Soybean, pseudocereals optimize nutritional profile of baked products.
The addition to bakery products of soybean and pseudocereals--non-grasses used in much the same way as cereals are, for example buckwheat, chia and amaranth--provide novel nutritional benefits to consumers. Often, protein quality and dietary fiber are some of the most important parameters positively impacted by these ingredients.
Both soybean and amaranth products provide important nutritional value because of their qualitative and quantitative protein content that is rich in lysine. Therefore, the combination of these two protein sources in bakery products makes it possible to create upgraded products that are high in protein quality and content for those consumers in search of a healthier alternative. And, chia seeds are high in unsaturated oil content, enabling them to gain attention as a dietary component.
But these new ingredients also have a strong influence on batter rheology and product texture. Mexican scientists analyzed a typical biscuit production process by evaluating five formulations: a control with chia seeds and amaranth; samples incorporating 10% soy milk without amaranth; samples with 10% soy milk, amaranth and carboxymethyl cellulose; sodium stearoyl lactylate; and a mix of guar and xanthan gums.
The researchers characterized batter rheology with a commercial rheometer. They also determined the chemical parameters (moisture, crude fat, crude protein and dietary fiber content) and physical parameters (texture, volume, color and water activity).
The researchers found that adding amaranth increased cysteine, methionine and lysine content and improved G' and G" rheological parameters. A synergistic interaction occurred between amaranth grain and gums or sodium stearoyl lactylate, which affected G' and G" values.
Results showed that adding sodium stearoyl lactylate improved the samples' texture. Also, the penetration force was the lowest after seven days of storage, which extended shelf life.
Biscuits with added gums contained a higher soluble fiber content. Adding sodium stearoyl lactylate to the biscuits along with soy milk, amaranth and chia seeds generated a product with a high-value protein profile and good physical characteristics, while at the same time not affecting batter rheology.
Further information. Esther Perez Carrillo, Ph. D., Centro de Biotecnologia FEMSA, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Avenida Eugenio Garza. Sada 2501 Sur, Col. Tecnologico, 64849 Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; phone: +52 (81) 8358-2000; URL: www.itesm.mx.