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Soundscape history and environmental law in the Supreme Court.

A. The Critical Ear

While oral argument sound recordings are experientially rich, much of their content and format aligns with the merits briefs. (239) Similarly, the opinion announcement recordings customarily offer mere summaries of a case's outcome. (240) Only the Court's written decisions have primacy in expressing the law of the case. (241) Reading the Court's opinions is thereby economical and instructive in ways that studying of briefs, transcripts, or audio recordings can never approach. On the other hand, all of these types of extra-decisional resources impart concrete lessons on environmental litigation, including lessons that need not hinge on a case's outcome or significance. (242) Moot court participants often use fictional fact patterns and precedent, yet they engage in fruitful learning exercises. (243) Thus, the obscure oral arguments from a largely irrelevant case may, in a sense, be more edifying and worthwhile than the written opinion.

Insofar as the sound recordings might be examined for what they teach of environmental law's substance, they share flaws that have also been ascribed to the Court's written decisional history. Professor Dan Farber, reflecting on the Supreme Court's "basic irrelevance" to environmental law, once observed that the environmental docket has markings of "hyperactive passivity," aside from an array of significant decisions rendered in the 1970s. (244) He concluded that the Court "has often chosen to hear cases involving insignificant issues or peculiar facts, which therefore have little precedential value." (245) In the nearly twenty years since Professor Farber made these observations, the Court has added significantly to its corpus of environmental decisions. However, many of his points remain valid, including the observation that the Court, by its institutional importance, "cannot avoid issuing significant opinions from time to time." (246) In recent years, the Court has opted to hear a greater number of cases in vital areas of environmental law, even as it still generally resolves the merits, where necessary, on narrow and technical grounds.

While many of the cases in Appendix B may be of specialized interest, concededly few have broad or enduring legal significance to be of general interest. Indeed, some of them stand only as obscure artifacts of environmental legal history. Moreover, neither the soundscape nor the Court's written decisions can be trusted to capture the entirety of a dispute's history or its final resolution. The Court's docket can only be engaged with cautious appreciation for case aftermaths. Clean Air Act cases such as Hancock v. Train, (247) Adamo Wrecking Co. v. United States (248) and General Motors Corp. v. United States (249) for example, were each legislatively overruled. (250) Similarly, Environmental Protection Agency v California State Water Resources Control Board (251) was legislatively overruled by the 1977 Amendments to the Clean Water Act. (252) The snail darter's saga continued after TV A v. Hill with legislative amendments to the Endangered Species Act and other travails. (253) Examples are legion. (254) From administrative law cases made obsolete by subsequent rulemakings, (255) to an environmental case holding that was overturned by a subsequent decision of the Court in a non environmental case, (256) the environmental docket, sound recordings included, cannot reliably teach environmental law's substance so much as it teaches its flux and dynamism.

B. The Greatest Oral Arguments in Environmental Law

The best oral arguments are also characteristically dynamic. All else being equal, with limited listening time, it would be logical and most rewarding to focus on: 1) arguments where particularly skillful advocates face challenging questions and other pressures from the bench (i.e., skills display cases) (257); 2) arguments followed by opinions of enduring significance, where hearing the arguments would enrich one's reading of the opinion and overall understanding of the case (i.e., canonical cases) (258); and 3) multiple arguments with common areas of focus, as defined by the listener's playlist of interest. Scholars and practitioners in specialty areas--and aspirants to specialization--might listen to cases organized by procedural footing, such as citizen suit cases; by environmental statute, such as NEPA cases; or even by burden or amenity designations, such as air pollution cases. (259)

Two already mentioned, overarching trends in the environmental docket are relevant here. First, the 1970s had a greater concentration of leading, historically interesting cases. (260) Second, oral arguments in recent years have become a greater spectacle, and recordings of those arguments may better convey contemporary advocacy pressures and lessons. (261)

Identifying those cases of particular legal or historic significance could also be its own parlor game were it not for several past studies to measure the consensus of practitioners and scholars. In 2009, Professors James Salzman and J.B. Ruhl polled academics and practitioners for their views on the "most important" cases in environmental jurisprudence, including but not limited to the case law of the Supreme Court. (262) This followed an earlier study Professor Salzman conducted in 2001. (263) Comparing the results of the two studies, Salzman and Ruhl found that, while validating certain mainstays, there is a small bias toward recent cases of prominence. (264) The leading cases consensus includes golden age classics such as TVA v. Hill and Sierra Club v Morton, and administrative law classics such as Chevron, U.S.A., Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Counsel, Inc., and Citizens to Preserve Overton Park v. Volpe. (265) Two newer cases, Rapanos v. US. Army Corps of Engineers and Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency, have measurably attained blockbuster status across all demographics and practice fields. (266) Of course, at the margins, biodiversity conservation lawyers and land use lawyers might characteristically think higher of cases in their own specialty areas. Beyond this, it can be rewarding to not follow the crowd. (267) While status as a leading case may correlate with the interestingness of oral arguments and their perceived value, this correlation is not perfect. (268)

For example, Chevron, despite its unquestioned status as a seminal case, did not make the Supreme Court Historical Society Ad Hoc Committee's list of "Significant Oral Arguments" from 1955-1993. (269) cases selected by the Committee from the Burger Court era, nine are environmental cases. (270) Of 121 cases that the committee selected from the first seven years of the Rehnquist Court, six are environmental cases. (271) These cases were picked as "important cases, but also examples of effective appellate advocacy," and these selection rates suggest that every year or two an environmental case is worthy of this degree of acclaim. (272) Now, with additional decades added to the docket and the digital proliferation of the Court's audio recordings, any person can make a playlist, listen, and form his or her own appraisal. (273) If one's interests lie in hearing arguments by the current leading lights of the Supreme Court Bar, one need not search far to hear them arguing environmental cases. (274)

V. CONCLUSION

As compared to Supreme Court transcripts, the Court's sound recordings are superior historical source materials. They are experientially rich, uniquely immersive, and allow listeners to experience the drama of the Court's open proceedings. They are also information rich. Many of the touchstones of effective advocacy--timing, tone, and smoothness of delivery--are inevitably lost in transcription.

Echoing back to 1955, this trove of archival materials also captures the institution's historic engagement, though law, with the physical and social dimensions of the nation outside its marble confines. The subset of recordings that reverberate from the Court's environmental docket are no less an opportunity to be audience to the dramatic action between Justices and advocates. While they are not particularly or perfectly instructive on environmental law's substance, they give resounding lessons on the practice and history of environmental litigation. Collectively, these recordings give voice to the dynamics, the limitations, and, ultimately, the humanity of the Court when hearing disputes over earth resources and human impacts.

APPENDIX A.
A Chronology of Key Participants

                                               Solicitor
Term and Chief              Associate           General        ENRD
Justice (275)            Justices (276)          (277)      AAG (278)

1955    Warren       Clark, Burton,                         Perry W.
1956    (Oct. '53,   Frankfurter, Douglas,     J. Lee       Morton
        replacing    Black, Minton (end Oct.   Rankin       ('53-'61)
1957    Vinson--     '56), Reed (end Feb.      (Aug. '56-
        deceased     '57), Harlan (start       Jan. '61)
        Sept. '53)   Mar. '55), Brennan
                     (start Oct. '56),
                     Whittaker (start Mar.
                     '57)

1958                 Stewart (Oct. '58,
1959                 replacing Burton--
1960                 retired, Oct. '58),
1961                 Whittaker, Harlan,        Archibald
                     Clark, Frankfurter,       Cox (Jan.
                     Douglas, Brennan, Black   61-July
                                               '65)
1962                 Goldberg (Oct. '62,                    Ramsey
1963                 replacing Frankfurter),                Clark
1964                 White (Apr. '62,                       ('61-'65)
                     replacing Whittaker--
                     retired, Mar. '62),
                     Harlan, Clark, Stewart,
                     Douglas, Brennan, Black

1965                 Fortas (Oct. '65,         Thurgood     Edwin
1966                 replacing Goldberg--      Marshall     Weisl, Jr.
                     resigned July '65),       (Aug.        ('65-'67)
                     White, Harlan, Clark,     '65-Aug.
                     Stewart, Douglas,         '67)
                     Brennan, Black

1967                 Marshall (Oct. '67,       Erwin        Clyde
1968                 replacing Clark--         Griswold     Martz
                     retired June '67),        (Oct. '67-   ('67-'69)
                     Fortas, White, Harlan,    June '73)
                     Stewart, Douglas,
                     Brennan, Black

1969    Burger       Black, Douglas, Harlan,                Shiro
        (June '69,   Brennan, Stewart,                      Kashiwa
        replacing    White, Marshall, vacant                ('69-'72)
        Warren--     (Fortas--resigned May
        retired      '69)
        June '69)
1970                 Blackmun (June '70,
                     filling Fortas
                     vacancy), Black,
                     Douglas, Harlan,
                     Brennan, Stewart,
                     White, Marshall

1971                 Rehnquist (Jan. '72,
1972                 replacing                              Kent
                     Harlan--retired Sept.                  Frizell
                     '71), Powell (Jan.                     ('72-'73)
                     '72, replacing
1973                 Black--retired Sept.      Robert       Wallace
1974                 '71), Douglas,            Bork         Johnson
                     Brennan, Stewart,         (June '73-   ('73-'75)
                     White, Marshall,          Jan. '77)
                     Blackmun

1975                 Stevens (Dec. '75,                     Peter
1976                 replacing                              Taft
                     Douglas--retired Nov.                  ('75-'77)
                     '75), Rehnquist,
1977                 Powell, Brennan,          Wade         James
1978                 Stewart, White,           McCree       Moorman
1979                 Marshall, Blackmun        (Mar. '77-   ('77-'81)
1980                                           Aug. '81)

1981                 O'Connor (Sept. '81,      Rex Lee      Carol
1982                 replacing Stewart--       (Aug. '81-   Dinkins
                     retired June '81),        June '85)    ('81-'83)
                     Rehnquist, Powell,
1983                 Brennan, Stevens,                      F. Henry
1984                 White, Marshall,                       "Hank"
1985                 Blackmun                  Charles      Habicht, II
                                               Fried        ('83-'87)
1986    Rehnquist    Scalia (Sept. '86,        (Oct. '85-
        (elevated    succeeding to Associate   Jan. '89)
        Sept. '86,   Justice position
        replacing    vacated by Rehnquist),
        Burger--     O'Connor, Powell,
        retired      Blackmun, Stevens,
        Sept. '86)   White, Brennan,
                     Marshall

1987                 Kennedy (Feb. '88,
1988                 succeeding                             Roger
                     Powell--retired June                   Marzulla
                     '87), O'Connor,                        ('88-'89)
                     Scalia, Blackmun,
1989                 Stevens, White,           Kenneth      Richard B.
                     Brennan, Marshall         Starr        Stewart
                                               (May '89-    ('89-'91)
1990                 Souter (Oct. '90,         Jan. '93)
                     succeeding Brennan--
                     retired July '90),
                     O'Connor, Scalia,
                     Blackmun, Stevens,
                     White, Kennedy,
                     Marshall

1991                 Thomas (Oct. '91,
1992                 succeeding Marshall--                  Vacant
                     retired Oct. '91),                     ('92)
                     O'Connor, Scalia,
                     Blackmun, Stevens,
                     White, Kennedy, Souter

1993                 Ginsburg (Aug. '93,       Drew         Lois
                     succeeding White--        Days, III    Schiffer
                     retired June '93),        (May '93-    ('93-'01)
                     O'Connor, Scalia,         July '96)
                     Blackmun, Stevens,
                     Thomas, Kennedy, Souter

1994                 Breyer (Aug. '94,
1995                 succeeding Blackmun--
1996                 retired Aug. '94),        Walter
                     O'Connor, Scalia,         Dellinger,
                     Thomas, Stevens,          III,
                     Ginsburg, Kennedy,        acting
                     Souter                    (Aug. '96-
                                               Oct. '97)

1997                                           Seth
1998                                           Waxman
1999                                           (Nov. '97-
                                               Jan. '01)

2000                                           Barbara
                                               Underwo
                                               od, acting
                                               (Jan.-
                                               June '01)

2001                                           Theodore     Thomas L.
2002                                           Olson        Sansonetti
2003                                           (June '01-   ('01-'05)
                                               July '04)

2004                                           Paul
2005    Roberts      Alito (Jan. '06,          Clement      Sue Ellen
2006    (Sept.       replacing O'Connor--      (acting      Wooldridg
        '05,         retired Jan. '06),        June '04-    e ('05-'07)
        replacing    Thomas, Scalia, Breyer,   June '05;
2007    Rehnquist    Ginsburg, Souter,         June '05-    Ronald
        --           Kennedy, Stevens          June '08)    Tenpas
        deceased                                            ('07-'09)
        Sept. '05)

2008                                           Gregory
                                               Garre
                                               (acting
                                               June '08-
                                               Oct. '08;
                                               Oct. '08-
                                               Jan. '09)

2009                 Sotomayor (Aug. '09,      Elena        Ignacia S.
                     succeeding                Kagan        Moreno
                     Souter--retired June      (March       ('09-'13)
                     '09),Thomas, Scalia,      '09-Aug.
                     Breyer, Ginsburg,         10)
                     Alito, Kennedy, Stevens

2010                 Kagan (Aug. '10,          Neal
                     succeeding Stevens--      Katyal,
                     retired June '10),        acting
                     Thomas, Scalia, Breyer,   (May '10-
                     Ginsburg, Alito,          June 'll)
                     Kennedy, Sotomayor
2011                                           Donald
2012                                           Verrilli,
2013                                           Jr. (June
2014                                           '11-         John
2015                                           present)     Cruden
                                                            ('14-
                                                            present)

APPENDIX B.

A Table of Oral Arguments in Environmental and Natural Resource
Cases Before the U.S. Supreme Court, 1955-2015

Date of                Case               Arguing       Environmental
Argument                                 Cause for      Amenity, Risk,
                                          the U.S.       or Burden at
                                                        Issue

              (* Argued multiple       Amicus           (([double
              days/reargued)           curiae cases     dagger])
              ([counjuntion]           in italics       Indian Law)
              Original Action)                          (([section])
                                                        Interstate
                                                        Dispute)

12/6/1950     United States v.         Leonard Sand     Fisheries
              Howard, 352 U.S. 212
              (1957)

1/23/1957     United States v. Union   SG J. Lee        Mineral Rights
              Pac. R.R. Co., 353       Rankin
              U.S, 112 (1957)

12/7/1959     Fed. Power Comm'n v.     SG J. Lee        ([double
              Tuscarora Indian         Rankin           dagger]) Land
              Nation, 362 U.S. 99                       Rights; Hydro
              (1960)                                    Power

1/12/1960     United States v.         SG J. Lee        Water
              Republic Steel Corp.,    Rankin           Pollution
              362 U.S. 482 (1960)

2/29/1960     Huron Portland Cement                     Air Pollution
              Co. v. Detroit, 362
              U.S. 440 (1960)

11/10/1960    United States v. Va.     Perry Morton,    Taking
              Elec. Co., 365 U.S.      ENRD AAG         Riparian Land
              624 (1961)

11/15/1961    Fed. Power Comm'n v.     SG J. Lee        Air Pollution
              Transcon. Gas Corp.,     Rankin
              365 U.S. 1 (1961)

12/10/1962    Best v. Humboldt         Roger            Mineral Rights
              Placer Mining Co., 371   Marquis
              U.S. 334 (1963)

1/7/1963      Dugan v. Rank, 372       SG Archibald     Water Rights
              U.S. 609 (1963)          Cox

1/8/1963      Arizona v. California,   SG Archibald     Water Rights
              373 U.S. 546 (1963) *    Cox
              [conjunction]

2/25/1963     Boesche v. Udall, 373    SG Archibald     Public Lands
              U.S. 472 (1963)          Cox

4/15/1963     Hawaii v. Gordon, 373    Wayne            Hawaiian
              U.S. 57(1963)            Barnett          Lands
              [conjunction]

11/16/1965    Louisiana v.                              ([section])
              Mississippi, 384 U.S.                     River Boundary
              24 (1966)
              [conjunction]

1/25/1966     United States v.         Nathan Lewin     Water
              Standard Oil Corp.,                       Pollution
              384 U.S. 224 (1966)

4/11/1967     Udall v. Fed. Power      Louis            Dam
              Comm'n, 387 U.S. 428     Claiborne        Construction
              (1967) *

10/16/1967    Wyandotte Transp. Co.    Alan S.          Water
              v. United States, 389    Rosenthal        Pollution
              U.S. 191 (1967) *

10/18/1967    United States v.         Robert S.        Taking
              Rands, 389 U.S. 121      Rifkind          Riparian Land
              (1967)

1/15/1968     Peoria Tribe v. United   Robert S.        ([double
              States, 390 U.S. 468     Rifkind          dagger]) Land
              (1968)                                    Rights

1/22/1968     Menominee Tribe v.       Louis            ([double
              United States, 391       Claiborne        dagger])
              U.S. 404 (1968) *                         Hunting &
                                                        Fishing Rights

3/25/1968     Puyallup Tribe v.        John S.          ([double
              Dep't of Game of Wash,   Martin, Jr.      dagger])
              391 U.S. 392 (1968) *                     Fishing Rights

3/28/1968     United States v.         Frank J.         Mineral Rights
              Coleman, 390 U.S. 599    Berry
              (1968)

10/22/1969    Choctaw Nation v.        Louis            ([double
              Oklahoma, 397 U.S. 620   Claiborne        dagger])
              (1970) *                                  Riverbed
                                                        Ownership

1/19/1970     Arkansas v. Tennessee,                    ([section])
              397 U.S. 88 (1970)                        River Boundary
              [conjunction]

10/22/1970    Hickel v. Oil Shale      Peter L.         Minerals
              Corp, 400 U.S. 48        Strauss          Rights
              (1970) *

1/11/1971     Citizens to Pres.        SG Erwin         Freeway
              Overton Park, Inc. v.    Griswold         Construction
              Volpe, 401 U.S. 402
              (1972)

1/18/1971     Ohio v. Wyandotte        Peter Strauss    Water
              Chems. Corp, 401 U.S.                     Pollution
              493 (1973)
              [conjunction]

3/1/1971      United States v. S.      Lawrence         ([double
              Ute Tribe or Band of     Wallace          dagger]) Land
              Indians, 402 U.S. 159                     Ownership
              (1971)

3/2/1971      United States v. Dist.   Walter           Water Rights
              Court of Eagle Cty,      Kiechel, Jr,
              401 U.S. 520 (1971)      ENRD AAG

3/2/1971      United States v. Dist.   Walter           Water Rights
              Court of Water Div.      Kiechel, Jr,
              No. 5, 401 U.S. 527      ENRD AAG
              (1971)

1/26/1971     United States v. Int'l   John F.          Hazmat-
              Minerals & Chem. Corp,   Dienelt          Transport
              402 U.S. 558 (1971)

1/20/1971     Utah v. United States,   Peter Strauss    Submerged
              403 U.S. 9 (1971)                         Lands
              [conjunction]                             Ownership

11/17/1971    Sierra Club v. Morton,   SG Erwin         Conservation
              405 U.S. 727 (1972)      Griswold         from
              Washington v. Gen.                        Development
2/28/1972     Motors Corp., 406 U.S.                    Air Pollution
              109 (1972) *
              [conjunction]

2/29/1972     Illinois v. Milwaukee,                    Water
              406 U.S. 91 (1972)                        Pollution
              [conjunction]

3/29/1972     Nebraska v. Iowa, 406                     ([section])
              U.S. 117 (1972)                           River Boundary
              [conjunction]

10/18/1972    Almota Farmers           Kent Frizzell,   Eminent
              Elevator & Warehouse     ENRD AAG         Domain
              Co. v. United States,
              409 U.S. 470 (1973)

10/18/1972    United States v.         Harry Sachse     Public Lands
              Fuller, 409 U.S. 488
              (1973)

11/9/1972     U.S. Envtl. Prot.        Roger            Nuclear
              Agency v. Mink, 410      Cramton,         Materials
              U.S. 73 (1973)           OLCAAG

11/14/1972    Askew v. Am. Waterways                    Oil Spills
              Operators, Inc., 411
              U.S. 325 (1973)

12/11/1972    Texas v. Louisiana,                       ([section])
              410 U.S. 702 (1973)                       Water Boundary
              [conjunction]

1/8/1973      Salyer Land Co. v.                        Water Rights
              Tulare Lake Basin
              Water Storage Dist.,
              410 U.S. 719 (1973)

1/8/1973      Associated Enters.,                       Water Rights
              Inc. v. Toltec
              Watershed Improvement
              Dist., 410 U.S. 743
              (1973)

1/10/1973     Ohio v. Kentucky, 410                     ([section])
              U.S. 641 (1973)                           River
              [conjunction]                             Boundary

1/15/1973     United States v.         Wm.              Mineral Rights
              Little Lake Misere       Bradford
              Land Co., 412 U.S. 580   Reynolds
              (1973) *

2/20/1973     Burbank v. Lockheed      Daniel           Aircraft Noise
              Air Terminal, Inc.,      Friedman         Control
              411 U.S. 624 (1973)

2/28/1973     United States v.         SG Erwin         Recycling of
              Students Challenging     Griswold         Materials
              Regulatory Agency
              Procedures (SCRAP),
              412 U.S. 669 (1973)

3/27/1973     United States v. Pa.     Wm.              Water
              Indus. Chem. Corp.,      Bradford         Pollution
              411 U.S. 655 (1973)      Reynolds

3/27/1973     Mattz v. Amett, 412      Harry Sachse     ([double
              U.S. 481 (1973) *                         dagger])
                                                        Fishing Rights

4/18/1973     Fri v. Sierra Club,      Lawrence         Air Pollution
              412 U.S. 541(1973)       Wallace

10/10/1973    Dep't of Game v.         Harry Sachse     ([double
              Puyallup Tribe, 414                       dagger])
              U.S. 44 (1973)                            Fishing Rights

10/15/1973    Bonelli Cattle Co. v.                     Riverbed
              Arizona, 414 U.S. 313                     Ownership
              (1973)

12/5/1973     Mississippi v.                            ([section])
              Arkansas, 415 U.S. 289                    River Boundary
              (1974) [conjunction]

2/19/1974     Vill. of Belle Terre                      Land Use
              v. Boraas, 416 U.S. 1                     Restriction
              (1974) *

4/25/1974     Air Pollution Variance   Edmund           Air Pollution
              Bd. v. W. Alfalfa        Kitch
              Corp., 416 U.S. 861
              (1974)

11/12/1974    Train v. Campaign        SG Robert        Water
              Clean Water, Inc., 420   Bork             Pollution
              U.S. 136 (1975)

11/12/1974    Train v. New York, 420   SG Robert        Water
              U.S. 35 (1975)           Bork             Pollution

12/16/1974    Antoine v. Washington,                    ([double
              420 U.S. 194 (1975)                       dagger])
                                                        Hunting Rights

12/17/1974    Utah v. United States,   Danny J.         Submerged
              420 U.S. 304 (1975)      Boggs            Lands
              [conjunction]                             Ownership

1/13/1975     Chemehuevi Tribe of      Lawrence         Power Plant
              Indians v. Fed. Power    Wallace          Water
              Comm'n, 420 U.S. 395                      Consumption
              (1975)

1/15/1975     Train v. Natural Res.    Gerald P.        Air Pollution
              Def. Council (NRDC),     Norton
              421 U.S. 60 (1975)

1/22/1975     Alyeska Pipeline Serv.                    Pipeline
              Co. v. Wilderness                         Construction
              Soc'y, 421 U.S. 240
              (1975)

2/24/1975     United States v.         SG Robert        Submerged
              Maine, 420 U.S. 515      Bork             Lands
              (1975) * [conjunction]                    Ownership

2/24/1975     United States v.         Louis            Submerged
              Louisiana, 420 U.S.      Claiborne        Lands
              529 (1975)                                Ownership
              [conjunction]

2/25/1975     United States v.         Keith Jones      Submerged
              Florida, 420 U.S. 531                     Lands
              (1975) [conjunction]                      Ownership

3/26/1975     Aberdeen & Rockfish      A. Raymond       Recycling of
              R.R. Co. v. SCRAP, 422   Randolph         Materials
              U.S. 289 (1975)

4/16/1975     United States v.         A. Raymond       Submerged
              Alaska, 422 U.S. 184     Randolph         Lands
              (1975)                                    Ownership

10/14/1975    Alamo Land & Cattle                       Granted Lands
              Co. v. Arizona, 424                       Ownership
              U.S. 295 (1976) *

12/9/1975     Train v. Colo. Pub.      A. Raymond       Nuclear
              Interest Research        Randolph         Materials;
              Grp., 426 U.S. 1                          Water
              (1976)                                    Pollution

1/13/1976     Hancock v. Train, 426    SG (acting)      Air Pollution
              U.S. 167 (1976)          Daniel
                                       Friedman

1/13/1976     U.S. Envtl. Prot.        SG (acting)      Water
              Agency v. Cal. exrel.    Daniel           Pollution
              State Water Res.         Friedman
              Control Bd., 426 U.S.
              200 (1976)

1/19/1976     Texas v. Louisiana,      John Rupp        ([section])
              426 U.S. 465 (1976)                       Marine
              [conjunction]                             Boundary

1/12/1976     Cappaert v. United       A. Raymond       Species
              States, 426 U.S. 128     Randolph         Protection;
              (1976)                                    Water Rights

1/21/1976     Union Elec. Co. v.       Peter R. Taft,   Air Pollution
              U.S. Envtl. Prot.        ENRD AAG
              Agency, 427 U.S. 246
              (1976)

3/23/1976     Kleppe v. New Mexico,    A. Raymond       Species
              426 U.S. 529 (1976)      Randolph         Protection;
                                                        Public Lands

3/29/1976     N. Cheyenne Tribe v.                      ([double
              Hollowbreast, 425 U.S.                    dagger])
              649 (1976)                                Mineral Rights

4/19/1976     New Hampshire v.                          ([section])
              Maine, 426 U.S. 363                       Marine
              (1976) [conjunction]                      Boundary

4/27/1976     Flint Ridge Dev. Co.     Howard           Impacts of
              v. Scenic Rivers Ass'n   Shapiro          Development
              of Okla., 426 U.S. 776
              (1976)

4/28/1976     Kleppe v. Sierra Club,   A. Raymond       Impacts of
              427 U.S. 390 (1976)      Randolph         Minerals
                                                        Extraction

10/4/1976     Oregon ex rel. State                      Riverbed
              Land Bd. v. Corvallis                     Ownership
              Sand & Gravel Co., 429
              U.S. 363 (1977)

11/3/1976     Philadelphia v. New                       Waste Disposal
              Jersey, 430 U.S. 141
              (1977)

12/8/1976     E.I. duPont de Nemours   Daniel M.        Water
              & Co. v. Train, 430      Friedman         Pollution
              U.S. 112 (1977)

1/12/1977     U.S. Envtl. Prot.        A. Raymond       Air Pollution
              Agency v. Brown, 431     Randolph
              U.S. 99 (1977)

1/17/1977     Douglas v. Seacoast                       Fishing Rights
              Prods., Inc., 431 U.S.
              265 (1977)

10/5/1977     Baldwin v. Fish & Game                    Hunting Rights
              Comm'n of Mont., 436
              U.S. 371 (1978)

10/11/1977    Adamo Wrecking Co. v.    Frank            Air Pollution
              United States, 434       Easterbrook
              U.S. 275 (1978)

10/31/1977    Ray v. Atl. Richfield                     Oil Spills
              Co., 435 U.S. 151
              (1978)

3/20/1978     Duke Power Co. v.        SG Wade          Nuclear Energy
              Carolina Envtl. Study    McCree
              Grp., Inc., 438 U.S.
              59 (1978)

3/27/1978     Philadelphia v. New                       Waste Disposal
              Jersey, 437 U.S. 617
              (1978)

3/28/1978     California v. United     Stephen          Water Rights
              States, 438 U.S. 645     Barnett
              (1978)

4/17/1978     Penn Cent. Transp. Co.   Patricia Wald    Historic
              v. New York City, 438                     Preservation
              U.S. 104 (1978)

4/18/1978     Andrus v. Charlestone    Sara Sun         Mineral Rights
              Stone Prods. Co., 436    Beale
              U.S. 604 (1978)

4/18/1978     Term. Valley Auth. v.    Griffin Bell,    Species
              Hill, 437 U.S. 153       Attorney         Protection
              (1978)                   General

1/18/1978     Andrus v. Sierra Club,   John M.          Public Lands
              442 U.S. 347 (1979)      Harmon, OLC      Mgmt.
                                       AAG

4/24/78       United States v. New     James            Water Rights
              Mexico, 438 U.S. 696     Moorman,
              (1978) *                 ENRD AAG

11/28/1978    Vt. Yankee Nuclear       Lawrence         Nuclear Energy
              Power Corp. v. NRDC,     Wallace
              435 U.S. 519 (1978)

12/4/1978     Lake Country Estates                      Land Use
              v. Tahoe Reg'l                            Restriction
              Planning Agency, 440
              U.S. 391 (1979)

1/9/1979      Hughes v. Oklahoma,                       Species
              441 U.S. 322 (1979)                       Protection

1/15/1979     Leo Sheep Co. v.         Sara Sun         Granted Lands
              United States, 440       Beale            Ownership
              U.S. 668 (1979)

2/28/1979     Washington v. Wash.      Louis            ([double
              State Commercial         Claiborne        dagger])
              Passenger Fishing                         Fishing Rights
              Vessel Ass'n, 443 U.S.
              658 (1979)

3/21/1979     Wilson v. Omaha Indian   Sara Sun         ([double
              Tribe, 442 U.S. 653      Beale            dagger]) River
              (1979)                                    Boundary

10/1/1979     Vaughn v. Vermilion                       Public Rights
              Corp., 444 U.S. 206                       to Waterways
              (1979)

10/1/1979     Andrus v. Allard, 444    Harriet          Species
              U.S. 51 (1979)           Shapiro          Protection

10/10/1979    Indus. Union Dep't v.    William Alsup    Workplace
              Am. Petroleum Inst.,                      Toxics
              448 U.S. 607 (1980)

10/1/1979     Kaiser Aetna v. United   Kathryn          Public Rights
              States, 444 U.S. 164     Oberly           to Waterways
              (1979)

12/3/1979     Ohio v. Kentucky, 444                     ([section])
              U.S. 335 (1980)A                          River Boundary

12/3/1979     United States v.         Louis            ([double
              Mitchell, 445 U.S. 535   Claiborne        dagger]) Land
              (1980)                                    Mgmt.

12/5/1979     Costle v. Pac. Legal     William Alsup    Water
              Found., 445 U.S. 198                      Pollution
              (1980)

12/5/1979     Andrus v. Utah, 446      Peter            Public Lands
              U.S. 500 (1980)          Buscemi          Ownership

1/15/1980     United States v.         Harlon           ([double
              Clarke, 445 U.S. 253     Dalton           dagger])
              (1980) *                                  Rights to Land

1/15/1980     Andrus v. Shell Oil      Lawrence         Mineral Rights
              Co., 446 U.S. 657        Wallace
              (1980)

1/16/1980     Harrison v. PPG          Maryann          Air Pollution
              Indus., Inc., 446 U.S.   Walsh
              578 (1980)

2/25/1980     Andrus v. Idaho, 445     Stuart A.        Public Lands
              U.S. 715 (1980)          Smith            Ownership

2/26/1980     United States v. Ward,   Edwin            Water
              448 U.S. 242 (1980)      Kneedler         Pollution

3/17/1980     United States v.         Stephen          Submerged
              California, 447 U.S. 1   Shapiro          Lands
              (1980) [conjunction]                      Ownership

3/17/1980     Cent. Hudson Gas &                        Electricity
              Elec. Corp. v. Pub.                       Consumption
              Serv. Comm'n of N.Y.,
              447 U.S. 557(1980)

3/18/1980     United States v.         Louis            Submerged
              Louisiana, 446 U.S.      Claiborne        Lands
              253 (1980)                                Ownership
              [conjunction]

8/24/1980     United States v. Sioux   Louis            ([double
              Nation of Indians, 448   Claiborne        dagger])
              U.S. 371 (1980)                           Rights to Land

8/25/1980     Bryant v. Yellen, 447    SG Wade          Water Rights
              U.S. 352 (1980)          McCree

4/14/1980     California v. Nevada,                     ([section])
              447 U.S. 125 (1980)                       Boundary
              [conjunction]

4/15/1980     Agins v. Tiburon, 447                     Land Use
              U.S. 255 (1980)                           Restriction

10/7/1980     U.S. Envtl. Prot.        Andrew           Water
              Agency v. Nat'l          Levander         Pollution
              Crushed Stone Ass'n,
              449 U.S. 64 (1980)

11/3/1980     Minnesota v. Clover      Harlon           Recycling of
              Leaf Creamery Co., 449   Dalton           Materials
              U.S. 456 (1980)

12/1/1980     San Diego Gas & Elec.                     Land Use
              Co. v. San Diego, 450                     Restriction
              U.S. 621 (1981)

12/2/1980     Milwaukee v. Illinois,   Andrew           Water
              451 U.S. 304 (1981)      Levander         Pollution

12/3/1980     Montana v. United        Louis            ([double
              States, 450 U.S. 544     Claiborne        dagger])
              (1981)                                    Fishing Rights

1/13/1981     Watt v. Alaska, 451      Louis            Alaska
              U.S. 259 (1981)          Claiborne

1/21/1981     California v. Sierra     Elinor H.        Water Project
              Club, 451 U.S. 287       Stillman         Construction
              (1981)

2/23/1981     Hodel v. Va. Surface     Buscemi,         Coal Mining
              Mining & Reclamation     Peter
              Ass'n, 452 U.S. 264
              (1981)

2/23/1981     Hodel v. Indiana, 452    Buscemi,         Coal Mining
              U.S. 314 (1981)          Peter

2/24/1981     Middlesex Cnty.          Alan             Water
              Sewerage Auth. v.        Horowitz         Pollution;
              Nat'l Sea Clammers                        Fishery
              Ass'n, 453 U.S. 1                         Protection
              (1981)

2/25/1981     Metromedia, Inc. v.                       Land Use
              San Diego, 453 U.S.                       Restriction
              490 (1981)

3/30/1981     Commonwealth Edison                       Coal Mining
              Co. v. Montana, 453
              U.S. 609 (1981)

10/5/1981     Watt v. Energy Action    Louis            Offshore Oil
              Educ. Found., 454 U.S.   Claiborne        and Gas
              151 (1981)                                Leasing

10/6/1981     Texaco, Inc. v. Short,                    Mineral Rights
              454 U.S. 516 (1982)

10/7/1981     Zobel v. Williams, 457                    Alaska
              U.S. 55 (1982)

10/13/1981    Weinberger v. Catholic   SG Rex Lee       Nuclear
              Action of Haw./Peace                      Materials
              Educ. Project, 454
              U.S. 139 (1981)

1/19/1982     Fed. Energy Regulatory   SG Rex Lee       Energy
              Comm'n v. Mississippi,                    Conservation
              456 U.S. 742 (1982)

2/23/1982     Weinberger v. Romero-    Elinor H.        Water
              Barcelo, 456 U.S. 305    Stillman         Pollution
              (1982)

3/29/1982     California ex rel.       Louis            Submerged
              State Lands Comm'n v.    Claiborne        Lands
              United States, 457                        Ownership
              U.S. 273 (1982)
              [conjunction]

3/30/1982     Sporhase v. Nebraska                      Water Rights
              ex rel. Douglas, 458
              U.S. 941 (1982)

10/4/1982     Colorado v. New                           ([section])
              Mexico, 459 U.S. 176                      Water Rights
              (1982) [conjunction]

11/2/1982     North Dakota v. United   Barbara          Wetlands
              States, 460 U.S. 300     Etkind           Protection
              (1983)

12/8/1982     Arizona v. California,   Louis            ([section])
              460 U.S. 605 (1983)      Claiborne        Water Rights

1/17/1983     Pac. Gas & Elec. Co.     Louis            Nuclear
              v. State Energy Res.     Claiborne        Materials
              Conservation & Dev.
              Comm'n, 461 U.S. 190
              (1983)

1/17/1983     Watt v. W. Nuclear,      John H.          Mineral Rights
              Inc., 462 U.S. 36        Garvey
              (1983)

2/23/1083     Block v. North Dakota    Louis            Riverbed
              exrel. Bd. of Univ. &    Claiborne        Ownership
              Sch. Lands, 461 U.S.
              273 (1983)

3/1/1983      Metro. Edison Co. v.     Paul Bator       Nuclear Energy
              People Against Nuclear
              Energy, 460 U.S. 766
              (1983)

3/1/1983      United States v.         Joshua I.        ([double
              Mitchell, 463 U.S. 206   Schwartz         dagger]) Lands
              (1983)                                    Mgmt.

3/23/1983     Idaho exrel. Evans v.                     ([section])
              Oregon, 462 U.S. 1017                     Fishing Rights
              (1983) [conjunction]

3/23/1983     Arizona v. San Carlos    Louis            ([double
              Apache Tribe, 463 U.S.   Claiborne        dagger]) Water
              545 (1983)                                Rights

3/30/1983     Texas v. New Mexico,                      ([section])
              462 U.S. 554 (1983)                       Water Rights
              [conjunction]

4/19/1983     Balt. Gas & Elec. Co.    David A.         Nuclear
              v. NRDC, 462 U.S. 87     Strauss          Materials
              (1983)

4/27/1983     Nevada v. United         Edwin            ([double
              States, 463 U.S. 110     Kneedler         dagger]) Water
              (1983)                                    Rights

10/4/1983     Silkwood v. Kerr-McGee   John H.          Nuclear
              Corp., 464 U.S. 238      Garvey           Materials
              (1984)

11/1/1983     Sec'y of the Interior    SG Rex Lee       Offshore Oil
              v. California, 464                        and Gas
              U.S. 312 (1984)                           Leasing

1/9/1984      Colorado v. New                           ([section])
              Mexico, 467 U.S. 310                      Water Rights
              (1984)

1/16/1984     Louisiana v.                              ([section])
              Mississippi, 466 U.S.                     River Boundary
              96 (1984)
              [conjunction]

2/22/1984     Kirby Forest Indus.,     Harriet          Public Lands
              Inc. v. United States,   Shapiro
              467 U.S. 1 (1984)

2/27/1984     Ruckelshaus v.           Lawrence         Pesticides
              Monsanto Co., 467 U.S.   Wallace
              986(1984)

2/29/1984     Summa Corp. v.           Louis            Tidelands
              California ex. rel.      Claiborne        Conservation
              State Lands Comm'n,
              466 U.S. 198 (1984)

2/29/1984     Chevron, U.S.A., Inc.    Paul Bator       Air Pollution
              v. NRDC, 467 U.S. 837
              (1984)

3/2G/1984     Escondido Mut. Water     Elliot           ([double
              Co. v. La Jolla Band     Schulder         dagger]) Water
              of Mission Indians,                       Rights
              466 U.S. 765 (1984)

3/26/1984     Haw. Hous. Auth. v.                       Land Use
              Midkiff, 467 U.S. 229                     Restriction;
              (1984)                                    Hawaii

10/10/1984    Ohio v. Kovacs, 469      Kathryn          Contaminated
              U.S. 274 (1985)          Oberly           Site

11/6/1984     United States v.         Carolyn          Mineral Rights
              Locke, 471 U.S. 84       Corwin
              (1985)

11/16/1984    Chem. Mfrs. Ass'n v.     Samuel Alito     Water
              NRDC, 470 U.S.                            Pollution
              116(1985)

11/26/1984    United States v.         Louis            ([section])
              Maine, 469 U.S. 504      Claiborne        Marine
              (1985) [conjunction]                      Boundary

11/26/1984    United States v.         Louis            Submerged
              Louisiana, 470 U.S. 93   Claiborne        Lands
              (1985) [conjunction]                      Ownership

1/15/1985     Montana v. Blackfeet     Edwin            ([double
              Tribe of Indians, 471    Kneedler         dagger])
              U.S. 759 (1985)                           Minerals
                                                        Ownership

2/19/1985     Williamson Cnty. Reg'l   Edwin            Land Use
              Planning Comm'n v.       Kneedler         Restriction
              Hamilton Bank, 473
              U.S. 172 (1985)

2/27/1985     Or. Dep't of Fish &                       ([double
              Wildlife v. Klamath                       dagger])
              Indian Tribe, 473 U.S.                    Hunting &
              753 (1985)                                Fishing Rights

3/26/1985     Thomas v. Union          Lawrence         Pesticides
              Carbide Agile. Prods.    Wallace
              Co., 473 U.S. 568
              (1985)

10/8/1985     Pac. Gas & Elec. Co.                      Electric
              v. Pub. Utils. Comm'n,                    Utilities
              475 U.S. 1 (1986)

10/16/1985    United States v.         Kathryn          Wetlands
              Riverside Bayview        Oberly           Protection
              Homes, Inc., 474 U.S.
              121 (1985)

10/16/1985    Midlantic Nat'l Bank                      Contaminated
              v. N.J. Dep't of                          Site
              Envtl. Prot., 474 U.S.
              494 (1986)

12/9/1985     Exxon Corp. v. Hunt,                      Contaminated
              475 U.S. 355 (1986)                       Site

12/10/1985    Dow Chem. Co. v.         Alan             Air Pollution
              United States, 476       Horowitz
              U.S. 227 (1986)

12/12/1985    United States v.         Louis            Marine
              Maine, 475 U.S. 89       Claiborne        Boundary
              (1986) [conjunction]

12/12/1985    South Carolina v.                         ([double
              Catawba Indian Tribe,                     dagger]) Land
              Inc., 476 U.S. 498                        Ownership
              (1986)

2/24/1986     Offshore Logistics,                       Coastal
              Inc. v. Tallentire,                       Authority
              477 U.S. 207 (1986)

3/3/1986      Pennsylvania v. Del.     Kathryn          Air Pollution
              Valley Citizens'         Oberly
              Council for Clean Air,
              478 U.S. 546 (1986)

3/24/1986     Maine v. Taylor, 477     Jerrold          Species
              U.S. 131 (1986)          Ganzfried        Protection;
                                                        Fisheries

3/26/1986     MacDonald, Sommer &                       Land Use
              Frates v. Cnty. of                        Restriction
              Yolo, 477 U.S. 340
              (1986)

4/21/1986     United States v.         Andrew           Flood Control
              James, 478 U.S. 597      Pincus
              (1986)

4/22/1986     United States v.         Edwin            ([double
              Mottaz, 476 U.S. 834     Kneedler         dagger]) Land
              (1986)                                    Ownership

4/30/1986     Japan Whaling Ass'n v.   Arnold Bums,     Species
              Am. Cetacean Soc'y,      Assoc. Atty.     Protection
              478 U.S. 221 (1986)      Gen.

10/3/1986     Pennsylvania v. Del.     Donald Ayer      Air Pollution
              Valley Citizens'
              Council for Clean Air,
              483 U.S. 711 (1987) *

10/6/1986     Hodel v. Irving, 481     Edwin            ([double
              U.S. 704 (1987)          Kneedler         dagger]) Land
                                                        Ownership

10/10/1986    Keystone Bituminous                       Coal Mining
              Coal Ass'n v.
              DeBenedictis, 480 U.S.
              470 (1987)

11/4/1986     Int'l Paper Co. v.       Lawrence         Water
              Ouellette, 479 U.S.      Wallace          Pollution
              481 (1986)

12/2/1986     Cal. Coastal Comm'n v.   Jeffrey          Mining; Public
              Granite Rock Co., 480    Minear           Lands
              U.S. 572 (1987)

1/12/1987     Amoco Prod. Co. v.       F. Henry         Alaska
              Vill. of Gambell, 480    Habicht II,
              U.S. 531 (1987)          AAG ENRD

1/14/1987     First English                             Land Use
              Evangelical Lutheran                      Restriction
              Church v. Cnty. of
              L.A., 482 U.S. 304
              (1987)

1/20/1987     Stringfellow v.          Paul Larkin      Contaminated
              Concerned Neighbors in                    Site
              Action, 480 U.S. 370
              (1987)

1/21/1987     Tull v. United States,   Lawrence         Wetlands
              481 U.S. 412 (1987)      Wallace          Protection

2/23/1987     United States v.         Jeffrey          ([double
              Cherokee Nation, 480     Minear           dagger])
              U.S. 700 (1987)                           Riverbed
                                                        Interests

3/23/1987     Utah Div. of State       Edwin            Submerged
              Lands v. United          Kneedler         Lands
              States, 482 U.S. 193                      Ownership
              (1987)

3/30/1987     Nollan v. Cal. Coastal                    Beachfronts
              Comm'n, 483 U.S. 825
              (1987)

4/29/1987     Texas v. New Mexico,                      ([section])
              482 U.S. 124 (1987)                       Water Rights
              [conjunction]

10/5/1987     Gwaltney of                               Water
              Smithfield, Ltd. v.                       Pollution
              Chesapeake Bay Found.,
              Inc., 484 U.S. 49
              (1987)

11/3/1987     ETSI Pipeline Project    Jeffrey          Water Rights
              v. Missouri, 484 U.S.    Minear
              495 (1988)

11/9/1987     Phillips Petroleum Co.                    Submerged
              v. Mississippi, 484                       Lands
              U.S. 469 (1988)                           Ownership

11/30/1987    Lyng v. Nw. Indian       Andrew           Public Lands
              Cemetery Protective      Pincus           Mgmt.
              Ass'n, 485 U.S. 439
              (1988)

1/11/1988     United States v.         Jeffrey          Submerged
              Louisiana,               Minear           Lands
              [conjunction] 485 U.S.                    Ownership
10/31/1988    88 (1988) Pennsylvania                    Contaminated
              v. Union Gas Co., 491                     Site
              U.S. 1 (1989)

11/30/1988    Cotton Petroleum Corp.                    ([double
              v. New Mexico, 490                        dagger])
              U.S. 163 (1989)                           Natural
                                                        Resource
                                                        Taxation

1/9/1989      Robertson v. Methow      SG Charles       Public Lands
              Valley Citizens          Fried            Mgmt.
              Council, 490 U.S. 332
              (1989)

1/9/1989      Marsh v. Or. Nat. Res.   SG Charles       Dam
              Council, 490 U.S. 360    Fried            Construction
              (1989)

1/10/1989     Brendale v.                               ([double
              Confederated Tribes &                     dagger]) Lands
              Bands of the Yakima                       Mgmt.
              Indian Nation, 492
              U.S. 408 (1989)

4/25/1989     New Orleans Pub.         Richard          Utility
              Serv., Inc. v. Council   Lazarus          Ratemaking
              of New Orleans, 491
              U.S. 350 (1989)

10/4/1989     Hallstrom v. Tillamook   Brian Martin     Waste Disposal
              Cnty., 493 U.S. 20
              (1989)

1/8/1990      Georgia v. South                          Marine
              Carolina, 497 U.S. 376                    Boundary
              (1990) [conjunction]

3/20/1990     California v. Fed.       Stephen          Species
              Power Comm'n, 495 U.S.   Nightingale      Protection
              490 (1990)

3/21/1990     Gen. Motors Corp. v.     Lawrence         Air Pollution
              United States, 496       Wallace
              U.S. 530 (1990)

4/16/1990     Lujan v. Nat'l           SG (acting)      Public Lands
              Wildlife Found. 497      John G.          Mgmt.
              U.S. 871 (1990)          Roberts, Jr.

3/18/1991     Illinois v. Kentucky,                     ([section])
              500 U.S. 380 (1991)                       River Boundary
              [conjunction]

4/16/1991     Oklahoma v. New                           ([section])
              Mexico, 501 U.S. 221                      Water Rights
              (1991)A

4/24/1991     Wis. Pub. Intervenor     Lawrence         Pesticides
              v. Mortier, 501 U.S.     Wallace
              597 (1991)

11/4/1991     Wyoming v. Oklahoma,                      Coal Mining
              502 U.S. 437 (1992)
              [conjunction]

12/2/1991     Robertson v. Seattle     SG Kenneth       Species
              Audubon Soc'y, 503       Starr            Protection
              U.S. 429 (1992)

12/8/1091     U.S. Dep't of Energy     James            Water
              v. Ohio, 503 U.S. 607    Feldman          Pollution;
              (1992)                                    Waste Disposal

12/3/1991     Lujan v. Defs. of        Edwin            Species
              Wildlife, 504 U.S. 555   Kneedler         Protection
              (1992)

12/11/1991    Arkansas v. Oklahoma,    Lawrence         Water
              503 U.S. 91 (1992)       Wallace          Pollution

1/22/1992     Yee v. Escondido, 503                     Land Use
              U.S. 519 (1992)                           Restriction

2/24/1992     United States v.         Jeffrey          Marine
              Alaska, 503 U.S. 569     Minear           Boundary
              (1992) [conjunction]

3/2/1992      Lucas v. S.C. Coastal                     Beachfronts
              Council, 505 U.S. 1003
              (1992)

3/23/1092     Gade v. Nat'l Solid      William K        Occupational
              Wastes Mgmt. Ass'n,      Kelley           Safety; Haz.
              505 U.S. 88 (1992)                        Waste

3/30/1092     Fort Gratiot Sanitary                     Waste Disposal
              Landfill, Inc. v.
              Mich. Dep't of Natural
              Res., 504 U.S. 353
              (1992)

3/30/1992     New York v. United       Lawrence         Radioactive
              States, 505 U.S. 144     Wallace          Waste
              (1992)

4/21/1992     Chem. Waste Mgmt.,       Edwin            Waste Disposal
              Inc. v. Hunt, 504 U.S.   Kneedler
              334 (1992)

4/21/1992     Burlington v. Dague,     Richard          Waste Disposal
              505 U.S. 557 (1992)      Seamon

11/9/1992     Mississippi v.                            ([section])
              Louisiana, 506 U.S. 73                    River Boundary
              (1992)

1/13/1993     Nebraska v. Wyoming,     Jeffrey          ([section])
              507 U.S. 584 (1993)      Minear           Water Rights
              [conjunction]

3/2/1993      South Dakota v.          James            ([double
              Bourland, 508 U.S. 679   Feldman          dagger])
              (1993)                                    Hunting &
                                                        Fishing
                                                        Regulation

12/7/1993     C&A Carbone, Inc. v.                      Waste Disposal
              Town of Clarkston, 511
              U.S. 383 (1993)

