46
Kaolinite 45.44 1.99
" 39.45 2.28
Muscovite 34.86 2.57
Goethite 37.04 2.43
Bayerite 40.25 2.23
Calcite 29.43 3.03
" 48.45 1.88
Magnetite 35.55 2.53

 Sample and peak intensity (%)
Minerals
 ID 1 ID 7 ID 15 ID 20

Quartz 100 100 100 100
" 24.3 20.6 24.6 24.4
Feldspar 22.1 27.4 11.1 8.1
" 7.0 6.0 7.6 4.6
" 6.7 6.6 nd nd
" 5.9 5.7 6.9 3.4
Feldspar/chlorites 5.5 4.8 7.2 2.2
Anorthite 22.1 27.4 7.7 8.1
Micas & illites 18.8 nd nd 4.1
Chamosite 11.9 8.3 8.4 2.5
Chlorites 9.1 7.5 9.6 2.9
" 10.7 9.7 10.3 11.6
" 10.0 nd nd 1.9
Biotite/chlorites 5.8 5.1 7.9 2.1
" 11.6 10.1 11.6 7.9
Kaolinite 6.6 6.2 7.0 4.5
" 9.1 9.2 9.6 7.2
Muscovite 6.3 5.3 7.2 3.2
Goethite nd nd 6.0 1.9
Bayerite 6.8 6.1 7.2 4.5
Calcite 6.1 5.6 6.2 2.1
" 4.2 3.8 5.2 1.6
Magnetite 6.3 4.8 7.2 3.3

Note: 'nd' means not detected.

Table 4: Concentration ([micro]g [g.sup.-1]) of some trace and
rare earth elements in sediments of different sampling sites
of the Buriganga river.

Sampling V Rb Sr Y Zr Nb
Sites

1 113.1 153.0 148.7 42.2 376.8 17.7
2 113.7 159.5 149.6 39.3 514.7 17.5
3 78.0 120.4 163.1 35.3 242.8 9.8
4 102.9 141.1 145.0 35.1 388.3 8.5
5 90.9 139.0 163.2 33.2 202.6 16.8
6 82.2 121.8 159.5 41.2 171.4 14.6
7 95.5 140.3 172.5 41.2 419.5 17.9
8 98.7 145.6 184.5 41.2 406.8 18.6
9 84.7 124.6 153.8 23.7 492.4 26.0
10 64.4 101.9 167.3 20.0 477.8 29.3
11 92.1 127.0 142.5 42.2 269.8 18.5
12 102.8 143.5 151.8 29.1 343.9 16.5
13 111.0 166.3 168.9 40.0 487.8 14.7
14 67.9 97.5 137.9 44.7 624.2 13.4
15 100.6 131.9 129.5 35.9 372.1 14.7
16 99.7 145.1 154.5 22.5 438.3 16.7

17 101.8 151.3 151.8 42.4 605.2 18.3
18 54.0 93.4 159.8 42.3 529.2 20.5
19 72.2 104.4 117.6 38.4 579.9 17.7
20 82.0 132.2 166.9 36.5 551.6 14.1
Average 90.4 132.0 154.4 36.3 424.8 17.1
CUC[23] 97 84 320 21 193 12
ASV [24] 130 140 300 26 160 11

Sampling Sn Sb Cs Ba La
Sites

1 6.0 0.4 12.7 526.3 64.7
2 3.1 0.3 13.2 516.3 59.3
3 4.4 1.2 9.2 440.3 72.1
4 4.0 0.9 11.8 479.8 69.4
5 5.5 0.5 10.1 514.1 66.2
6 5.8 0.7 9.4 431.1 52.0
7 2.9 1.1 11.0 443.9 49.5
8 4.6 0.6 11.3 486.1 51.5
9 5.9 0.3 9.2 464.2 56.5
10 4.8 0.5 6.9 537.6 58.2
11 5.2 0.6 10.8 521.8 36.5
12 5.1 1.1 12.3 538.9 67.6
13 4.6 1.2 12.3 537.4 61.1
14 5.2 0.3 8.0 526.2 57.2
15 6.2 0.7 11.4 563.8 72.7
16 4.7 0.5 11.6 526.2 60.4
17 4.7 1.4 12.7 528.9 36.5
18 6.4 0.3 6.3 436.6 34.4
19 4.5 0.7 8.4 410.9 59.6
20 5.0 0.3 10.4 434.3 42.8
Average 4.9 1.2 10.5 493.2 56.4
CUC[23] 2.1 0.4 4.9 624 31
ASV [24] 6 1.5 5 580 92

Sampling Ce Pr Nd
Sites

1 101.7 14.2 39.5
2 99.3 14.7 49.5
3 112.4 13.7 17.6
4 118.2 10.8 21.4
5 71.6 14.3 49.4
6 65.7 13.9 50.0
7 116.1 12.6 50.2
8 84.5 13.9 42.8
9 134.8 12.4 44.0
10 128.8 12.5 27.9
11 122.9 10.2 25.6
12 125.3 9.9 47.4
13 113.4 9.5 31.0
14 103.0 10.9 48.3
15 139.3 6.1 52.2
16 119.0 6.8 45.7
17 49.2 12.4 44.1
18 59.8 12.5 55.7
19 119.9 10.2 45.6
20 125.2 9.9 53.2
Average 105.5 11.6 42.0
CUC[23] 63 7.1 27
ASV [24] 59 5.6 24

Note: ASV- Average shale value and CUC- Continental
upper Crust values, respectively

Table 5: Correlation matrix of trace and rare earth elements
of Buriganga river sediments.

 OC V Rb Sr Y Zr

OC 1.0
V 0.04 1.0
Rb -0.08 0.96 ** 1.0
Sr -0.12 0.04 0.27 1.0
Y -0.03 0.09 0.07 -0.09 1.0
Zr -0.09 -0.18 -0.15 -0.20 0.07 1.0
Nb 0.14 -0.28 -0.24 0.17 -0.44 0.25
Sn 0.34 -0.33 -0.38 -0.20 -0.05 -0.17
Sb 0.06 0.32 0.35 0.07 0.14 -0.18
Cs 0.00 0.98 ** 0.95 ** 0.03 0.15 -0.12
Ba 0.44 0.49 * 0.40 -0.11 -0.19 0.01
La -0.03 0.31 0.20 -0.21 -0.37 -0.33
Ce -0.12 0.10 -0.02 -0.26 -0.50 0.05
Pr -0.22 -0.08 0.00 0.43 0.25 -0.20
Nd 0.17 -0.09 -0.06 -0.06 0.16 0.27

 Nb Sn Sb Cs Ba La

OC
V
Rb
Sr
Y
Zr
Nb 1.0
Sn 0.20 1.0
Sb -0.37 -0.36 1.0
Cs -0.34 -0.37 0.36 1.0
Ba 0.12 0.11 0.05 0.45 1.0
La -0.34 -0.08 0.13 0.21 0.27 1.0
Ce 0.05 -0.15 -0.07 0.05 0.15 0.44 *
Pr 0.19 -0.15 -0.13 -0.11 -0.31 -0.14
Nd 0.16 0.24 -0.37 -0.04 -0.11 -0.27

 Ce Pr Nd

OC
V
Rb
Sr
Y
Zr
Nb
Sn
Sb
Cs
Ba
La
Ce 1.0
Pr -0.56 ** 1.0
Nd -0.29 -0.06 1.0

** and * denotes significant at 0.01 and 0.05 level of probability,
respectively
COPYRIGHT 2011 Research India Publications
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Mohiuddin K.M.; Otomo K.; Ogawa Y.; Shikazono N.
Publication:International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences
Date:May 1, 2011
Words:7239
Previous Article:Isolation, characterization, identification and potentiality of fungicide thiram (TMTD) degraders under laboratory conditions.
Next Article:Enzymatic activity of bacteria isolated from different compost.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters