Printer Friendly

Southernmost record of the white shark Carcharodon carcharias (Chondrichthyes: Lamnidae) in the Mexican Pacific.

The white shark Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the five living species of the family Lamnidae (Compagno, 2001). Although it is considered a cosmopolitan top predator, it is mainly distributed in temperate and subtropical waters throughout the world (Compagno, 2001; Sperone et al., 2012; Robertson & Allen, 2015).

Seasonal aggregation sites for white sharks include, for example, the Farallon Islands in the United States and Guadalupe Island in Mexico (Hoyos-Padilla et al., 2016), but it is commonly reported at low densities outside this type of aggregation sites (Compagno, 2001). In Mexican waters, the most coastal observations have been performed in the north and central region of the Gulf of California and, for this reason, it was considered as a rare species with just 38 records from 1964 to 2010 (Galvan-Magana et al, 2010).

This paper reports the first record of a white shark female specimen in Nayarit, Mexico, caught incidentally by artisanal fishermen (Fig. 1). The event was published in an online information note by Isla Isabel National Park, and the fisherman who reported the event confirmed it.

The shark was caught with a longline on December 28th 2016, 20 km off the shore of Playa Novillero (22[degrees]20'30"N, 105[degrees]53'35"W; Fig. 2); the bait used was Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas). Oceanographic data for the day of the capture was obtained from the MODIS-Aqua sensor and the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM; https://hycom.org) database. The taxonomic identification of the shark was performed by the analysis of the pictures provided by the fisherman, the dental formula, and the descriptions of Fischer et al. (1995), Compagno (2001), and De Maddalena (2009).

The specimen was identified as C. carcharias by its robust, fusiform body, lead-gray above and white on the belly, with flat, triangular, and highly serrated teeth with one cusp (Fischer et al., 1995; Compagno, 2001). According to De Maddalena (2009), the shape of the teeth must be similar in both jaws, but lower teeth are slightly smaller and narrower (Fig. 3). These lower teeth were prominent and visible at the time of capture. The dental formula was calculated by the observation of two upper anterior teeth, one upper intermediate, five upper laterals, and four upper posteriors; with three lower anterior, five lower laterals, and four lower posteriors (2.1.5.4/3.5). This count corresponded to the dental formula previously reported for C. carcharias and confirmed the identification of the species (De Maddalena, 2009). The female white shark measured 2.5 m total length and was classified as juvenile according to Compagno (2001). The stomach was empty, and there were no signs of ectoparasites on the shark's skin. The physical oceanographic conditions at the time of capture were a sea surface temperature of 25.92[degrees]C, a salinity of 34.64, 0.69 mg [m.sup.3] of chlorophylla and current velocity of 0.10 m [s.sup.-1]. Water depth at the capture site was 48 m. According to the fisherman, the specimen's caudal fin got caught in the fishing line and, as a result, the shark died from asphyxia.

The area where the shark was caught is influenced by the Gulf of California, the Mexican Coastal Current, and the California Current System (Lavin et al., 2009). In this area, cold-water filaments have been previously observed as part of a major mesoscale event originating from the California Current System (Pantoja et al., 2012). This could partially explain the presence of the shark since some temperate fishes, including the white shark, have been shown to undertake latitudinal movements into subtropical waters (Weng et al., 2007; Curtis et al, 2014).

Juvenile white sharks usually inhabit shallow waters close to the coast to feed on other elasmobranchs, bony fishes, or cephalopods (Compagno, 2001; Fergusson et al., 2009; Santana-Morales et al., 2012). In the Mexican Pacific, adult white sharks have been reported in Guadalupe Island and the central part of the Gulf of California (Galvan-Magana et al., 2010; Hoyos-Padilla et al., 2016), while the juveniles have been frequently observed on the west coast of the Baja California Penin sula (Santana-Morales et al., 2012; Onate-Gonzalez et al, 2015). Although there is evidence of white sharks feeding on cephalopods and pinnipeds in the Gulf of California (Jaime-Rivera et al., 2014), there is scarce information about other prey or differences in diet regarding ontogeny from white sharks in this area. Recent records of juvenile white sharks in the south part of the Gulf of California suggest that the area can be used by this species to feed (Jaime-Rivera et al., 2014; Marquez-Farias & Lara-Mendoza, 2017), as the presence of other potential prey like the longtail stingray Hypanus longus, the black skipjack Euthynnus lineatus, and the yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares have also been reported (Ulloa-Ramirez et al., 2008). Regarding the preference for the Humboldt squid D. gigas reported by Jaime-Rivera et al. (2014), it is possible that juvenile white sharks are moving south due to the prolonged decline of this squid in the Gulf of California (Robinson et al., 2016; Marquez-Farias & Lara-Mendoza, 2017). The lack of stomach content in the white shark presented, as well as in the one analyzed by Marquez-Farias & Lara-Mendoza (2017), could be a sign of decreased prey availability in the Gulf. However, the confirmation of this hypothesis is beyond the present paper and must be considered in further studies.

Coastal environments provide protection for juveniles until they reach maturity (Weng et al., 2007; Santana-Morales et al., 2012), but it also makes them vulnerable to fisheries near the coast (Fergusson et al., 2009; Santana-Morales et al., 2012). Studies on habitat use, along with the fishery activities in coastal habitats, are an important component of conservation efforts that must be performed (Galvan-Magana et al., 2010). Knowledge on habitat use of juvenile white sharks may be particularly important in this regard because the natural mortality of juveniles may make fishing mortality a significant factor in the population dynamics of this threatened species.

The white shark is a protected species in countries like Mexico (DOF, 2010), South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States (Compagno, 2001; Fergusson et al., 2009). It is a vulnerable species according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and is included in Appendix II of CITES (Fergusson et al., 2009). In Mexico, the information available on the distribution of white shark juveniles is currently limited to the western coast of Baja California (Weng et al., 2007; Onate-Gonzalez et al., 2015; Hoyos-Padilla et al., 2016). Thus, the information reported here represents a relevant record that may increase such knowledge in Mexican waters.

DOI: 10.3856/vol47-issue1-fulltext-22

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We especially thank Martin Ordaz for the interview, the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACyT) for the scholarships provided, the Instituto Politecnico Nacional for grants from the Comision de Operacion y Fomento de Actividades Academicas (COFAA), and the Estimulo al Desempeno de los Investigadores (EDI). Finally, we thank Daniela Bernot-Simon for the English review, the Sociedad Mexicana de Peces Cartilaginosos (SOMEPEC) for their support, and the anonymous reviewers for the valuable comments that improved the original manuscript.

REFERENCES

Compagno, L.J.V. 2001. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes, and Orectolobiformes). Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date, Volume 2. FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes, Rome, 269 pp. Curtis, T.H., McCandless, C.T., Carlson, J.K., Skomal, G.B. & Kohler, N.E. 2014. Seasonal distribution and historical trends in abundance of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Plos One, 9(6): e99240. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0099240.

De Maddalena, A. 2009. Great white sharks preserved in European museums. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle, 135 pp.

Diario Oficial de la Federacion (DOF). 2010. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, Proteccion ambiental-Especies nativas de Mexico de flora y fauna silvestres-Categorias de riesgo y especificaciones para su inclusion, exclusion o cambio-Lista de especies en riesgo. Mexico City: Diario Oficial de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales.

Fergusson, I.K., Compagno, L.J.V. & Marks, M. 2009. Carcharodon carcharias. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. [http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN. UK.2009-2.RLTS.T3855A10133872.en]. Reviewed: 20 May 2017.

Fischer, W., Krupp, F., Schneider, W., Sommer, C., Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. 1995. Vertebrados. Pacifico centro-oriental. Volumen II, Guia FAO para la identificacion de especies para los fines de la pesca, FAO, Rome, 563 pp.

Galvan-Magana, F., Hoyos-Padilla, E.M., NavarroSerment, C.J. & Marquez-Farias, F. 2010. Records of white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Marine Biodiversity Records, 3: e111. doi:10.1017/S1755267210000977.

Hoyos-Padilla, E.M., Klimley, P.A., Galvan-Magana, F. & Antoniou, A. 2016. Contrasts in the movements and habitat use of juvenile and adult white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) at Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Animal Biotelemetry, 4(1): 14 pp. doi: 10.1186/s40317-016-0106-7.

Jaime-Rivera, M., Caraveo-Patino, J., Hoyos-Padilla, M. & Galvan-Magana, F. 2014. Feeding and migration habits of white shark Carcharodon carcharias (Lamniformes: Lamnidae) from Isla Guadalupe inferred by analysis of stable isotopes 515N and 513C. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 62(2): 637-647.

Lavin, M.F., Castro, R., Beier, E., Godinez, V.M., Amador, A. & Guest, P. 2009. SST, thermohaline structure, and circulation in the southern Gulf of California in June 2004 during the North American Monsoon Experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114 (C02025). doi:10.1029/2008JC004896.

Marquez-Farias, J.F. & Lara-Mendoza, R.E. 2017. Occurrence of a juvenile white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) in the southeastern Gulf of California, Mexico. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research, 45(5): 1059-1063.

Onate-Gonzalez, E.C., Rocha-Olivares, A., SaavedraSotelo, N. & Sosa-Nishizaki, O. 2015. Mitochondrial genetic structure and matrilineal origin of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, in the Northeastern Pacific: Implications for their conservation. Journal of Heredity, 106(4): 347-354.

Pantoja, D.A., Marinone, S.G., Pares-Sierra, A. & GomezValdivia, F. 2012. Numerical modeling of seasonal and mesoscale hydrography and circulation in the Mexican Central Pacific. Ciencias Marinas, 38(2): 363-379.

Robertson, D.R. & Allen, G.R. 2015. Peces costeros del Pacifico Oriental Tropical: sistema de informacion en linea. Version 2.0 Instituto Smithsonian de Investigaciones Tropicales, Balboa, Republica de Panama. [http://biogeodb.stri.si.edu/sftep/es/pages]. Reviewed: 20 May 2017.

Robinson, C.J., Gomez-Gutierrez, J., Markaida, U. & Gilly, W.F. 2016. Prolonged decline of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) landings in the Gulf of California is associated with chronically low wind stress and decreased chlorophyll-a after El Nino 2009-2010. Fisheries Research, 173: 128-138.

Santana-Morales, O., Sosa-Nishizaki, O., EscobedoOlvera, M.A., Onate-Gonzalez, E.C., O'Sullivan, J.B. & Cartamil, D. 2012. Incidental catch and ecological observations of juvenile white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, in western Baja California, Mexico: conservation implications. In: Domeier, M.L. (Ed.). Global perspectives on the biology and life history of the great white shark. CRC Press, Florida, pp. 187-198.

Sperone, E., Parise, G., Leone, A., Milazzo, C., Santoro, G., Paolillo, G., Micarelli, P. & Tripepi, S. 2012. Spatiotemporal patterns of distribution of large predatory sharks in Calabria (central Mediterranean, southern Italy). Acta Adriatica, 53(1): 13-24.

Ulloa-Ramirez, P.A., Patino-Valencia, J.L., GuevaraRascado, M.L., Hernandez-Ventura, S., SanchezRegalado, R. & Perez-Velazquez, A. 2008. Peces marinos de valor comercial del estado de Nayarit, Mexico. Instituto Nacional de Pesca, Nayarit, 91 pp.

Weng, K.C., O'Sullivan, J.B., Lowe, C.G., Winkler, C.E., Dewar, H. & Block, B.A. 2007. Movements, behavior and habitat preferences of juvenile white sharks Carcharodon carcharias in the eastern Pacific. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 338: 211-224.

Corresponding editor: Claudia Bremec

Received: 22 December 2017; Accepted: 25 June 2018

Edgar Eduardo Becerril-Garcia (1,2), Edgar Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla (2,3) David Petatan-Ramirez (4) & Felipe Galvan-Magana (1)

(1) Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas, La Paz, BCS, Mexico

(2) Pelagios Kakunja A.C., La Paz, BCS, Mexico

(3) Fins Attached, 19675 Still Glen Way, Colorado Springs, USA

(4) Universidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur, La Paz, BCS, Mexico

Corresponding author: Felipe Galvan-Magana (galvan.felipe@gmail.com)

Caption: Figure 1. Juvenile white shark female accidentally caught in Nayarit, Mexico.

Caption: Figure 2. The position of the white shark caught on 28 December 2016 (A) with data of sea surface temperature.

Caption: Figure 3. The jaw from the juvenile white shark described in the present paper.
COPYRIGHT 2019 Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Escuela de Ciencias del Mar
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2019 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Short Communication
Author:Becerril-Garcia, Edgar Eduardo; Hoyos-Padilla, Edgar Mauricio; Petatan-Ramirez, David; Galvan-Magana
Publication:Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research
Date:Mar 1, 2019
Words:2035
Previous Article:Ascidia ceratodes (Huntsman, 1912) (Tunicata: Ascidiidae) off the northern Chilean coast: new record.
Next Article:Body shape variation between farms of tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) in Colombian Andes using landmark-based geometric morphometrics.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |