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Southeast Asian Medicinal Plants as a Potential Source of Antituberculosis Agent.

1. Introduction

Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease and it is among the world's most deadly epidemics. Like any other infectious disease, TB can happen to anyone and spares no age, sex, and nationality [1, 2]. Several strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are the common cause of this deadly infectious disease [3]. This disease is endemic in every country in the world, and death due to TB is more common when compared to other bacterial disease [1,3,4]. About two billion individuals are latently infected with TB, but only 10% of these infected persons fall sick with active disease during their lifetime [5-8]. It has been estimated that around nine million persons develop TB and almost 2 million die from it annually [9-12]. About 5.5 million of the cases occur in Asia, 1.5 million in Africa, 745,000 in the Middle East, and 600,000 in Latin America [13]. It is unfortunate that more than 75% of TB cases are found in adults [14]. Unprecedented decision was taken in 1993 by WHO to declare TB as a public health emergency [10,15], and it is the first disease that has ever been declared as a global emergency by WHO [16].

In order to combat TB, chemotherapy is used, which is the modern TB treatment. The drugs used include rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and streptomycin for TB treatment. However, these drugs have drawbacks of causing adverse side effects and the TB-causing bacterium can gain easy resistance against these drugs. Besides that, there is a chance of "relapse" due to noncompliance with medication within the first year of treatment. Consequently, this results in a more serious condition where the Mycobacterium species develops resistance to the TB drugs [1].

The TB resistance can be categorized into two types: the multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB). Firstly, MDR-TB arises when the strain that is resistant to the first-line standard TB drugs (isoniazid and rifampicin) is involved. More than 4% of TB patients globally are infected with Mycobacterium strains that are resistant to first-line drugs. Secondly, XDR-TB happens when the mycobacterial strain is resistant to the first-line drugs, fluoroquinolone, as well as other injectable second-line drugs such as kanamycin, capreomycin, and amikacin. According to the WHO report on surveillance and response to MDR-TB and XDR-TB, approximately 310,000 MDR-TB cases occurred in pulmonary TB patients documented in 2011 while 84 countries were recorded having at least one XDRTB case [17-20]. In 2012, around 480,000 people have been reported to develop MDR-TB and about 170,000 people died as a result [20, 21]. These forms of TB diseases are often more fatal, costly, and difficult to treat. The second-line drugs used in drug resistant TB have notable side effects, but have about 50% cure rate [22]. Although fluoroquinolones such as ofloxacin and norfloxacin have been used and are considered safer than the aforementioned second-line drugs, however, they also have their own drawback of being more costly.

Due to aforementioned disadvantages, the prospective efficacy of medicinal plants has motivated doctors and scientists to turn to folk medicines for treatment of various chronic diseases, including TB [22]. Hence, the urgent need arises towards the search of a component with a higher anti-TB activity, with easy availability and without side effects [1, 6,23].

Owing to their chemical diversity and significant role in the drug sighting and development, medicinal plants proffer a great hope to overcome these needs. The medicinal plants have been comprehensively used either as crude extracts or pure materials. However, very few species of medicinal plants have been thoroughly explored for their medicinal properties [24-26]. The plant-derived medicines have been utilized in traditional medical system for the treatment of different illnesses worldwide. Around 75% of the global populace solely depends on medicinal plants for primary health care [27,28]. Consequently, there is so much interest in plant medicine during the last few decades leading to numerous species of medicinal plant being investigated for their pharmacological activities.

In the last 17 years, there were nine major review publications on antimycobacteria from natural products. Newton et al. [29] published a review paper on natural compounds with antimycobacteria derived from plant source, describing their potency in crude extracts as well as pure compounds from 123 plant species [29]. In 2003, Copp [30] published a review article that covered a wide range of natural bioactive products, with reported antimycobacterial activity within a period of twelve years (i.e., from 1990 to 2002) [30]. In another review, Okunade et al. [31] discussed 88 natural products and their synthetic analogues, mainly from plant source, and fungi as well as some aquatic organisms that displayed substantial activity against M. tuberculosis and other mycobacterial species in in vitro bioassays [31]. In their review, Pauli et al. [32] offered cross-linkage to the literatures of bioactive pure compounds with anti-TB and summarized more current advances in mycobacteriology and natural compounds chemistry tools innovation as well as their prospective to influence the primary steps in TB drug discovery process [32]. A review by Jachak and Jain [33] described recent target-based natural compounds that displayed antimycobacterial action [33]. Gautam et al. [23] reviewed different species of plant from a vast array of families that have exhibited antimycobacterial activity. Gupta et al. [34], in their review article, identified sixty-four medicinal plants used by traditional people in the treatment of leprosy [34].

Some antitubercular plants from Ayurveda as well as Foreign origin have been reviewed by Arya[35] to give a scientific account on usage of antitubercular plants. Consequently, various phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, xanthones, triterpenes, and quinones were involved in antitubercular activity [35]. The most recent among all the reviews is by Chinsembu [20] in 2016. The review focused on antimycobacterial natural products derived from both endophytes as well as medicinal plants of Africa, Asia, Europe, South America, and Canada. Several plant species disclosed in the review demonstrated a putative anti-TB activity. Numerous antimycobacterial bioactive compounds have, as well, been isolated. They include 1-epicatechol, allicin, anthocyanidin, anthraquinone glycosides, arjunic acid, benzophenanthridine alkaloids, beta-sitosterol, crinine, decarine, ellagic acids, ellagitannin punicalagin, friedelin, galanthimine, gallic acid, glucopyranosides, hydroxybenzoic acids, iridoids, leucopelargonidol, neolignans, phenylpropanoids, taraxerol, and termilignan B. The chemicals may offer leads on new and more effective drugs to minimize the predicament TB and lessen the drug resistant strains as well [20].

All the above review articles hardly highlighted any medicinal plant of Southeast Asian source. Even though there is an increasing availability of modern medicine in the Southeast Asia region, the use of traditional medicine remains popular [36]. Due to the enormous diversity of its flora, Southeast Asian region has a great potential for the discovery of novel active compounds. The countries in the region such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, and Thailand have a long history of using medicinal plant that proffers substantial pharmaceutical prospects [37].

2. Methodology

Related Scientific studies published in journals, books, and reports were reviewed. Relevant literatures were searched in Google Scholar and various electronic databases including Science Direct, IEEE Xplore, Scopus, SciFinder, and MEDLINE using a specific search terms including "TB", "medicinal plants", "anti-TB", "Malaysia OR Philippines OR Indonesia Singapore OR Thailand OR Brunei OR Cambodia OR Laos OR Myanmar (Burma) OR Vietnam". This review discussed studies from year 2000 to 2016.

3. Bioassay Guidance for Evaluating the Activity of Antituberculosis

Bioassay-guided fractionation is the modern practice presently used in identifying the active compound(s) present in crude extract(s). Due to the fact that the procedure comprises alternating stages of biological screening and active compound fractionation, in the last 20 years, sensitivity of fractionation techniques of pure natural compound has dramatically improved due to the vast advancements in chromatography. Consequently, this creates new paths for both yet to be investigated materials and previously studied genera. Hence, the new paths were given access to unanticipated chemical varieties and novel biological products [32]. To provide effective direction in discovery program of drug from natural resources, the development of novel phytochemical approaches becomes crucial in a bioassay-directed drug discovery. Another step is bioassay which should be selected wisely in relation to the crucial terminus, that is, the antibiotic screening on virulent mycobacterial strain in vivo. Interestingly, three effective antimycobacterial products have been sequestered from Dracaena angustifolia using this method [23, 32, 38].

3.1. Target Organism. It is obvious that the ideal organism to be targeted in the effort to discover anti-TB is the actual etiologic agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The prominent pathogenic strain, MTB H37Rv (ATCC 27294), has fairly represented drug sensitivity profile of most drug sensitive clinical isolated strains. In primary screening, employing MDR strains of MTB is not crucial due to the fact that they are never "superbugs" that have resistant capacity to various drugs by the virtue of a particular mechanisms, such as effusion pump in some bacteria. However, they are rather the consequence of peculiar step by step mutations to particular drugs. Hence, it is anticipated that they would be susceptible to any novel biologically active product, which does not attack the same site as TB drugs currently in use do [23, 32, 38]. Due to its virulence, the pathogenic strain of MTB must be processed or handled only in a laboratory with biosafety level 3 (BL-3) set-up. In the BL-3 laboratory, individual working is required to don on a protective gear. Most researchers opted to employ avirulent, fast growing, and saprophytic strain of Mycobacterium. Example of such is M. smegmatis (ATCC 607) [38]. Other avirulent substitutes to work with instead of virulent strains of MTB are the slow-growing strains such as M. tuberculosis H37Ra (ATCC 25177) and M. bovis BCG (ATCC 35743). The above species are closely related to pathogenic MTB H37Rv strain in their antimycobacterial susceptibility profile as well as genetic configuration. For this, strains require the employment of a class 2 biosafety cabinet when working with these organisms [23, 38].

3.2. In Vitro Bioassays for Anti-TB Screening

3.2.1. Agar Diffusion. The conventional diffusion assays (well or disk) were applied in various antimicrobial evaluation of compounds from natural sources only to indicate the presence or absence of growth inhibition at unspecified concentrations gradient and hence are never quantifiable when evaluating crude materials or novel products. The sizes of the zones of inhibition can be only interpreted as indicative of either microbial sensitivity or resistance with well characterized antibiotics. This is because the size of inhibition zone depends on both the rate of diffusion of biologically active agent and the growth rate of the targeted organism [32]. Agar diffusion assays need to be avoided with Mycobacteria, since these organisms with high lipid content in their cell wall are usually more sensitive to compounds of less-polarity [38]. Therefore, the diffusion of such compounds will be very slow compared to polar compounds with the same molecular weight on the aqueous agar. This might consequently produce smaller inhibition zones. Furthermore, polar active compounds of low molecular weight could diffuse to equilibrium prior to appearance of colonies in slow-growing mycobacterial strain. And if, at the equilibrium, the concentration is below the MIC, the zone of inhibition will never appear [38].

3.2.2. Micro and Macro Agar Dilution. When screening extracts with known concentrations, fractions in an agar enable the MIC value to be determined and its activity to be quantified. Except in some fastidious species, many mycobacterial strains such as MTB tend to produce colonies effectively on Middlebrook 7H10 or 7H11 agar supplemented with Oleic acid, Albumin, Dextrose, and Catalase (OADC). The sample to be tested is added to the semisolid media at final concentration of 1% v/v or subsequently either 100-200 [micro]l medium to 96-well microplates, 1.5 ml to 24-well microplates, 4 ml to 6-well microplates, or 20 ml into usual Petri dishes of 150 mm diameter. Following the hardening of the medium, the inoculum can then be dropped on the surface of the agar using a micro pipette. Some of the volumes of inoculum recommended are as follows: 1-5 [micro]l for 96-well plates, 10 [micro]l for 6- or 24-well plates, and 100 [micro]l for normal Petri dishes. The plates are then incubated at 37[degrees]C overnight, after which they should then be inverted for the remaining period of incubation. The major shortcoming with such a bioassay is that it requires a minimum of 18 days to produce a visible colony of Mycobacteria [32,38].

3.2.3. Microbroth Dilution. Evaluation of susceptibility (bioactivity) of natural products using microplates with 96 wells proffers an edge because it requires little sample, is cheap, and is high-throughput. The mycobacterial species are often cultured in Middlebrook 7H9 broth supplemented with glycerol (0.5%), casitone (0.1%), Tween-80 (0.05%), and ADC (10%). In many strains of Mycobacteria, the growth can be evaluated quantitatively by the broth medium turbidity. However, the proneness of clumps formation makes the assay very challenging [23]. Nevertheless, the utilization of indicator dye like Alamar blue renders this technique more sensitive and rapid. The results of this assay can be read visually, although the reduced form of the dye is quantifiable using calorimeter. This is done by measuring the absorbance at 570 nm and then subtracting absorbance at 600 nm. On the other hand, the second approach has been proven to be more sensitive. Microbroth dilution tests should also be carried out using either resazurin or tetrazolium dyes. Therefore, a high-throughput assay of anti-TB is possible through using a microplate, spectrophotometrically or fluorometrically. These are quantitative assays that could detect even partial inhibition, making it possible to determine the relative activity of fractions from crude extracts using different concentrations [32, 38].

4. Electron and Fluorescence Microscopy Studies

Electron and fluorescence microscopy have been used effectively to examine the morphological changes during the growth of microorganisms. In addition, they can also be employed in an attempt to locate the target of action of the test extract-treated mycobacterial samples [39]. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) provides a relatively easy technique of surface morphology study of microorganisms at high magnification with a resolution of around 15 to 20 nm under ideal conditions. One of the largely untapped potentials of this apparatus is the study of the morphological changes after bacterial exposure to antimicrobial agents [40].

The cell-wall-attacking characteristic of the test extracts is revealed in electron microscopy studies. Because the main part of the cell wall of Mycobacteria is comprised of lipids, it is assumed that the extracts must possess some effect on them. The target suspected is obviously mycolic acid (predominant lipid). It has been shown that a loss of acid fastness occurs when the cells of Mycobacteria are grown in the presence of antibiotics. The staining characteristics of this bacterial cell can be mainly attributed to the mycolic acids presence. Thus, when investigating the staining properties of cultures treated with extract, the culture is grown as for SEM studies. The auramine rhodamine dye is then used to stain the cells and visualized using a fluorescence microscope [39].

5. Genomics Studies and Proteomics Analysis

The systematic study of the whole set of cellular genetic material is called genomics. This will proffer enormous potential in both drug target and antigen discovery. Furthermore, it enhances novel antibacterial agents and vaccine development through DNA sequencing, as well as bioinformatics analysis. In TB study, it was first practiced on MTB H37Rv strain. Its bioinformatic investigation showed the attribution of accurate functions (~40% of the 4,000 genes). Once the functional information is available, it usually enables researchers to pinpoint a possible drug target on the basis of their proposed biological role or their resemblance to known bacterial drug targets [41]. In antibiotic drug discovery, expression of genome-based profiling may represent a useful tool for three applications: (i) target identification, (ii) antibiotics mechanism-of-action (MOA) studies, and (iii) new types of cell assays development for the purpose of drug screening [42].

Although many productive outcomes can be revealed in genomic studies, it is only the proteomic analysis that can obtain the exact cellular information [43]. The term proteomics denotes the proteins expressed by a genome. It addresses the protein, which is the final genomic product. The advantage of proteomics is in the overcoming of a major shortcoming of DNA chip technology. It has been proven to be vital in the novel antimycobacterial drug development [44]. With the aid of a technique called two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry (2DE-MS), about 263 proteins were identified in M. bovis BCG and MTB strains [45]. For protein patterns analysis, it is still the analytical technique available with the best resolution and has appeared as robust and efficient for rapid protein identification. It is assisted by the database of total genome sequence [46].

6. Southeast Asian Medicinal Plants with Anti-TB Activity

Despite the huge medicinal plant research efforts from Southeast Asian region, literature search showed that very little research work has been carried out on anti-TB plants and published by researchers from the region. Considering the abundant biodiversity and traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge in Southeast Asia, there is vast potential to institute a dedicated anti-TB screening programme. This review paper describes the Southeast Asian medicinal plants from a wide array of families that have been evaluated for anti-TB activity in the region so far.

They have been computed in a table form describing the plant species, families, part of plants and solvents used, in vitro activity, and ethnopharmacological uses (see Table 1). Interestingly, these plants species were found mentioned in various traditional medicines. Out of the 132 plants species (from 45 different families and 107 genera) discussed in this review, 114 species (87%) had reported role in the treatment of TB or TB-like symptoms in ethnomedicine (Table 1). More specifically, 24 species (18.2%) were reported for TB, 14 species (10.6%) for leprosy, and 76 species (57.6%) for TB-related diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, coughing, whooping cough, pulmonary infectious, fever, and chest diseases in ethnomedicine. It was found that crude extracts from 32 species representing 24.2% of all (132 species) plants demonstrated significant anti-TB activity in in vitro assay (MIC values ranging from 10 to 100 [micro]g/ml). These plant species are Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa, Alpinia galanga (L.) Sw., Alpinia purpurata K. Schum., Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B. L. Burtt & R. M. Sm., Annona reticulate L., Artocarpus rigidus Blume, Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr., Clausena excavata Burm. f., Clausena harmandiana (Pierre) Guillaumin, Croton kongensis Gagnep., Eclipta prostrata (L.) L., Eriosema chinense Vogel, Feroniella lucida Swingle, Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC., Gynura divaricata (L.) DC., Haplophragma adenophyllum (Wall. ex G. Don) Dop, Heliotropium indicum Linn., Marsypopetalum modestum (Pierre) B. Xue, Micromelum minutum Wight & Arn., Morinda citrifolia Linn, Orthosiphon stamineus Benth., Piper betle L., Piper chaba Hunter, Piper nigrum L., Piper sarmentosum Roxb., Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.) Baill., Solanum spirale Roxb., Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. F. & Thomson, Uvaria microcarpa Champ. ex Benth., Uvaria rufa Blume, Vitex trifolia L., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

Some bioactive compounds that were isolated from the reviewed medicinal plants exhibited good anti-TB activity (MIC values ranged between <1 and 50 [micro]g/ml). Active compound, Abruquinone B, from Abrus precatorius L. exhibited MIC of 12.5 [micro]g/ml. From Aglaia erythrosperma Pannell, ethyl eichlerianoate, eichlerialactone, and aglaialactone (all showing MIC of 25 [micro]g/ml) and cabraleadiol, cabraleahydroxylactone, cabralealactone, and flavagline (all showing MIC values of 50 [micro]g/ml) were obtained. 1'Acetoxychavicol acetate isolated from Alpinia galanga (L.) Sw. exhibited MIC value of 0.024 [micro]g/ml. Pimaric acid, 9[alpha]-13[alpha]- epidioxyabiet-8 (14)-en-18-oic acid, and 15-hydrooxydehydroabietic acid obtained from Anisochilus harmandii Doan ex Suddee & A. J. Paton all showed MIC value of 50 [micro]g/ml. Lakoochins A and B isolated from Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. showed MICs of 12.5 and 50 [micro]g/ml, respectively. Flavonoid artonin F, chromone artorigidusin, xanthone artoindonesianin C, flavonoid cycloartobiloxanthone, and flavonoid 7-demethylartonol E isolated from Artocarpus rigidus Wall. showed MIC values of 6.25, 12.5, 12.5, 25, and 50 [micro]g/ml, respectively. Active compounds obtained from Camchaya calcarea Kitamura are isogoyazensolides (MIC, 1.5 [micro]g/ml), goyazensolides, lychnophorolides A, isocentratherin, isogoyazensolides and 5-epi-isocentratherin (with the same MIC value of 3.1 [micro]g/ml), lychnophorolides B, 1(10),E,4Z,11(13)-germacratriene-12,6-olide-15-oic acid, and caffeic acid methyl ester (MICs, 6.2, 50, and 25 [micro]g/ml resp.). Caseargrewiin A, Caseargrewiin B, Caseargrewiin D, rel- (2S,5R,6R,8S,9S,10R,18S,19R)-18,19-diacetoxy-18,19-epoxy-6- methoxy-2-(2-methylbutanoyloxy)cleroda-3,13(16),14-triene, and rel-(2S,5R,6R,8S,9S,10R,18S,19R)-18,19-diacetoxy-18,19-epoxy-6-hydroxy-2-(2- methylbutanoyloxy)cleroda-3,13(16), 14-triene (all showing MIC value of 12.5 [micro]g/ml) and Caseargrewiin C (showing MIC of 25 [micro]g/ml) were isolated from Casearia grewiifolia Vent. Cabraleadiol, allo-aromadendrane-10[beta], 14-diol, cabraleahydroxylactone, cabralealactone, allo-aromadendrane-10[beta], 13, 14-triol (all displaying MICs of 50 [micro]g/ml), and eichlerialactone (MIC, 25 [micro]g/ml) were obtained from Chisocheton penduliflorus Planch. ex Hiern. Fluroclausine A and heptazoline isolated from Clausena guillauminii Tanaka all showed MIC of 25 [micro]g/ml. Dentatin, O-methylated clausenidin, and 3-methoxycarbonylcarbazole isolated from Clausena excavata Burm. f. all showed MIC value of 50 [micro]g/ml. 1-(2-Hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(4-hydroxy- 3-methoxyphenyl)propane isolated from Combretum griffithii Van Heurck & Mull. Arg. showed MIC of 3.13 [micro]g/ml. Globiferin, cordiachrome B, cordiachrome C (showing MICs of 6.2, 12.5, and 1.5 [micro]g/ml resp.), alliodorin, elaeagin, cordiachromene (same MIC value of 12.5 [micro]g/ml), and cordiaquinol C (MIC, 25 [micro]g/ml) were isolated from Cordia globifera W. W. Smith. The bioactive compounds of Croton kongensis Gagnep., ent-1[beta],7[alpha],14[beta]- triacetoxykaur-16-en-15-one (MICs, 0.78, 1.56, and 3.12-12.5 [micro]g/ml), ent-7[alpha],18-dihydroxykaur-16-en-15-one (MIC, 1.56 [micro]g/ml), and ent-16(S)-18-acetoxy-7[alpha]-hydroxykaur-15-one exhibited MIC of 1.56 [micro]g/ml. Furthermore, ent-18-acetoxy-7[alpha]- hydroxykaur-16-en-15-one, ent-1[beta],14[beta]-diacetoxy-7[alpha]-hydroxykaur-16-en-15-one, ent-1[beta]-acetoxy-7[alpha],14 dihydroxykaur-16-en-15-one, and ent-7[alpha],14[beta]-dihydroxykaur-16-en-15-one showed MIC values ranging from 3.12 to 6.25 [micro]g/ml. Other active compounds isolated from Croton kongensis are ent-8,9-seco-8,14-epoxy-7[alpha]-hydroxy-11[beta]-acetoxy-16- kauren-9,15-dione (MIC, 6.25 [micro]g/ml), ent-8,9-seco-7[alpha]-hydroxy-11[beta]-acetoxykaura- 8(14),16-dien-9,15-dione (MIC, 6.25 [micro]g/ml), and ent-8,9-seco-7[alpha],11[beta]-diacetoxykaura-8(14), 16-dien-9,15-dione (MIC, 25.0 [micro]g/ml). Flavanone, dalparvone, and dalparvinene isolated from Dalbergia parviflora Roxb. showed MIC values of 12.5, 50, and 50 [micro]g/ml respectively. 3[beta]-hydroxy-21-O-acetyl-24-methylenecycloartane from Dasymaschalon dasymaschalum (Blume) I. M. Turner exhibited MIC of 50 [micro]g/ml. Bioactive compounds isolated from Dendrolobium lanceolatum (Dunn) Schindl., Flavanones 1, flavanones, flavan, and 4'-hydroxy-7,8-(2",2"-dimethylpyran)flavan, exhibited MICs of 6.3, 12.5, 25, and 25 [micro]g/ml, respectively. Compounds 3,4-methylenedioxy-10-methoxy-7- oxo[2]benzopyrano[4,3-b]benzopyran, karanjachromene, pinnatin, 3-methoxy-(3",4"-dihydro-3",4"-diacetoxy)-2",2"-dimethylpyrano-(7,8: 5",6")-flavone, desmethoxy kanugin, lacheolatin B, 3,7-dimethoxyflavone, and pachycarin D (showing MIC values of 6.25, 12.5, 12.5, 25, 50, 50, 50, and 50 [micro]g/ml, resp.) were isolated from Derris indica L. Betulinic acid from Diospyros decandra Lour., showing MIC of 25 [micro]g/ml. From Diospyros ehretioides Wall. ex G. Don, palmarumycins JC2 (MIC, 6.25 [micro]g/ml) and isodiospyrol A (MIC, 50 [micro]g/ml) were isolated. Diospyrin, isolated from Diospyros glandulosa Lace, showed MIC value of 6.25 [micro]g/ml. Betulinaldehyde isolated from Diospyros rhodocalyx Kurz exhibited MIC value of 25 [micro]g/ml. Dehydrolupinifolinol (MIC, 12.5 [micro]g/ml), flemichin D (MIC, 12.5 [micro]g/ml), eriosemaone A (MIC, 12.5 [micro]g/ml), lupinifolin (MIC, 12.5 [micro]g/ml), Khonklonginol A (MIC, 25 [micro]g/ml), Khonklonginol H (MIC, 25 [micro]g/ml), lupinifolinol (MIC, 25 [micro]g/ml), and Khonklonginol B (MIC, 50 [micro]g/ml) were isolated from Eriosema chinense Vogel. From Erythrina fusca Lour., erythrisenegalone (50 [micro]g/ml MIC), lonchocarpol A (50 [micro]g/ml MIC), and lupinifolin (25 [micro]g/ml MIC) were isolated. Bioactive compounds erystagallin A, erycristagallin, 5-hydroxysophoranone, erysubin F (all showing MICs of 12.5 [micro]g/ml), and 1-methoxyerythrabyssin II (showing MICs of 50 [micro]g/ml) were obtained from Erythrina subumbrans Merr. (E)-((E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)allyl)3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylate from Etlingera pavieana (Pierre ex Gagnep.) R. M. Sm., exhibited MICs of 50 [micro]g/ml. 3'-formyl-2',4'-dihydroxy-6'- methoxychalcone, a bioactive compound from Friesodielsia discolor (Craib) D. Das, showed MICs of 6.25 [micro]g/ml. From Garcinia mangostana L., [alpha]-mangostin (MIC, 6.25 [micro]g/ml), [beta]-mangostin (MIC, 6.25 [micro]g/ml), [gamma]- mangostin (MIC, 25 [micro]g/ml), garcinone D (MIC, 25 [micro]g/ml), garcinone B (MIC, 6.25 [micro]g/ml), mangostanin (MIC, 25 [micro]g/ ml), mangostenone A (MIC, 25 [micro]g/ml), tovophyllin B (MIC, 25 [micro]g/ml), demethylcalabaxanthone (MIC, 12.5 [micro]g/ml), and trapezifolixanthone (MIC, 12.5 [micro]g/ml) were identified as active compounds. Active compound Liriodenine isolated from Goniothalamus gitingensis Elmer exhibited MIC of 16 [micro]g/ml. Active compounds (+)-altholactone (MIC, 6.25 [micro]g/ ml), howiininA (MIC, 6.25 [micro]g/ml), and (-)-nordicentrine (12.5 [micro]g/ml) were isolated from Goniothalamus laoticus (Finet & Gagnep.) Ban. Coronarin E and 16-Hydroxylabda-8(17),11,13-trien-15,16- olide isolated from Hedychium ellipticum Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. showed MICs of 12.5 and 6.25 [micro]g/ml, respectively. Caniojane isolated from Jatropha integerrima Jacq. demonstrated MIC of 25 [micro]g/ml. Bioactive compounds, sandaracopimaradien-1[alpha]-ol and 2[alpha]-acetoxy- sandaracopimaradien-1[alpha]-ol isolated from Kaempferia marginata Carey, showed MICs of 25 and 50 [micro]g/ml, respectively.

From Morinda citrifolia Linn., campesta-6,22-dien-5[alpha],8[alpha]-epidioxy- 3[beta]-ol (2.5 [micro]g/ml), (E)-phytol (32 [micro]g/ml), and stigmasterol (32 [micro]g/ml) were obtained. Active compounds 2,4-bis(2-phenylpropan-2- yl)phenol isolated from Momordica charantia L. showed 14 [micro]g/ml MIC. 1[alpha],13[beta],14[alpha]-trihydroxy- 3[beta],7[beta]-dibenzoyloxy- 9[beta],15[beta]-diacetoxyjatropha-5,11E-diene and 1[alpha],8[beta],9[beta],14[alpha],15[beta]-pentaacetoxy-3[beta]-benzoyloxy- 7-oxojatropha-5,12-diene isolated from Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit. demonstrated 12.5 and 50 [micro]g/ml MIC. From Piper sarmentosum Roxb., pellitorine, 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-1E-tetradecene, guineensine, sarmentine, and brachyamide B showed MICs of 25, 25, 50, 50, and 50 [micro]g/ml, respectively. Bidebiline E (6.25 [micro]g/ml), octadeca-9,11,13-triynoic acid (6.25 [micro]g/ml), and a-humulene (6.25 [micro]g/ml) were isolated from Polyalthia cerasoides (Roxb.) Benth. ex Bedd. Debilisone B, Debilisone C, and Debilisone E isolated from Polyalthia debilis (Piere) Finet & ganep exhibited MIC values of 25, 12.5, and 25 [micro]g/ml, respectively. 1-Heneicosyl formate and 6[micro]-hydroxy-10-O-acetylgenipin from Premna odorata Blanco and Rothmannia wittii (Craib) Bremek. showed 8 and 12.5 [micro]g/ml MIC values, respectively. The compounds chabamide and piperine isolated from Piper chaba Hunter exhibited MIC values of 12.5 and 50 [micro]g/ml, respectively. Bioactive compounds sapintoxin A (3.12 [micro]g/ml), sapintoxin B (12.5 [micro]g/ml), sapintoxin C (25 [micro]g/ml), 12-(2'- Nmethylaminobenzoyl)-4[alpha]-deoxy-5,20- dihydroxyphorbol-13- acetate (25 [micro]g/ml), 12-(2-methylaminobenzoyl)-4-deoxyphorbaldehyde-13- acetae (25 [micro]g/ml), and 12-(2-N-methyl-aminobenzoyl)-4[beta],5,20-trideoxyphorbol- 13-acetate (50 [micro]g/ ml) were isolated from Sapium indicum L. From Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Poir., isovestitol (50 [micro]g/ml), medicarpin (50 [micro]g/ml), and sativan (50 [micro]g/ml) were isolated as active compounds. Tiliacorinine, 2'-nortiliacorinine, tiliacorine, and 13'-bromo-tiliacorinine from Tiliacora triandra (Colebr.) Diels exhibited MIC ranging between 0.7 and 6.2 [micro]g/ml. From Uvaria valderramensis Cabuang, Exconde & Alejandro, valderramenols A, grandiuvarone, and reticuline were isolated and showed MICs of 10, 32, and 32 [micro]g/ml, respectively. Globospiramine obtained from Voacanga globosa Merr. exhibited 4 and 5.2 MICs. Compound nummularines H isolated from Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. exhibited MIC of 4.5 [micro]g/ml. 6-Gingerol from Zingiber officinale Roscoe demonstrated MIC value of 33 [micro]g/ml.

Generally, some of the reviewed plant species such as Alpinia galanga, Artocarpus rigidus, Camchaya calcarea, Combretum griffithii, Cordia globifera, Croton kongensis, Dendrolobium lanceolatum, Derris indica, Diospyros glandulosa, Diospyros ehretioides, Friesodielsia discolor, Garcinia mangostana, Goniothalamus laoticus, Hedychium ellipticum, Marsypopetalum modestum, Morinda citrifolia, Orthosiphon stamineus, Piper sarmentosum, Polyalthia cerasoides, Premna odorata, Sapium indicum, Tiliacora triandra, Trigonostemon reidiodes, Voacanga globosa, Tinospora crispa, Vitex trifolia, and Ziziphus mauritiana proved to be potential source of anti-TB (crude and/or bioactive compound exhibited anti-TB activities at MIC values ranging from 0 to <10 [micro]g/ml) and as such should be considered for further development as either crude extract that will be consumed as complementary or alternative TB drug or as potential bioactive compounds for the development of novel anti-TB drug.

7. Conclusion

There has been an increase in demand for the phytopharmaceuticals worldwide due to the fact that allopathic drugs have more side effects. This review makes an attempt to compile some of the anti-TB plants of Southeast Asian origin from wide range of families and genera that have exhibited significant in vitro anti-TB activities and a number of bioactive compounds from different groups of chemicals have been isolated. As stated earlier, about 2 million individuals worldwide die from TB yearly. Therefore, the findings may encourage numerous researchers to embark on the project that potentially leads to the development of standardized crude extracts that will be consumed as either complementary or alternative TB drug. The findings might as well motivate various researchers to undertake the project that may further identify and characterize the active components from these plant species in order to search for the novel natural product leads useful for new anti-TB drug discovery and development.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


The authors are very grateful to Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) for providing the research grants (UTHM Contract Grant Vot no. U555 and also Incentive Grant for Publication (IGSP) Vot no. U673) that supported the study.


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Shuaibu Babaji Sanusi, Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar, Maryati Mohamed, Siti Fatimah Sabran, and Muhammad Murtala Mainasara

Centre of Research for Sustainable Uses of Natural Resources (CoR-SUNR), Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 86400 ParitRaja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

Correspondence should be addressed to Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar;

Received 24 January 2017; Revised 23 April 2017; Accepted 18 May 2017; Published 3 July 2017

Academic Editor: Ghee T. Tan
Table 1: Southeast Asian medicinal plants screened for anti-TB.

Scientific name              Family          Local name

Abrus precatorius       Leguminosae        Akar saga

Abutilon indicum        Malvaceae          Giling-gilingan
(L.) Sweet

Acanthus                Acanthaceae        Nguag-plaa-moa
ebracteatus Vahl.

Aegle marmelos          Rutaceae           Mak toum
(L.) Correa

Ageratum                Asteraceae         Babadaton
conyzoides L.

Aglaia                  Meliaceae

Allium odorum L.        Liliaceae          Kucai

Aloe vera L.            Aloaceae           Lidah buaya

Alpinia galanga         Zingiberaceae      Khaa,
(L.) Sw.                                   Lengkuas,

Alpinia purpurata       Zingiberaceae      Luyang pula
K. Schum.

Alpinia zerumbet        Zingiberaceae
(Pers.) B. L.
Burtt & R. M. Sm.

Alstonia scholaris      Apocynaceae        Dita
(L.) R. Brown

Amaranthus              Amaranthaceae      Bayam
tricolor L.

Andrographis            Acanthaceae        Hempedu Bumi
paniculata Nees

Angiopteris evecta      Marattiaceae       Paku gajah
(J. R. Forst.)

Anisochilus             Lamiaceae          Chroomuay
harmandii Doan ex
Suddee & A. J.

Annona muricata L.      Annonaceae         Sirsak

Annona reticulata       Annonaceae         Kantaloht (peurak)

Anomianthus dulcis      Annonaceae         Num Wua
(Dunal) J. Sinclair

Artocarpus              Moraceae           Ma-Haad
lakoocha Roxb.

Artocarpus rigidus      Moraceae           Tampang
subsp. Rigidus

Averrhoa bilimbi L.     Oxalidaceae        Belimbing


Burleria lupulina       Acanthaceae        Sa-let-pangpon

Blumea balsamifera      Asteraceae         Sembung
DC.                                        utan

Boesenbergia            Zingiberaceae      Krachai
pandurata (Roxb.)

Camchaya calcarea       Asteraceae

Capsicum annum          Solanaceae         Cili

Casearia                Flacourtiaceae     Kruai pa
grewiifolia Vent.

Catharanthus            Apocynaceae        Kemunting cina
roseus (L.) G. Don

Ceiba pentandra         Bombacaceae        Kabu

(L.) Gaertn.

Centella asiatica       Apiaceae           Pegaga
(L.) Urb.

Chisocheton             Meliaceae
Planch, ex Hiern

Chromolaena             Asteraceae         Agonoi
odorata (L.) R. M.
King & H. Rob.

Citrus aurantiifolia    Rutaceae           Limau nipis
(Christm.) Swingle

Citrus microcarpa       Rutaceae           Limau kasturi

Clausena excavate       Rutaceae           Sun Soak
Burm. f.

Clausena                Rutaceae

Clausena                Rutaceae           Song Fa

Clerodendrum            Verbenaceae        Bunga pagoda
indicum (L.)

Clitoria ternatea L.    Leguminosae        Bunga kelentik

Coccinia grandis        Cucurbitaceae      Phak tamlueng

(L.) Voigt

atropurpureus L.        Lamiaceae          Pila dang

Colocasia esculenta     Colocasieae        Keladi cina
(L.) Schott

griffithii Van          Combretaceae       Khamin
Heurck & Mull.                             khruea

Cordia globifera W.     Boraginaceae       Sak Hin
W. Smith

Costus speciosus (J.    Costaceae          Setawar halia

Koenig) Sm.

Croton kongensis        Euphorbiaceae      Plao Ngeon,
Gagnep.                                    Kho sam bac bo

Curcuma                 Zingiberaceae      Waan
aeruginosa Roxb.                           mahaamek

Dalbergia               Leguminosae        Sak Kee
parviflora Roxb.

dasymaschalum           Annonaceae         Buu ngong
(Blume) I. M.

Dendrolobium            Leguminosae        Kraduk-Khiat
(Dunn) Schindl.

Derris indica L         Leguminosae

Diospyros decandra      Ebenaceae          Chan

Diospyros               Ebenaceae          Nom ngua
ehretioides Wall, ex
G. Don

Diospyros               Ebenaceae          Kluai ruesi
glandulosa Lace

Diospyros               Ebenaceae          Tako Na
rhodocalyx Kurz

Eclipta prostrata       Asteraceae         Kra-meng
(L.) L.

Eriosema chinense       Leguminosae        Toon Khonklong

Erythrina fusca         Fabaceae           Thong long

Erythrina               Leguminosae
subumbrans Merr.

Etlingera elatior       Zingiberaceae      Bunga kantan
(Jack) R. M. Sm.

Etlingera pavieana      Zingiberaceae
(Pierre ex Gagnep.)
R. M. Sm.

Fernandoa               (Bignoniaceae)     Khae Pa
adenophylla (Wall.
Ex G. Don) Steenis

Feroniella lucida       Rutaceae           Sung
Swingle                                    (mak)/kohk

Ficus carica L.         Moraceae           Ara

Flemingia               Fabaceae           Serengan
strobilifera (L.) W.
T. Aiton

discolor (Craib) D.     Annonaceae

Garcinia                Clusiacea          Mangkhud
mangostana L.

Glycosmis               Rutaceae           Xom Xeuan
pentaphylla (Retz.)

Goniothalamus           Annonaceae
gitingensis Elmer

Goniothalamus           Annonaceae         Khao-Lam-
laoticus (Finet &                          dong
Gagnep.) Ban

Gynura divaricata       Asteraceae
(L.) DC.

Gynura                  Asteraceae         Waan
pseudochina (L.)                           Mahaakaan
D.C. var. hispida

Haplophragma            Bignoniaceae       Kay pa
(Wall, ex G. Don)

Hedychium               Zingiberaceae
Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.

Heliotropium            Boraginaceae       Yaa Nguang
indicum Linn.                              Chaang

Hibiscus                Malvaceae          Bunga raya
rosa-sinensis L.

Hymenocardia            Euphorbiaceae
wallichii Tul

Hyptis suaveolens       Lamiaceae          Maeng luk
(L.) Poit.                                 kha

Jasminum sambac         Oleaceae           Melor
(L.) Aiton

Jatropha curcas L.      Euphorbiaceae      Jarak

Jatropha                Euphorbiaceae
integerrima Jacq.

Justicia gendarussa BurmAcanthaceae        Urat sugi

Kaempferia              Zingiberaceae      Kencur
galangal L.

Kaempferia              Zingiberaceae      Tup mup
marginata Carey

Lantana camara L.       Verbenaceae        Kembang

Lepisanthes             Sapin daceae       Mertajam
rubiginosa (Roxb.)

Licuala spinosa         Arecaceae          Palas tikus

Limnophila              Scrophulariaceae   Prod Ka
geoffrayi Bonati                           yaeng

Marsypopetalum          Annonaceae         Tin Tang Tia
modestum (Pierre)

Micromelum minutum      Rutaceae           Sa Mat Khao
Wight & Am.

Momordica               Cucurbitaceae      Ampalaya
charantia L.

Morinda citrifolia      Rubiaceae          Noni

Morus alba L.           Moraceae           Merbatu

Murraya                 Rutaceae           Kaeo

paniculata (L.) Jack

Orthosiphon             Lamiaceae          Misai
stamineus Benth.                           Kuching

Passiflora foetida L.   Passifloraceae     Letup-letup

Pedilanthus             Euphorbiaceae      Sa yaek
tithymaloides (L.)

Petiveria alliacea L.   Phytolaccaceae     Singawalang

Phyllanthus acidus      Euphorbiaceae      Cermai
(L.) Skeels

Piper betle L.          Piperaceae         Plu, D aun

Piper chaba Hunter      Piperaceae         Dee plee

Piper nigrum L.         Piperaceae         Lada hitam

Piper sarmentosum       Piperaceae         Kadok, Cha-plu

Pistia stratiotes L.    Araceae            Water lettuce

Pluchea indica (L.)     Asteraceae         Beluntas


Polyalthia              Annonaceae         Sai den
cerasoides (Roxb.)
Benth. ex Bedd

Polyalthia debilis      Annonaceae         Kon Krok
(Piere) Finet &

Premna odorata          Lamiaceae          Alagaw

Rhoeo spathacea         Commelinaceae      Nu
(Sw.) Stearn

Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.) Annonaceae         Khanthaloht

Rothmannia wittii       Rubiaceae          Muk Mo
(Craib) Bremek.

Sapium indicum L.       Euphorbiaceae

Selaginella plana       Selaginellaceae    Paka merak
(Desv. ex Poir.)

Sesbania                Leguminosae        Geti
grandiflora (L.)

Solanum spirale         Solanaceae         Pak dit

Solanum torvum Sw.      Solanaceae         Terung pipit

Spilanthes acmella      Asteraceae         Raan
(L.) Murray

Spondias pinnata        Anacardiaceae      Loloh cemcem
(L.f.) Kurz

Tabernaemontana         Apocynaceae        Jasmine
coronaria (L.)

Tiliacora triandra      Menispermaceae     Ya-nang
(Colebr.) Diels

Tinospora crispa        Menispermaceae     Kheuah Khao Ho
(L.) Hook. F. &

Trigonostemon           Euphorbiaceae      Lot Thanong
reidioides (Kurz)

Uvaria microcarpa       Annonaceae         Phii Phouan
Champ, ex Benth.

Uvaria rufa Blume       Annonaceae         Mak Phii

valderramensis          Annonaceae         Usog
Cabuang, Exconde
& Alejandro

Vitex trifolia L.       Verbenaceae        Phi sua

Voacanga globosa        Apocynaceae        Bayag-usa

Zingiber officinale     Zingiberaceae      Halia, Luya

Zingiber zerumbet       Zingiberaceae      Haeo dam
(L.) Roscoe ex Sm.

Ziziphus                Rhamnaceae         Phut-sa
mauritiana Lam.

Ziziphus oenoplia       Rhamnaceae
(L.) Mill.

Scientific name        Part used: extract/active compound

Abrus precatorius       Not stated
                        Aerial part:
                        dichloromethane/Abruquinone B
                        (1) was isolated from the

Abutilon indicum        Leaves: dichloromethane and
(L.) Sweet              methanol/[beta]-amyrin
                        3-palmitate (1), squalene (2),
                        jS-sitosterol (3), and
                        stigmasterol (4) were isolated
                        from the extract

Acanthus                Leaves, stem: chloroform
ebracteatus Vahl.       methanol water

Aegle marmelos          90% ethanol
(L.) Correa
                        Fruits and flowers: 90%

Ageratum                Whole plant: 80% methanol
conyzoides L.

Aglaia                  Fruits and leaves: 95%/
erythrosperma           cabraleadiol (1),
Pannell                 cabraleahydroxylactone (2),
                        ethyl eichlerianoate (3),
                        eichlerialactone (4), aglinin
                        A (5), cabralealactone (6),
                        aglaialactone (7), flavagline
                        (8) were isolated from the

Allium odorum L.        Leaves: 80% methanol

Aloe vera L.            Leaves: 80% methanol

Alpinia galanga         Rhizome: chloroform methanol
(L.) Sw.                water Compound l'acetoxychavicol
                        acetate (1) was isolated from
                        chloroform extract of rhizome
                        Leaves: 80% methanol

Alpinia purpurata       Leave: methanol/compounds
K. Schum.               [beta]-sitosteryl-[beta]-
                        D-galactoside (1),
                        palmityl-[beta]-D- glucoside
                        (2), kumatakenin (3) were
                        isolated from the extract

Alpinia zerumbet        Rhizomes: methanol
(Pers.) B. L.
Burtt & R. M. Sm.

Alstonia scholaris      Leaves:
(L.) R. Brown           methanol/19,20E-vallesamine
                        (1), a mixture of angustilobine
                        B [N.sub.4]-oxide (2),
                        [N.sub.4]-methyl angustilobine
                        B (3), 20S-tubotaiwine (4),
                        6,7-seco-angustilobine B (5),
                        (+)-manilamine (6) were obtained
                        from the extract

Amaranthus              Whole plant: 80% methanol
tricolor L.

Andrographis            Herbs: aqueous
paniculata Nees

Angiopteris evecta      Leaves: 80% methanol
(J. R. Forst.)

Anisochilus             Aerial part: hexane and
harmandii Doan ex       EtOAc/pimaric acid (1),
Suddee & A. J.          9[alpha]-13[alpha]-epidioxyabiet-
Paton                   8(14)-en-18-oicacid (2),
                        15-hydrooxydehydroabietic acid
                        (3) were isolated from the

Annona muricata L.      Leaves: aqueous

Annona reticulata       90% ethanol

Anomianthus dulcis      Stem bark: 80% ethanol,
(Dunal) J. Sinclair     dichloromethane and water/(2S)-5-
                        (1), 9-methoxyliriodenine (4),
                        Liriodenine (5) were isolated
                        from the extract

Artocarpus              Roots:
lakoocha Roxb.          dichloromethane/Lakoochins A (1)
                        and B (2) were isolated from the

Artocarpus rigidus      Root bark: flavonoid
subsp. Rigidus          7-demethylartonol E (1), chromone
                        artorigidusin (2), xanthone
                        artonol B (3), flavonoid artonin
                        F (4), flavonoid
                        (5), xanthone artoindonesianin C
                        (6), all isolated from n-hexane,
                        chloroform, methanol extracts

Averrhoa bilimbi L.     Fruits leaves: 80% methanol

Burleria lupulina       Leaves: chloroform methanol water

                        Stem: chloroform methanol water

Blumea balsamifera      Not stated

Boesenbergia            Rhizome: chloroform methanol
pandurata (Roxb.)       water

Camchaya calcarea       Whole plant:
Kitamura                dichloromethane/ goyazensolides
                        (1), lychnophorolides A (2),
                        centratherin or lychnophorolides
                        B (3), isogoyazensolides (4),
                        isocentratherin (5),
                        5-epi-isogoyazensolides (7),
                        5-epi-isocentratherin (8), 1(10),
                        12,6-olide-15-oic acid (9),
                        caffeic acid methyl ester (10)
                        were isolated from the extract

Capsicum annum          Fruit: 80% methanol

Casearia                Stem bark: hexane and
grewiifolia Vent.       dichloromethane/bioactive
                        compounds, Caseargrewiin A (1),
                        Caseargrewiin B (2), Caseargrewiin
                        C (3), Caseargrewiin D (4), rel-
                        3,13(16),14-triene (5) and
                        methylbut an oyloxy) clero
                        da-3,13(16), 14-triene (6) were
                        isolated from the extract

Catharanthus            Leaves: 80% methanol
roseus (L.) G. Don

Ceiba pentandra         Fruit: 80% methanol

(L.) Gaertn.

Centella asiatica       Whole plant: 80% methanol
(L.) Urb.

                        Herbs: aqueous

Chisocheton             Wood and leaves: 95%
penduliflorus           methanol/cabraleadiol (1),
Planch, ex Hiern        allo-aromadendrane-10[beta],
                        14-diol (2), allo-aromadendrane-
                        10[alpha], 14-diol (3)
                        eichlerialactone (4),
                        cabraleahydroxylactone (5),
                        cabralealactone (6),
                        13,14-triol (7) were isolated from
                        the extract

Chromolaena             Flowers: isosakuranetin (1),
odorata (L.) R. M.      4-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxyflavanone
King & H. Rob.          (2), acacetin (3), luteolin (4),
                        all isolated from chloroform

Citrus aurantiifolia    Not stated
(Christm.) Swingle

Citrus microcarpa       Leaves: 80% methanol

Clausena excavate       Dentatin (1), nordentatin (2),
Burm. f.                clausenidin (3), O-methylated
                        clausenidin (4), 3-formylcarbazole
                        (5), mukonal (6),
                        3-methoxycarbonylcarbazole (7),
                        methoxycarbazole (8), clauszoline
                        (9); compounds 1, 2, 6, 7, 8,9
                        where isolated from the chloroform
                        extract of rhizomes; compound 3
                        was isolated from crude hexane
                        extract of rhizome. Methylation of
                        compound 3 gave rise to compound
                        4; compound 10 was isolated from
                        crude chloroform extract of the

Clausena                Roots: acetone/fluroclausine A (1)
guillauminii            and heptazoline (2) were obtained
Tanaka                  from the extract

Clausena                Fruits and flowers: 90% ethanol

Clerodendrum            Flowers: 80% methanol
indicum (L.)

Clitoria ternatea L.    Whole plant: 80% methanol

Coccinia grandis        Leaves: chloroform methanol water

(L.) Voigt

Coleus                  Compound 2',5'-dimethyl
atropurpureus L.        benzopelargonolactone was isolated
Benth                   from the chloroform fraction of leaf

Colocasia esculenta     Leaf: 80% methanol
(L.) Schott

Combretum               Stem: methanol/l-(2-hydroxy-4-
griffithii Van          methoxyphenyl)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-
Heurck & Mull.          methoxyphenyl)propane (1) were
Arg.                    isolated from the extract

                        Root: dichloromethane/Globiferin
                        (1), cordiachrome B (2),
Cordia globifera W.     cordiachrome C (3), cordiaquinol C
W. Smith                (4), alliodorin (5), elaeagin (6),
                        cordiachromene (7) were isolated
                        from the extract

Costus speciosus (J.    Stem and flowers: 80% methanol
Koenig) Sm.

Croton kongensis        Leaves: crude dichloromethane
Gagnep.                 extract.
                        15-dione (1),ent-8,9-seco-8,
                        11[beta]3- acetoxy-16-kauren-9,
                        15-dione (2), ent-8,9-seco-
                        dione (3), all were isolated from
                        dichloromethane extract of leaves
                        Whole plants, leaves: ethanol, ethyl
                        acetate, methylene chloride,
                        one (1), ent-7[alpha],
                        18-dihydroxykaur-16-en-15-one (2),
                        hydroxykaur-15-one (3), ent-18-
                        en-15-one (4), ent-1[beta],14[beta]
                        16-en-15-one (5),
                        15-one (6), ent-7[alpha],14[beta]-
                        dihydroxykaur-16-en-15-one (7)
                        were all isolated from
                        ethanol, ethyl acetate, methylene
                        extract of whole plants and leaves

Curcuma                 Rhizomes: water/essential oil
aeruginosa Roxb.

Dalbergia               Stem: hexane, ethyl acetate,
parviflora Roxb.        methanol/Flavanone (1),
                        dalparvone (2), dalparvinene (6)
                        were isolated from the extract

Dasymaschalon           Leaves: ethyl
dasymaschalum           acetate/3[beta]-hydroxy-21-0-acetyl
(Blume) I. M.           -24-methylenecycloartane (1) was
Turner                  obtained from the extract

Dendrolobium            Root: hexane and
lanceolatum             dichloromethane/Flavanones 1 (1),
(Dunn) Schindl.         flavanones (2), flavan (3),
                        dibenzocycloheptene derivative (4),
                        dimethylpyran)flavan (5) isolated
                        from the extract.

Derris indica L         Root and stem: dichloromethane
                        3",4"-diacetoxy)-2" ,2"-
                        (1), 2'-methoxy-4',5'-
                        [7,8:4",5"]-flavone (2),
                        dimethylally-lisoflavone (3),
                        oxo [2] benzopyrano [4,3-
                        b]benzopyran (4), desmethoxy
                        kanugin (5), karanjin (6),
                        lacheolatin B (7), pongachromene
                        (8), 3,7-dimethoxyflavone (9),
                        pachycarin D (10), maackiain (11),
                        medicarpin (12) karanjachromene
                        (13), pinnatin (14) isolated from
                        this extract

Diospyros decandra      Betulinic acid (1) and 2-oxo-
Lour.                   3[beta],19[alpha]-dihydroxy-24-
                        nor-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (2)

Diospyros               Fruits: dichloromethane/
ehretioides Wall, ex    palmarumycins JC1 (1),
G. Don                  palmarumycins JC2 (2),
                        isodiospyrin (3), isodiospyrol A
                        (4) were isolated from the extract

Diospyros               Diospyrin, isolated from
glandulosa Lace         dichloromethane extract of wood

Diospyros               Betulinaldehyde, obtained from
rhodocalyx Kurz         dichloromethane extract of wood

Eclipta prostrata       Whole plant: chloroform methanol
(L.) L.                 water

Eriosema chinense       Roots: hexane, dichloromethane,
Vogel                   methanol/Khonklonginol A (1), B
                        (2), F (6), H (8), lupinifolinol
                        (9), dehydrolupinifolinol (10),
                        flemichin D (11), eriosemaone A
                        (12), lupinifolin (13) were
                        obtained from the extract

Erythrina fusca         Stem bark: hexane and ethyl
Lour.                   acetate/sandwicensin (1),
                        erythrisenegalone (2), lonchocarpol
                        A (3), lupinifolin (4) were
                        isolated from the extract

Erythrina               Bark: n-hexane, dichloromethane and
subumbrans Merr.        methanol/1-methoxyerythrabyssin II
                        (1) was isolated from the extract
                        Stem: n-hexane and
                        dichloromethane/erystagallin A (1),
                        erycristagallin (2),
                        5-hydroxysophoranone (3),
                        erysubin F (4) were isolated from
                        the extract

Etlingera elatior       Rhizomes: methanol/Stigmasterol
(Jack) R. M. Sm.        (1) and [beta]-sitosterol (2) were
                        isolated from the extract

Etlingera pavieana      Rhizomes: dichloromethane/(E)-
(Pierre ex Gagnep.)     ((E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)allyl)3-
R. M. Sm.               (4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylate (1) was
                        isolated from the crude extract

Fernandoa               Fruits and flowers: 90% ethanol
adenophylla (Wall.
Ex G. Don) Steenis

Feroniella lucida       90% ethanol
                        Fruits and flowers: 90% ethanol

Ficus carica L.         Leaves: 80% methanol

Flemingia               Leaves: 80% methanol
strobilifera (L.) W.
T. Aiton

Friesodielsia           Leave: dichloromethane and ethyl
discolor (Craib) D.     acetate/3'-formyl-2',4'-dihydroxy-
Das                     6'-methoxychalcone (1) was
                        isolated from the extract

Garcinia                Fruits: oc-mangostin (1),
mangostana L.           jS-mangostin (2), y-mangostin (3),
                        garcinone D (4), mangostenol (5),
                        garcinone B (6), mangostanin (7),
                        mangostanol (8), mangostenone A
                        (9), tovophyllin B (10),
                        demethylcalabaxanthone (11),
                        trapezifolixanthone (12),
                        mangostinone (13) all isolated from
                        chloroform, methanol extract

Glycosmis               Fruits and flowers: 90% ethanol
pentaphylla (Retz.)

Goniothalamus           Leaves/Liriodenine (1) was
gitingensis Elmer       isolated from the extract

Goniothalamus           Flowers: goniotriol (1),
laoticus (Finet &       (+)-altholactone (2), howiininA (3)
Gagnep.) Ban            and an aporphine alkaloid;
                        (-)-nordicentrine (4), all isolated
                        from n-hexane, ethyl acetate,
                        methanol extracts

Gynura divaricata       Leaves: hexane, dichloromethane,
(L.) DC.                methanol/essential oil

Gynura                  Whole plant: chloroform methanol
pseudochina (L.)        water
D.C. var. hispida

Haplophragma            90% ethanol
(Wall, ex G. Don)

Hedychium               Rhizomes: n-hexane and
ellipticum              dichloromethane/Coronarin E (1)
Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.       and 16-Hydroxylabda-8(17),11,13-
                        trien-15,16-olide (7) were isolated
                        from the extract

Heliotropium            Leaves: water
indicum Linn.

Hibiscus                Leaves: 80% methanol
rosa-sinensis L.

Hymenocardia            Stem: dichloromethane, methanol,
wallichii Tul           hexane/Squalene were isolated from
                        the extract

Hyptis suaveolens       Whole plant: hexane, chloroform and
(L.) Poit.              methanol/ 8[alpha], 9[alpha]-
                        epoxysuaveolic acid (2), suaveolic
                        acid (4), suaveolol (5) were
                        isolated from the extract

Jasminum sambac         Leaves: 80% methanol
(L.) Aiton

Jatropha curcas L.      Leaves: 80% methanol

Jatropha                Roots: dichloromethane and
integerrima Jacq.       ethanol/caniojane were isolated
                        from the extract

Justicia gendarussa BurmLeaves: 80% methanol

Kaempferia              Not stated
galangal L.

                        Whole plant: dichloromethane
                        11-trihydroxy-pim ara-8(14),15-
                        diene (2), (1S,5S,7R,9R,10S,11R,
Kaempferia              8(14),15-diene(3),(1R,2S,5S,7S,9R,
marginata Carey         10S,13R)-1,2-dihydroxypimara-8(14),
                        15-diene-7-one (6),
                        2[alpha]-diol were isolated from
                        the extract

Lantana camara L.       Not stated

Lepisanthes             Leaves: 80% methanol
rubiginosa (Roxb.)

Licuala spinosa         Leaves: 80% methanol
Thunb.                  Flavones nevadensin (1) and

Limnophila              isothymusin (2), all were isolated
geoffrayi Bonati        from chloroform extract of aerial

Marsypopetalum          Fruits and flowers: 90% ethanol
modestum (Pierre)

Micromelum minutum      Fruits and flowers: 90% ethanol
Wight & Am.

Momordica               Leaves: ethanol/2,4-bis(2-
charantia L.            phenylpropan-2-yl)phenol (1)
                        isolated from the extract

Morinda citrifolia      Leaves: ethanol and
Linn.                   hexane/(E)-phytol (1), cycloartenol
                        (2), stigmasta-4-en-3-one (3),
                        stigmasta-4-22-dien-3-one (4),
                        [beta]-sitosterol (5),
                        stigmasterol (6), campesta-6,22-
                        3[beta]-ol (7) were isolated
                        from the extract

Morus alba L.           Leaves and fruit: 80% methanol

Murraya                 Leaves: chloroform methanol water

paniculata (L.) Jack

Orthosiphon             Leaves: hexane, chloroform, ethyl
stamineus Benth.        acetate

Passiflora foetida L.   Whole plant: 80% methanol

Pedilanthus             Leaves: methanol, water,
tithymaloides (L.)      hexane/1[alpha],13[beta],14[alpha]
Poii.                   -trihydroxy-3/3,7/3-dibenzoyloxy-
                        diene (1),
                        11E-diene (2),1[alpha], 8/3,9/3,
                        14[alpha], 15[beta]-pent aacetoxy-
                        5,12-diene (3),
                        15[beta]-pent aacetoxy-3[beta]-
                        (4), 1[alpha],7,8/3,9/3,14[alpha],
                        15/3-hexaacetoxy-3 /3-benzoyloxy-
                        12-diene (5) were obtained from
                        the extract

Petiveria alliacea L.   96% ethanol: leaves

                        Not stated

Phyllanthus acidus      Leaves: 80% methanol
(L.) Skeels

Piper betle L.          Leaves:chloroform methanol water

Piper chaba Hunter      Fruit: chloroform, methanol, water;
                        compound Piperine (1) was isolated
                        from chloroform crude extract of

                        Stem: n-hexane/chabamide (1) was
                        isolated from the extract

Piper nigrum L.         Fruit: 80% methanol

                        Leaves: ethyl acetate n-hexane

Piper sarmentosum       Whole plant: 80% methanol
                        Leaves: petroleum ether,
                        Chloroform, methanol

                        Leaves: aqueous, ethanol

                        Fruits: hexane and
                        methanol/pellitorine (1),
                        guineensine (2), brachystamide B
                        (3), sarmentine (4), brachyamide B
                        (5), sarmentosine (8),
                        tetradecene (11) were isolated from
                        the extract

Pistia stratiotes L.    Whole plant: 80% methanol

Pluchea indica (L.)     Flower

Less.                   Leaves: 80% methanol

                        Leaves: aqueous

Polyalthia              Root: hexane, EtOAc,
cerasoides (Roxb.)      MeOH/Bidebiline E (1),
Benth. ex Bedd          octadeca-9,11,13-triynoic acid (2),
                        [alpha]-humulene (3) were isolated
                        from the extract

Polyalthia debilis      Root: methanol/Debilisone B (1),
(Piere) Finet &         Debilisone C (2), Debilisone E (3)

Premna odorata          Leaves: methanol and
Blanco                  dichloromethane/l-heneicosyl
                        formate (1) was isolated from the

Rhoeo spathacea         Leaves: 80% methanol
(Sw.) Stearn

Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.) Fruits and flowers: 90% ethanol

                        Bark and fruits: n-Hexane and ethyl
Rothmannia wittii       acetate/A compound
(Craib) Bremek.         6[beta]-hydroxy-10-0-acetylgenipin
                        (1) was isolated from the extract

Sapium indicum L.       Fruit: hexane/compounds
                        13-acetate (2), sapintoxin A (3),
                        [alpha]-saponine(4), sapintoxin
                        C (5), 12-(2-N-methylaminobenzoyl)-
                        hydroxyphorbol-13-acetate (6)
                        sapintoxin B (7), 12-(2'-N-
                        acetate (8), 12-
                        deoxyphorbaldehyde-13-acetae (9)
                        were isolated from extract

Selaginella plana       Whole plant: 80% methanol
(Desv. ex Poir.)

Sesbania                Fruit: 80% methanol
grandiflora (L.)
Poir.                   Root: methanol/isovestitol (1),
                        medicarpin (2), sativan (3),
                        betulinic acid (4)

Solanum spirale         Fruit: water

Solanum torvum Sw.      Fruit: 80% methanol

Spilanthes acmella      Whole plant: chloroform methanol
(L.) Murray             water

Spondias pinnata        Chloroform, 80% ethanol.
(L.f.) Kurz

Tabernaemontana         Leaves: 80% methanol
coronaria (L.)

Tiliacora triandra      Roots: tiliacorinine (1), 2'-
(Colebr.) Diels         nortiliacorinine (2), tiliacorine
                        (3), 13'-bromo-tiliacorinine (4)
                        were isolated from the extract

Tinospora crispa        Fruits and flowers: 90% ethanol
(L.) Hook. F. &

Trigonostemon           Root: n-hexane, EtOAc,
reidioides (Kurz)       MeOH/Compounds trigonoreidon
Craib                   A (1), trigonoreidon B (2),
                        trigonoreidon C (3), trigonostemon
                        C (7), spruceanol (8),
                        trigonostemone (9), rediocide A
                        (10), rediocide B (11), rediocide C
                        (12), rediocide F (13), rediocide G
                        (14) were isolated from the extract

Uvaria microcarpa       Fruits and flowers: 90% ethanol
Champ, ex Benth.

Uvaria rufa Blume       Fruits and flowers: 90% ethanol

                        Methanol, ethyl acetate, n-butanol
                        Kaempferol (1), quercitrin (2)
                        isolated from methanolic extract of

Uvaria                  Leaves: dichloromethane and
valderramensis          methanol/valderramenols A (1),
Cabuang, Exconde        grandiuvarone (2), andreticuline (3)
& Alejandro             isolated from the extract

Vitex trifolia L.       90% ethanol

                        Fruits and flowers: 90% ethanol

Voacanga globosa        Leaves: dichloromethane and
Merr.                   methane/Globospiramine (1) was
                        isolated from the extract

Zingiber officinale     Rhizome: 80% methanol/6-shogaol
Roscoe                  (1) and 6-gingerol (2) were isolated
                        from the extract

Zingiber zerumbet       Rhizome: chloroform methanol water
(L.) Roscoe ex Sm.

Ziziphus                Root: mauritine M (1) and
mauritiana Lam.         nummularines H (2), all isolated
                        from ethanol extracts

Ziziphus oenoplia       Root: hexane, ethyl acetate and
(L.) Mill.              methanol/Ziziphine N and Q were
                        isolated from the extract

Scientific name                    Activity

Abrus precatorius       The extract exhibited at 500
L.                      [micro]g/ml concentration of
                        90.0% and inhibition against
                        both H37Rv and MDR strain in
                        LRP assay [47].

                        Compound 1 obtained showed
                        anti-TB activity against
                        H37Ra strain with MIC of
                        12.5 [micro]g/ml [48].

Abutilon indicum        All the isolated compounds
(L.) Sweet              (1, 2 and a 1:1 mixture of 3
                        and 4) showed inhibition at
                        MIC of >128 [micro]g/ml [49].

Acanthus                All the chloroform, methanol,
ebracteatus Vahl.       water extract of leaves and
                        stem showed activity against
                        H37Ra strain in MABA at MIC
                        of 1000 [micro]g/ml [50].

Aegle marmelos          The extract was active
(L.) Correa             against H37Rv at MIC 54.88
                        [micro]g/ml [53].

                        The activity against H37Rv
                        strain in MABA was observed
                        at the

                        MIC of 47.8 to >100
                        [micro]g/ml from 90%
                        ethanolic extract [56].

Ageratum                Methanolic extract of whole
conyzoides L.           plant exhibited inhibition
                        against H37Rv at the MIC 1600
                        [micro]g/ml in TEMA [57].

Aglaia                  Compounds 3, 4,7 showed
erythrosperma           anti-LB activity against
Pannell                 H37Ra strain with the MIC of
                        25 [micro]g/ml which is
                        better than compounds 1, 2,
                        6, 8 with the MIC value of
                        50 [micro]g/ml, while
                        compound 5 showed weaker
                        activity (MIC, >200
                        [micro]g/ml) [60].

Allium odorum L.        The extract was active
                        against H37Rv strain at MIC
                        1600 [micro]g/ml [57].

Aloe vera L.            The extract showed activity
                        against H37Rv strain at the
                        MIC of 1600 [micro]g/ml [57].

Alpinia galanga         The crude chloroform,
(L.) Sw.                methanol, water extract of
                        the rhizomes exhibited
                        activity against H37Ra strain
                        at MIC of 0.12,1000, and 1000
                        [micro]g/ml, respectively.
                        The MIC value for the
                        isolated compound (1) was
                        0.024 [micro]g/ml [50].

                        The extract showed inhibition
                        against H37Rv strain at the
                        MIC 1600 [micro]g/ml [57].

Alpinia purpurata       At 100 [micro]g/ml, the
K. Schum.               methanolic extract of leaves
                        showed 90% inhibition against

                        All isolated compounds 1, 2,3
                        showed MIC > 128 /ig/ml [67].

Alpinia zerumbet        At 100 [micro]g/ml, the
(Pers.) B. L.           methanolic extract of
Burtt & R. M. Sm.       rhizomes showed 80%
                        inhibition against H37Rv [67].

Alstonia scholaris      Only 4 exhibited activity at
(L.) R. Brown           MIC of 100 [micro]g/ml,
                        against, while all other
                        compounds like 1, 2, 3, 5,6
                        showed activity with >128
                        [micro]g/ml [69].

Amaranthus              Methanolic extract of whole
tricolor L.             plant exhibited inhibition
                        against H37Rv strain at the
                        MIC 1600 [micro]g/ml in
                        TEMA [57].

Andrographis            At 5 mg/ml the extract
paniculata Nees         exhibited 100.0% inhibition
                        against H37Rv and 93.7%
                        against MDR strain [71].

Angiopteris evecta      The extract exhibited
(J. R. Forst.)          activity against H37Rv strain
Hoffm.                  at the MIC of 400 [micro]g/ml

Anisochilus             1, 2, 3 all showed anti-TB
harmandii Doan ex       activity at MIC, 50
Suddee & A. J.          [micro]g/ml [74].

Annona muricata L.      The extract at concentration
                        of 5 mg/ml showed 82.1%
                        inhibition against H37Rv and
                        50.0% against MDR strain [71].

Annona reticulata       The crude extract exhibited
L.                      activity at the MIC of 49.17
                        [micro]g/ml against H37Rv

Anomianthus dulcis      Compounds (5), (1), (4)
(Dunal) J. Sinclair     demonstrated anti-TB activity
                        against H37Ra using MABA with
                        the MIC values of 100, 200,
                        200 [micro]g/ml, respectively

Artocarpus              Compound 1 and 2 showed
lakoocha Roxb.          anti-TB activity against H37Ra
                        strain with the MICs of 12.5
                        and 50 [micro]g/ml,
                        respectively [79].

Artocarpus rigidus      All the isolated compounds
subsp. Rigidus          showed activity again H37Ra
                        in MABA with compound 4 being
                        the most active compound (MIC
                        6.25 [micro]g/ml). This was
                        followed by compounds 2 and 6
                        (MIC 12.5 [micro]g/ml) and
                        compounds 5,1,3 with the MIC
                        of 25, 50, 100 [micro]g/ml,
                        respectively [81].

Averrhoa bilimbi L.     The methanol extracts of both
                        fruit and leaves exhibited
                        inhibition against H37Rv at
                        the MIC 1600 [micro]g/ml in
                        TEMA [57].

Burleria lupulina       Chloroform, methanol, water
Lindl.                  extract of leaves all
                        exhibited activity against
                        H37Ra strain at the MIC of
                        1000 [micro]g/ml.

                        Chloroform extract of stem
                        exhibited inhibition at MIC of
                        500 [micro]g/ml against H37Ra
                        strain while methanol and
                        water extract showed
                        activities at 1000
                        [micro]g/ml [50].

Blumea balsamifera      At 500 /ig/ml, the extract
                        exhibited 96.0 and 82.0%
DC.                     inhibition against H37Rv and
                        MDR, respectively, in LRP
                        assay [47].

Boesenbergia            Both methanol and water
pandurata (Roxb.)       extracts of rhizome exhibited
Schltr.                 inhibitory activity in MABA
                        against H37Ra strain at the
                        MIC of 62.5 [micro]g/ml, while
                        chloroform extract showed
                        activity at 1000 [micro]g/ml
                        MIC [50].

Camchaya calcarea       Compound 4 was the most active
Kitamura                against H37Ra strain with
                        MIC value of 1.5 [micro]g/ml,
                        followed by compounds 1, 2, 5,
                        7,8 with the same MIC value
                        of 3.1 [micro]g/ml. Compounds
                        3, 9,10 showed less
                        activities with the MIC
                        values of 6.2,50, and 25
                        [micro]g/ml, respectively

Capsicum annum          The extract showed activity
L.                      against H37Rv strain at the
                        MIC of 1600 [micro]g/ml [57].

Casearia                1, 2, 4, 5,6 all exhibited
grewiifolia Vent.       good anti-TB activity against
                        H37Ra strain with MICs of
                        12.5 [micro]g/ml while 3
                        showed moderate activity
                        with MIC of 25/ig/ml [90].

Catharanthus            The extract was active
roseus (L.) G. Don      against H37Rv at MIC 1600
                        [micro]g/ml [57].

Ceiba pentandra         The extract exhibited anti-TB
                        activity against H37Rv strain
(L.) Gaertn.            at the MIC of
                        1600 [micro]g/ml [57].

Centella asiatica       The extract showed activity
(L.) Urb.               against H37Rv strain at the
                        MIC of 1600 [micro]g/ml [57].

                        78.5 and 50.0% inhibition
                        were observed at 5 mg/ml
                        concentration against H37Rv
                        and MDR, respectively [71].

Chisocheton             Compound 4 showed good
penduliflorus           anti-TB activity against
Planch, ex Hiern        H37Ra with the MIC value of
                        25 [micro]g/ml, better than
                        1, 2, 5, 6,7 with the MICs of
                        50 [micro]g/ml, while
                        compound 3 showed weaker
                        activity (MIC, 100
                        [micro]g/ml) [94].

Chromolaena             The compounds isolated
odorata (L.) R. M.      exhibited activities against
King & H. Rob.          H37Ra at different MIC values
                        ([micro]g/ml) 174.8 (1),
                        606.0 (2), 704.2 (3), 699.3
                        (4) [95].

Citrus aurantiifolia    In LRP assay, extract at 500
(Christm.) Swingle      [micro]g/ml showed 98.0%
                        inhibition against H37Rv
                        strain and 36.0% against MDR
                        strain [47].

Citrus microcarpa       The extract exhibited anti-TB
Bunge                   activity against H37Rv strain
                        at the MIC of 1600/ig/ml in
                        TEMA [57].

Clausena excavate       Compounds 1, 4,7, isolated,
Burm. f.                were more active against
                        H37Ra with MIC of 50
                        [micro]g/ml; this is followed
                        by 2, 5, 8,9 with MIC of 100
                        [micro]g/ml, while compounds
                        3 and 6 are with MIC of 200
                        [micro]g/ml [100].

Clausena                Using the green fluorescent
guillauminii            protein microplate assay
Tanaka                  (GFPMA), both 1 and 2
                        exhibited anti-TB activity
                        against H37Ra strain with the
                        same [IC.sub.50] value of
                        25 [micro]g/ml [102].

Clausena                MICs of 83.1 to >100
harmandiana             [micro]g/ml  were observed
(Pierre)                when 90% ethanolic extract of
Guillaumin              fruits and flowers was tested
                        against H37Rv in MABA [56].

Clerodendrum            The extract exhibited anti-TB
indicum (L.)            activity against H37Rv strain
Kuntze                  at the MIC of 1600
                        [micro]g/ml [57].

Clitoria ternatea L.    At MIC = 1600 /ig/ml, the
                        extract showed anti-TB
                        activity against H37Rv strain

Coccinia grandis        In MABA, chloroform, methanol,
                        water extract of leaves all
(L.) Voigt              exhibited activity against
                        H37Ra strain at the MIC of
                        1000 [micro]g/ml [50].

Coleus                  The isolate was active against
atropurpureus L.        H37Rv strain at the MIC of
Benth                   200 [micro]g/ml [108].

Colocasia esculenta     The methanol extract of leaves
(L.) Schott             showed activity against H37Rv
                        strain with the MIC value
                        1600 [micro]g/ml [57].

Combretum               1 exhibited anti/TB activity
griffithii Van          against H37Ra strain with the
Heurck & Mull.          MIC of 3.13 /[micro]g/mL
Arg.                    [110].

                        Compounds 1, 2,3 displayed
                        good activity (MIC, 6.2,12.5,
Cordia globifera W.     1.5 /ig/ml resp.) using MABA
W. Smith                against H37Ra, followed by 5,
                        6,7 (MIC, 12.5 [micro]g/ml)
                        and then 4 with MIC of 25
                        [micro]g/ml [112].

Costus speciosus (J.    The methanol extract of Stem
                        and flowers exhibited anti-TB
Koenig) Sm.             activity against H37Rv strain
                        with the MIC value 800
                        [micro]g/ml [57].

Croton kongensis        Dichloromethane crude extract
Gagnep.                 exhibited activity against
                        H37Ra strain with the MIC
                        value 12.5 [micro]g/ml in
                        MABA. The isolated compounds
                        2 and 3 showed better
                        activity with the MIC value
                        6.25 [micro]g/ml than
                        compound 1 with 25.0
                        [micro]g/ml MIC [115].

                        The activities against H37Ra
                        strain were observed at the
                        MIC of 25-50, >50, 6.25-12.5,
                        12.5-25 [micro]g/ml from
                        ethanol, ethyl acetate,
                        methylene chloride, n-Hexane
                        crude extracts of whole plants
                        and leave using microtiter
                        resazurin assay. Isolated
                        compound 1 exhibited the
                        highest activity with MIC
                        values of 0.78,1.56,
                        3.12-12.5 [micro]g/ml against
                        H37Ra, H37Rv, other resistant
                        strains of M. tb screened.
                        Both compounds 2 and 3
                        exhibited MIC at 1.56
                        [micro]g/ml. Compounds 4, 5,
                        6,7 on the other hand showed
                        MIC value 3.12-6.25 against
                        H37Ra and H37Rv and other
                        resistant strains of M. tb

Curcuma                 Using GFPMA, essential oil
aeruginosa Roxb.        showed weaker anti-TB
                        activity against H37Ra strain
                        with 2500 [micro]g/ml MIC
                        value [118].

Dalbergia               Using GFPMA, compound 1
parviflora Roxb.        exhibited good anti-TB
                        activity against H37Ra strain
                        with the MIC of 12.5 /ig/ml,
                        while compounds 2 and 6
                        showed activity with the MICs
                        of 50 [micro]g/ml [119].

Dasymaschalon           Compound 1 displayed activity
dasymaschalum           against H37Ra strain with the
(Blume) I. M.           MIC value of 50 [micro]g/ml
Turner                  [120].

Dendrolobium            Compound 1 exhibited highest
lanceolatum             activity against H37Ra strain
(Dunn) Schindl.         with MIC of 6.3 [micro]g/ml,
                        followed by 2 (MIC, 12.5
                        [micro]g/ml) and then 3 and 5
                        with MICs of 25 [micro]g/ml

Derris indica L         4,13,14 (6.25,12.5,12.5
                        [micro]g/ml, resp.) showed
                        stronger activity compared to
                        1, 5, 7, 9,10 (25, 50, 50,
                        50, 50 [micro]g/ml resp.) that
                        showed moderate activity,
                        with 3, 8,10,12 (100,100, 200,
                        100 [micro]g/ml resp.) showing
                        weaker activity against H37Ra
                        strain using MABA [122].

Diospyros decandra      1 and 2 exhibited moderate to
Lour.                   weak anti-TB activity against
                        H37Ra strain with MIC of 25
                        and 200 [micro]g/ml,
                        respectively [123].

Diospyros               Compound 2 exhibited good
ehretioides Wall, ex    (MIC = 6.25 [microg/ml)
G. Don                  anti-TB activity against
                        H37Ra, followed by compound 4
                        (MIC = 50 [micro]g/ml).
                        Compounds 1 and 3 showed weak
                        activity (MICs > 200
                        [micro]g/ml) [124].

Diospyros               Diospyrin isolated showed
glandulosa Lace         activity against H37Ra in
                        MABA with the MIC of 6.25
                        [micro]g/ml [125].

Diospyros               Betulinaldehyde exhibited
rhodocalyx Kurz         inhibitory activity in
                        microbroth dilution assay
                        against H37Ra with the MIC of
                        25 [micro]g/ml [125].

Eclipta prostrata       Water, chloroform, methanol
(L.) L.                 extracts of whole plant
                        exhibited inhibition in MABA
                        against H37Ra strain at the
                        MICs of 62.5, 125,1000
                        [micro]g/ml respectively [50].

Eriosema chinense       Crude hexane extract showed
Vogel                   anti-TB activity against
                        H37Ra strain with the MIC
                        value of 50 [micro]g/ml using

                        Compounds 10,11,12,13
                        demonstrated good anti-TB
                        activity against H37Ra strain
                        with the same MIC value of
                        12.5 [micro]g/ml.

                        Compounds 1, 8,9 exhibited
                        moderate activity with the
                        same MIC value of 25
                        [micro]g/ml. Compounds 2 and
                        6 showed activity at
                        MIC values of 50 and 100
                        [micro]g/ml, respectively

Erythrina fusca         Compounds 1, 2, 3,4
Lour.                   demonstrated anti-TB activity
                        against H37Ra with MICs of
                        100, 50, 50, 25 [micro]g/ml,
                        respectively [128].

Erythrina               Compound 1 showed activity
subumbrans Merr.        against H37Ra strain with
                        50 [micro]g/ml MIC value

                        All compounds 1, 2, 3, 4
                        exhibited anti-TB activity
                        against H37Ra with the MICs
                        of 12.5 [micro]g/ml [131].

Etlingera elatior       At 100 [micro]g/ml, the
(Jack) R. M. Sm.        methanolic extract of
                        rhizomes showed 86%
                        inhibition against H37Rv.

                        The isolated compounds 1 and
                        2 exhibited MIC > 128
                        [micro]g/ml [67].

Etlingera pavieana      Compound 1 demonstrated
(Pierre ex Gagnep.)     anti-TB activity with the MIC
R. M. Sm.               value of 50.00 [micro]g/ml

Fernandoa               In microbroth dilution assay,
adenophylla (Wall.      the extract exhibited
Ex G. Don) Steenis      inhibition at MIC of 79.7 to
                        >100 [micro]g/ml [56].

Feroniella lucida       The extract showed inhibition
Swingle                 against H37Rv at MIC value
                        91.54 [micro]g/ml in MABA

                        In MABA, 90% ethanolic
                        extract of fruits and flowers
                        exhibited activity against
                        H37Rv strain with MIC ranging
                        from 90.4 to >100 [micro]g/ml

Ficus carica L.         There was anti-TB activity
                        against H37Rv strain at 1600
                        [micro]g/ml [57].

Flemingia               At MIC = 1600 [micro]g/ml,
strobilifera (L.) W.    the extract showed anti-TB
T. Aiton                activity against H37Rv strain

Friesodielsia           Compound 1 exhibited anti-TB
discolor (Craib) D.     activity against H37Ra strain
Das                     with 6.25 [micro]g/ml MIC
                        value [137].

Garcinia                Compounds isolated showed
mangostana L.           activities against H37Ra in
                        microbroth dilution at
                        different MIC values
                        ([micro]g/ml) 6.25 (1),
                        6.25 (2), 25 (3), 25 (4), 100
                        (5), 6.25 (6), 25 (7), 200
                        (8), 25 (9) 25 (10), 12.5
                        (11), 12.5 (12), 200 (13)

Glycosmis               The 90% ethanol extracts of
pentaphylla (Retz.)     fruits and flowers exhibited
DC.                     activities against H37Rv
                        strain with the MIC of 93.5 to
                        >100 [micro]g/ml in MABA [56].

Goniothalamus           1 showed anti-TB with the MIC
gitingensis Elmer       of 16 [micro]g/ml [141].

Goniothalamus           In microbroth dilution, the
laoticus (Finet &       isolated compound 4 showed the
Gagnep.) Ban            best activity against H37Ra
                        with MIC of 12.5 [micro]g/ml,
                        followed by compounds 2 and 3
                        both with the MIC of 6.25
                        [micro]g/ml, and then
                        compound 1 with 100
                        [micro]g/ml [142].

Gynura divaricata       The essential oil showed
(L.) DC.                inhibitory effect against
                        H37Ra strain with the MIC
                        value of 50 [micro]g/ml [144].

Gynura                  At the MIC of 200 [micro]g/ml,
pseudochina (L.)        chloroform extract of whole
D.C. var. hispida       plant exhibited activity
Thv.                    against H37Ra strain while
                        both methanol and water
                        extracts exhibited activity
                        at 1000 [micro]g/ml MIC,
                        respectively [50].

Haplophragma            In MABA, the MIC of 83.25
adenophyllum            [micro]g/ml was observed
(Wall, ex G. Don)       against H37Rv [53].

Hedychium               Compounds 1 and 7 exhibited
ellipticum              good anti-TB activity against
Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.       H37Ra strain using GFPMA with
                        the MIC value of 12.5 and 6.
                        25 [micro]g/ml, respectively

Heliotropium            The crude extract showed
indicum Linn.           activity against H37Ra strain
                        using MABA with the MIC of
                        20.8 [micro]g/ml [149].

Hibiscus                The extract exhibited anti-TB
rosa-sinensis L.        activity against H37Rv strain
                        at the MIC of 1600
                        [micro]g/ml [57].

Hymenocardia            Squalene displayed anti-TB activity
wallichii Tul           against H37Ra strain with the MIC
                        value of 100 [micro]g/ml

Hyptis suaveolens       Compounds 2, 4, 5 displayed
(L.) Poit.              weak anti-TB activities (MIC
                        100-200 [micro]g/ml) against
                        H37Ra strain using MABA

Jasminum sambac         At MIC = 1600 [micro]g/ml,
(L.) Aiton              the crude extract showed
                        inhibition against H37Rv
                        strain [57].

Jatropha curcas L.      The extract showed in vitro
                        activity against H37Rv strain
                        at the MIC of 1600
                        [micro]g/ml [57].

Jatropha                Caniojane exhibited anti-TB
integerrima Jacq.       activity against H37Ra strain
                        using MABA with 25 [micro]g/ml
                        MIC value [155].

Justicia gendarussa BurmThe extract exhibited anti-TB
                        activity against H37Rv strain
                        at the MIC of 1600/[micro]g/ml

Kaempferia              In LRP assay, the extract at
galangal L.             500 [micro]g/ml exhibited
                        69.0% inhibition against both
                        H37Rv and MDR strain [47].

                        Compounds sandaracopimaradien
                        -1[alpha]-ol and
                        1[alpha]-ol exhibited ant-TB
Kaempferia              activity against H37Ra strain
marginata Carey         with the MIC values of 25 and
                        50 [micro]g/ml, respectively.

                        Compounds 2, 3, 6,
                        2[alpha]-diol were less
                        active (MICs of > 100
                        [micro]g/ml) [159].

Lantana camara L.       At 500 /ig/ml, the extract
                        exhibited 94.0 and 79.0%
                        inhibition against H37Rv and
                        MDR, respectively, in LRP
                        assay [47].

Lepisanthes             In broth microdilution assay,
rubiginosa (Roxb.)      the extract showed inhibition
Leenh.                  against H37Rv strain at 1600
                        [micro]g/ml [57].

Licuala spinosa         In TEMA, the extract showed
Thunb.                  inhibition against H37Rv
                        strain at 1600 [micro]g/ml

Limnophila              Both compounds 1 and 2 showed
geoffrayi Bonati        activities against H37Ra in
                        MABA at the MIC = 200
                        [micro]g/ml [163].

Marsypopetalum          The extract of fruits and
modestum (Pierre)       flowers exhibited activities
B.Xue                   at MIC ranging between 0.05
                        and 11.9 [micro]g/ml in MABA
                        against H37Rv [56].

Micromelum minutum      The activity against H37Rv strain
Wight & Am.             in MABA was observed at the MIC of
                        45.7 to >100 [micro]g/ml from
                        90% ethanolic extract [56].

Momordica               Compound 1 exhibited anti-TB
charantia L.            activity against H37Rv strain
                        MIC value of 14 [micro]g/ml
                        using MABA [166].

Morinda citrifolia      At 100 [micro]g/ml, the crude
Linn.                   extract of ethanol and hexane
                        fractions displayed 89 and
                        95% inhibition, respectively,
                        against H37Rv strain.

                        2:1 mixture of compounds 3
                        and 4 exhibited good activity
                        (MIC = 2 /ig/ml) against
                        H37Rv strain followed by 7
                        (MIC = 2.5 [micro]g/ml) and
                        then 1 and 6 (MICs = 32
                        [micro]g/ml). Compound 2
                        and 5 were less active with
                        MIC values of 64 and 128
                        [micro]g/ml, respectively

Morus alba L.           In broth microdilution assay,
                        the extract showed inhibition
                        against H37Rv strain at 1600
                        [micro]g/ml [57].

Murraya                 Chloroform extract of leaves
                        at the MIC of 250 [micro]g/ml
paniculata (L.) Jack    showed activity against H37Ra
                        strain while both methanol
                        and water extracts exhibited
                        activity at 1000 [micro]g/ml
                        MIC, respectively [50].

Orthosiphon             The hexane, chloroform, ethyl
stamineus Benth.        acetate extracts of leaves
                        exhibited activity with the
                        MICs of 25.00, 3.12, 6.25
                        [micro]g/ml [173].

Passiflora foetida L.   There was inhibition against
                        H37Rv at MIC = 1600
                        [micro]g/ml [57].

Pedilanthus             Compound 1 showed stronger
tithymaloides (L.)      (12.5 [micro]g/ml) activity
Poii.                   compared to 2, 3, 4, and 5
                        (100, 50,100, and 50
                        [micro]g/ml resp.) against
                        H37Ra in MABA [176].

Petiveria alliacea L.   The ethanolic extract of
                        leaves exhibited activity
                        against drug sensitive and
                        resistant strains of H37Rv at
                        the MIC of 1280 [micro]g/ml

                        At 500 [micro]g/ml, the
                        extract exhibited 98.0 and
                        76.0% inhibition
                        against H37Rv and MDR,
                        respectively, in LRP assay

Phyllanthus acidus      The extract exhibited anti-TB
(L.) Skeels             activity against H37Rv strain
                        at the MIC = 1600 [micro]g/ml

Piper betle L.          Chloroform extract of leaves
                        was more active against H37Ra
                        strain with MIC value 62.5
                        [micro]g/ml than the methanol
                        and water extract both with
                        activity at MIC of 1000
                        [micro]g/ml [50].

Piper chaba Hunter      Inhibition against H37Ra
                        strain was observed at MIC
                        ([micro]g/ml) of 16, 25,1000
                        with respect to the
                        chloroform, methanol, water
                        extract of fruit in MABA.
                        Compound 1 isolated exhibited
                        activity at MIC of 50
                        [micro]g/ml [50].

                        Compound 1 exhibited anti-TB
                        activity with the MIC value of
                        12.5 [micro]g/ml against
                        H37Ra strain [184].

Piper nigrum L.         The extract exhibited anti-TB
                        activity against H37Rv strain
                        at the MIC of 1600
                        [micro]g/ml [57].

                        Ethyl acetate, n-hexane,
                        water extract fraction of
                        leaves exhibited inhibition
                        against H37Rv strain using
                        TEMA at the MIC values of 25,
                        50,100 [micro]g/ml,
                        respectively [185].

Piper sarmentosum       At the MIC = 800 [micro]g/ml,
Roxb.                   the extract showed inhibition
                        against H37Rv strain [57].

                        The methanol extract of
                        leaves showed more activity
                        against MTB (MIC 12.5
                        [micro]g/ml) in TEMA than
                        both petroleum ether
                        and Chloroform extracts (MIC
                        25 [micro]g/ml). The ethyl
                        acetate and chloroform
                        fractions of methanol extract
                        exhibited MICs at 3.12
                        [micro]g/ml [188].

                        The aqueous and ethanol
                        extracts of leaves exhibited
                        anti-TB activity MIC/MBC
                        12.5 [micro]g/ml. Methanolic
                        extract was fractionated with
                        ethyl acetate; the fraction
                        of ethyl acetate exhibited
                        anti-TB activity with MIC/MBC
                        3.12 [micro]g/ml [189].

                        Compounds 1 and 11 were more
                        active (MICs = 25 [micro]g/ml)
                        against H37Ra strain followed
                        by 2, 4,5 (MICs = 50
                        [micro]g/ml); then 3 and 8
                        showed weaker activities with
                        the MIC values of
                        100 and 200 [micro]g/ml,
                        respectively [190].

Pistia stratiotes L.    The inhibition against H37Rv
                        was observed at the MIC of
                        1600 [micro]g/ml [57].

Pluchea indica (L.)     In TEMA, the extracts of
                        flowers and leaves showed
Less.                   inhibitory activities against
                        H37Rv strain at the MIC of
                        800 [micro]g/ml each [57].

                        The extract showed 100%
                        inhibition against H37Rv and
                        MDR at 5 mg/ml [71].

Polyalthia              Isolated compounds 1, 2,3
cerasoides (Roxb.)      showed anti-TB activity
Benth. ex Bedd          against H37Ra strain with
                        MICs of 6.25 [micro]g/ml

Polyalthia debilis      Compounds 1, 2, 3 showed
(Piere) Finet &         moderate anti-TB activity
ganep                   against H37Ra strain with MIC
                        values of 25.0,12.5, 25.0
                        [micro]g/ml, respectively

Premna odorata          Crude methanolic extract
Blanco                  showed inhibition against
                        H37Rv strain with >128
                        [micro]g/ml MIC. Compound 1
                        showed good anti-TB activity
                        (8 [micro]g/ml) [196].

Rhoeo spathacea         At 5 mg/ml, the extract
(Sw.) Stearn            exhibited 100% inhibition
                        against H37Rv and MDR [71].

Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.) Fruits and flowers extract
                        were active at MIC ranging
                        between 43.9 and 75.2
                        [micro]g/ml in MABA [56].

                        Compound 1 displayed activity
Rothmannia wittii       against H37Ra using MABA with
(Craib) Bremek.         MIC value of 12.50 [micro]g/ml

Sapium indicum L.       Compound 3 (MIC, 3.12
                        [micro]g/ml) was the most
                        active compound
                        against [H.sub.37]Ra using
                        MABA, followed by 7 (MIC,
                        12.5 [micro]g/ml) and then
                        followed by 5, 8,9 (MIC, 25
                        [micro]g/ml). Compound 1
                        showed moderate activity (MIC,
                        50 [micro]g/ml) while 2, 4,6
                        showed weak activity (200,
                        >200, >200 MIC,/ig/ml,
                        respectively) [199].

Selaginella plana       In in vitro assay, the extract
(Desv. ex Poir.)        showed activity against H37Rv
Hieron.                 at 1600 [micro]g/ml MIC [57],

Sesbania                The extract exhibited
grandiflora (L.)        inhibition against H37Rv
Poir.                   strain at the MIC of 1600
                        [micro]g/ml [57].

                        The methanol crude extract
                        exhibited anti-TB activity
                        against H37Rv with MIC value
                        of 625 [micro]g/ml. Isolated
                        compounds 1-3 exhibited MIC
                        of 50 [micro]g/ml while
                        compound 4 showed activity
                        at MIC of 100 [micro]g/ml

Solanum spirale         Essential oil extracted
Roxb.                   showed anti-TB activity
                        against H37Ra strain with MIC
                        value of 50 [micro]g/ml [203].

Solanum torvum Sw.      There was inhibition at the
                        MIC of 1600 [micro]g/mL
                        against H37Ra strain [57].

Spilanthes acmella      The chloroform, methanol,
(L.) Murray             water extract of whole plant
                        exhibited inhibition in MABA,
                        against H37Ra strain at the
                        MIC of 500,1000,1000
                        [micro]g/ml, respectively

Spondias pinnata        The extracts were active
(L.f.) Kurz             against MDR strain of
                        Lowenstein/Jensen medium with
                        100% inhibition at
                        concentration of 100 mg/ml

Tabernaemontana         At the MIC of 800 [micro]g/
coronaria (L.)          ml, the extract showed
Willd.                  inhibition against H37Rv
                        strain [57].

Tiliacora triandra      Compounds 1, 2, 3,4
(Colebr.) Diels         demonstrated anti/TB activity
                        against MDR/MTB strains with
                        the MIC values ranging from
                        0.7 to 6.2 [micro]g/ml [208].

Tinospora crispa        In microbroth dilution assay,
(L.) Hook. F. &         the extract exhibited
Thomson                 inhibition at MIC of 2.43 to
                        96.2 [micro]g/ml [56].

Trigonostemon           Among the tested compounds, 12
reidioides (Kurz)       and 14 were the two most
Craib                   active compounds against H37Ra
                        strain with the MICs of 3.84
                        [micro]M, followed by 13,
                        with the MIC of 3.91 [micro]M.
                        Compounds 11 and 10 were
                        active and moderately active
                        with the MICs of 7.86 and
                        15.72 [micro]M, respectively.
                        Compounds 1, 2, 3,7,8,9
                        exhibited weak activity with
                        MICs of 183.57,168.71, 88.55,
                        83.79, 72.58, 38.30 [micro]M,
                        respectively [212].

Uvaria microcarpa       The extract showed inhibition
Champ, ex Benth.        at MIC ranging from 43.2 to
                        >100 [micro]g/ml against H37Rv

Uvaria rufa Blume       The activity against H37Rv
                        strain was observed at the MIC
                        ranging from 33.1 to >100 /
                        [micro]g/ml in MABA [56].

                        All three extracts showed
                        inhibition in MIC value >128 /
                        [micro]g/ml in MABA.

                        Mixture of 1 and 2 exhibited
                        activities against H37Rv with
                        MIC of 64 [micro]g/ml using
                        microplate Alamar Blue assay

Uvaria                  Compound 1 showed better
valderramensis          activity (10 /ig/ml) while 2
Cabuang, Exconde        and 3 exhibited lesser
& Alejandro             activity (32 [micro]g/ml)
                        against H37Rv using MABA

Vitex trifolia L.       The extract showed inhibition
                        at MIC value of 8.02
                        [micro]g/ml against H37Rv
                        [53]. In in vitro assays,
                        90% ethanolic
                        fruit and flower extract
                        exhibited activity against
                        H37Rv strain at the MIC
                        ranging from 77.6 to >100 /
                        [micro]g/ml [56].

Voacanga globosa        1 demonstrated potent anti/TB
Merr.                   activity against H37Rv strain
                        as demonstrated in MABA (MIC =
                        4 [micro]g/ml) and low/oxygen
                        recovery assay (MIC = 5.2 /
                        [micro]g/ml) [217].

Zingiber officinale     In TEMA, the extract of
Roscoe                  methanol showed inhibition
                        against H37Rv strain at the
                        MIC of 1600 /ig/ml [57]. At
                        100 [micro]g/ml, the
                        methanolic extract of
                        rhizomes showed 61%
                        inhibition against H37Rv. The
                        isolated compound 2 (MIC 33 /
                        [micro]g/ml) showed more
                        activity than 1 (MIC 64
                        [micro]g/ml) [67].

Zingiber zerumbet       In MABA, the chloroform,
(L.) Roscoe ex Sm.      methanol, water extract of
                        rhizome exhibited inhibition
                        against H37Ra strain at the
                        MIC of 125, 1000,1000 /ig/ml,
                        respectively [50],

Ziziphus                Isolated compounds exhibited
mauritiana Lam.         activities against H37Ra at
                        the MIC 72.8 /ig/ml (1) and
                        4.5 /ig/ml (2) [222],

Ziziphus oenoplia       Ziziphine N and Q showed weak
(L.) Mill.              anti-TB activity against H37Ra
                        strain with the same MIC value
                        of 200 [micro]g/ml [225].

Scientific name              Traditional uses

Abrus precatorius       Bronchitis, cough, TB [18].

Abutilon indicum        Cough and leprosy [49].
(L.) Sweet

Acanthus                Asthma, cough [51, 52].
ebracteatus Vahl.

Aegle marmelos          Cough, respiratory
(L.) Correa             infection, intermittent
                        fever [53-55].

Ageratum                Asthma, pneumonia, fever
conyzoides L.           [58,59].

Aglaia                  Nil.

Allium odorum L.        Asthma, cough [61].

Aloe vera L.            Asthma, bronchitis [62].

Alpinia galanga
(L.) Sw.                TB, bronchitis, pain in
                        chest, whooping cough,
                        asthma, sore throat

Alpinia purpurata
K. Schum.
                        Cough [68],

Alpinia zerumbet        Common cold [68].
(Pers.) B. L.
Burtt & R. M. Sm.

Alstonia scholaris      Fever [69].
(L.) R. Brown

Amaranthus              Cough [70].
tricolor L.

Andrographis            Leprosy, sore throat [72].
paniculata Nees

Angiopteris evecta      Cough, fever [73].
(J. R. Forst.)

Anisochilus             Nil.
harmandii Doan ex
Suddee & A. J.

Annona muricata L.      Asthma, cough [75, 76].

Annona reticulata       Cough, high fever [53, 77].

Anomianthus dulcis      Fever [78].
(Dunal) J. Sinclair

Artocarpus              Sore throat [80].
lakoocha Roxb.

Artocarpus rigidus      Asthma, cough [82].
subsp. Rigidus

Averrhoa bilimbi L.     Whooping cough and fever

Burleria lupulina       Cough, fever [84, 85].

Blumea balsamifera      Cough [86].

Boesenbergia            Cough [87].
pandurata (Roxb.)

Camchaya calcarea       Nil.

Capsicum annum          Cough, anorexia, asthma,
L.                      sore throat [89].

Casearia                Fever [90].
grewiifolia Vent.

Catharanthus            Asthma, TB [91].
roseus (L.) G. Don

Ceiba pentandra         Bronchitis, fever [92].
(L.) Gaertn.

Centella asiatica       TB, leprosy, asthma [93].
(L.) Urb.

Chisocheton             Nil.
Planch, ex Hiern

Chromolaena             Cough [96].
odorata (L.) R. M.
King & H. Rob.

Citrus aurantiifolia    Sore throats, bronchitis,
(Christm.) Swingle      asthma [97, 98].

Citrus microcarpa       Cough [99].

Clausena excavate       TB [101].
Burm. f.

Clausena                Cough [103].

Clausena                Cough [103].

Clerodendrum            Cough, asthma [104].
indicum (L.)

Clitoria ternatea L.    Asthma, leprosy, TB [105].

Coccinia grandis        Asthma, cough, bronchitis
(L.) Voigt

Coleus                  Bronchitis, TB [108],
atropurpureus L.

Colocasia esculenta     Asthma, coughing with
(L.) Schott             sputum [109].

Combretum               Coughing, leprosy [111].
griffithii Van
Heurck & Mull.

Cordia globifera W.     Cough [113].
W. Smith

Costus speciosus (J.    Asthma, bronchitis [114].
Koenig) Sm.

Croton kongensis        Leprosy, weight loss [116].

Curcuma                 Dyspepsia [118].
aeruginosa Roxb.

Dalbergia               Expectorant [119].
parviflora Roxb.

Dasymaschalon           Nil.
(Blume) I. M.

Dendrolobium            Nil.
(Dunn) Schindl.

Derris indica L         Bronchitis and whooping
                        cough [23].

Diospyros decandra      Fever [123].

Diospyros               Nil.
ehretioides Wall, ex
G. Don

Diospyros               Nil.
glandulosa Lace

Diospyros               Nil.
rhodocalyx Kurz

Eclipta prostrata       Asthma andTB [126].
(L.) L.

Eriosema chinense       Nil.

Erythrina fusca         Antibacterial [129].

Erythrina               Cough [131].
subumbrans Merr.

Etlingera elatior       Nil.
(Jack) R. M. Sm.

Etlingera pavieana      Fever and cough [132].
(Pierre ex Gagnep.)
R. M. Sm.

Fernandoa               Skin diseases [133].
adenophylla (Wall.
Ex G. Don) Steenis

Feroniella lucida       Cough, TB [53,134].

Ficus carica L.         Asthma, cough [135].

Flemingia               TB [136].
strobilifera (L.) W.
T. Aiton

Friesodielsia           Nil.
discolor (Craib) D.

Garcinia                Fever [139].
mangostana L.

Glycosmis               Cough [140].
pentaphylla (Retz.)

Goniothalamus           Nil.
gitingensis Elmer

Goniothalamus           Cold [143].
laoticus (Finet &
Gagnep.) Ban

Gynura divaricata       Bronchitis and pulmonary
(L.) DC.                TB [144].

Gynura                  Asthma, fever, AIDS
pseudochina (L.)        [145,146].
D.C. var. hispida

Haplophragma            Cough [53].
(Wall, ex G. Don)

Hedychium               Bronchitis [148].
Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.

Heliotropium            Asthma [149].
indicum Linn.

Hibiscus                Cough, leprosy, bronchial
rosa-sinensis L.        catarrh [150].

Hymenocardia            Nil.
wallichii Tul

Hyptis suaveolens       Fever and respiratory tract
(L.) Poit.              infections [152].

Jasminum sambac         Cough, Leprosy [153].
(L.) Aiton

Jatropha curcas L.      Leprosy [154].

Jatropha                Styptic [156].
integerrima Jacq.

Justicia gendarussa    Respiratory disorders [157].
Burm. F.

Kaempferia              Asthma, cough [158].
galangal L.

Kaempferia              Fever [159],
marginata Carey

Lantana camara L.       TB, leprosy, asthma

Lepisanthes             TB [162].
rubiginosa (Roxb.)

Licuala spinosa         TB [57].

Limnophila              Expectorant [164].
geoffrayi Bonati

Marsypopetalum          Nil.
modestum (Pierre)

Micromelum minutum      Cough, fever [165].
Wight & Am.

Momordica               Leprosy [167].
charantia L.

Morinda citrifolia      Respiratory infection
Linn.                   [168].

Morus alba L.           Cough [169].

Murraya                 Cough, asthma, expectorant
paniculata (L.) Jack   [170-172].

Orthosiphon             Loss of weigh [174].
stamineus Benth.

Passiflora foetida L.   Cough [175].

Pedilanthus             Nil.
tithymaloides (L.)

Petiveria alliacea L.   Antibacterial [178].

Phyllanthus acidus      Cough [179].
(L.) Skeels

Piper betle L.          Asthma, leprosy cough,
                        dyspnea, bronchitis

Piper chaba Hunter      Asthma [183].

Piper nigrum L.         Asthma, bronchitis, TB,
                        sore throat [185,186].

Piper sarmentosum       Cough [187].

Pistia stratiotes L.    Leprosy, TB [191].

Pluchea indica (L.)     TB [192].

Polyalthia              Fever [193].
cerasoides (Roxb.)
Benth. ex Bedd

Polyalthia debilis      TB [195].
(Piere) Finet &

Premna odorata          TB [196].

Rhoeo spathacea         TB, asthma [197].
(Sw.) Stearn

Rollinia mucosa         Nil.
(Jacq.) Baill.
                        Fever [198].
Rothmannia wittii
(Craib) Bremek.

Sapium indicum L.       Fever [200].

Selaginella plana       Coughing and asthma [57].
(Desv. ex Poir.)

Sesbania                Sore throat [201].
grandiflora (L.)

Solanum spirale         Fevers and colds [203].

Solanum torvum Sw.      Cough [204].

Spilanthes acmella      TB, cough, sore throats
(L.) Murray             [205,206].

Spondias pinnata        Chronic cough [207].
(L.f.) Kurz

Tabernaemontana         TB [57].
coronaria (L.)

Tiliacora triandra      Fever [209].
(Colebr.) Diels

Tinospora crispa        Coughs, asthma leprosy
(L.) Hook. F. &         [210, 211].

Trigonostemon           Asthma [212].
reidioides (Kurz)

Uvaria microcarpa       Nil.
Champ, ex Benth.

Uvaria rufa Blume       TB [213].

Cabuang, Exconde
& Alejandro

Vitex trifolia L.       Asthma, cough [53, 216].

Voacanga globosa        TB [218].

Zingiber officinale     Cough, asthma [219].

Zingiber zerumbet       Leprosy, cough, asthma,
(L.) Roscoe ex Sm.      chest pain, loss of appetite
                        [220, 221],

Ziziphus                Asthma, bronchitis
mauritiana Lam.         [223,224].

Ziziphus oenoplia       Asthma, fever [226].
(L.) Mill.
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Author:Sanusi, Shuaibu Babaji; Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly Abu; Mohamed, Maryati; Sabran, Siti Fatimah; Mainasara,
Publication:Evidence - Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Date:Jan 1, 2017
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