1/18/1994     Or. Waste Sys., Inc.                      Waste Disposal
              v. Or. Dep't of Envtl.
              Quality, 511 U.S. 93
              (1994)

1/19/1994     Chicago v. Envtl. Def.   Jeffrey          Waste Disposal
              Fund (EDF), 511 U.S.     Minear
              328(1994)

2/23/1994     PUD No. 1 of Jefferson   Lawrence         Fish Habitat
              Cnty. v. Wash. Dep't     Wallace
              of Ecology, 511 U.S.
              700 (1994)

2/23/1994     Ladue v. Gilleo, 512     Paul Bender      Land Use
              U.S. 43 (1994)                            Restriction

3/23/1994     Dolan v. Tigard, 512     Edwin            Land Use
              U.S. 374 (1994)          Kneedler         Restriction

3/29/1994     Key Tronic Corp. v.      Lawrence         Contaminated
              United States, 511       Wallace          Site
              U.S. 809 (1994)

10/12/1994    Jerome B. Grubart,                        Admiralty
              Inc. v. Great Lakes                       Jurisdiction
              Dredge & Dock Co., 513
              U.S. 527 (1995)

3/21/1995     Kansas v. Colorado,      Jeffrey          ([section])
              514 U.S. 673 (1995)      Minear           Water Rights
              [conjunction]

3/21/1995     Nebraska v. Wyoming,     Jeffrey          ([section])
              515 U.S. 1 (1995)        Minear           Water Rights
              [conjunction]

4/17/1995     Babbitt v. Sweet Home    Edwin            Species
              Chapter of Communities   Kneedler         Protection
              for a Great Or., 515
              U.S. 687 (1995)

10/3/1995     Louisiana v.                              ([section])
              Mississippi, 516 U.S.                     River Boundary
              22 (1995)

1/10/1996     Meghrig v. KFC W.,       Jeffrey          Contaminated
              Inc., 516 U.S. 479       Minear           Site
              (1996)

11/13/1996    Bennett v. Spear, 520    Edwin            Species
              U.S. 154 (1997)          Kneedler         Protection

12/2/1996     Babbitt v. Youpee, 519   James            ([double
              U.S. 234 (1997)          Feldman          dagger]) Lands
                                                        Mgmt.

2/18/1997     Amchem Prods., Inc. v.                    Toxic Torts
              Windsor, 521 U.S. 591
              (1997)

2/19/1997     Boeme v. Flores, 521     SG (acting)      Historic
              U.S. 507 (1997)          Walter           Preservation
                                       Dellinger

2/24/1997     United States v.         Jeffrey          Submerged
              Alaska, 521 U.S. 1       Minear           Lands
              (1997) [conjunction]                      Ownership

2/26/1997     Suitum v. Tahoe Reg'l    Lawrence         Land Use
              Planning Agency, 520     Wallace          Restriction
              U.S. 725 (1997)

10/6/1997     Steel Co. v. Citizens    Irving           Public
              for a Better Env't,      Gomstein         Information
              523 U.S. 83 (1997)

10/16/1997    Idaho v. Coeur d'Alene                    ([double
              Tribe, 521 U.S. 261                       dagger])
              (1997)                                    Submerged
                                                        Lands
                                                        Ownership

12/8/1997     South Dakota v.          Barbara          ([double
              Yankton Sioux Tribe,     McDowell         dagger]) Land
              522 U.S. 329 (1998)                       Rights; Waste
                                                        Disposal

12/10/1997    Alaska v. Native Vill.                    ([double
              of Venetie Tribal                         dagger]) Land
              Gov't, 522 U.S. 520                       Rights; Alaska
              (1998)

1/12/1998     New Jersey v. New        Jeffrey          ([section])
              York, 523 U.S. 767       Minear           Land Rights
              (1998) [conjunction]

2/25/1998     Ohio Forestry Ass'n v.   Malcolm          Public Lands
              Sierra Club, 523 U.S.    Stewart          Mgmt.
              726 (1998)

3/4/1998      E. Enters v. Apfel,      Edwin            Coal Industry
              524 U.S. 498(1998)       Kneedler

3/24/1998     United States v.         Lois Schiffer,   Contaminated
              Bestfoods, 524 U.S. 51   ENRD AAG         Site
              (1998)

4/27/1998     United States v.         Paul R.Q.        Public Lands
              Beggerly, 524 U.S. 38    Wolfson
              (1998)

10/7/1998     Monterey v. Del Monte    Edwin            Land Use
              Dunes at Monterey,       Kneedler         Restriction
              Ltd., 526 U.S. 687
              (1998)

4/19/1999     Amoco Prod. Co. v. S.    Jeffrey          ([double
              Ute Indian Tribe, 526    Minear           dagger])
              U.S. 865 (1999)                           Mineral Rights

10/12/1999    Friends of the Earth,    Jeffrey          Water
              Inc. v. Laidlaw Envtl.   Minear           Pollution
              Servs., Inc., 528 U.S.
              167 (2000)

12/7/1999     United States v.         David            Oil Spills
              Locke, 529 U.S. 89       Frederick
              (2000)

3/1/2000      Pub. Lands Council v.    Edwin            Public Lands
              Babbitt, 529 U.S. 728    Kneedler         Mgmt.
              (2000)

10/31/2000    Solid Waste Agency of    Lawrence         Wetlands
              N. Cook Cnty. v. U.S.    Wallace          Protection
              Army Corps of Eng'rs,
              531 U.S. 159 (2001)

11/7/2000     Whitman v. Am.           SG Seth          Air Pollution
              Trucking Ass'ns, Inc.,   Waxman
              531 U.S. 457 (2001)

10/30/2000    Cent. Green Co. v.       David            Flood Control
              United States, 531       Frederick
              U.S. 425 (2001)

2/26/2001     Palazzolo v. Rhode       Malcolm          Wetlands
              Island, 533 U.S. 606     Stewart          Protection
              (2001)

4/23/2001     Idaho v. United          David            ([double
              States, 533 U.S. 262     Frederick        dagger])
              (2001)                                    Submerged
                                                        Lands
                                                        Ownership

1/7/2002      Tahoe Sierra Pres.       SG Theodore      Land Use
              Council v. Tahoe Reg'l   Olson            Restriction
              Planning Agency, 535
              U.S. 202 (2002)

12/10/2002    Borden Ranch P'ship v.   Jeffrey          Wetlands
              U.S. Army Corps of       Minear           Protection
              Eng'rs, 537 U.S. 99
              (2002)

10/8/2003     Alaska Dep't of Envtl.   Thomas           Air Pollution
              Conservation v. U.S.     Hungar
              Envtl. Prot. Agency,
              540 U.S. 461 (2004)

1/14/2004     Engine Mfg. Ass'n v.     SG Theodore      Air Pollution
              S. Coast Air Quality     Olson
              Mgmt. Dist., 541 U.S.
              246 (2004)

1/14/2004     S. Fla. Water Mgmt. v.   Jeffrey          Water
              Miccosukee Tribe, 541    Minear           Pollution
              U.S. 95 (2004)

1/20/2004     BedRoc Ltd., LLC v.      Thomas           Mineral Rights
              United States, 541       Sansonetti,
              U.S. 176 (2004)          ENRD AAG

3/29/2004     Norton v. S. Utah        Edwin            Public Lands
              Wilderness Alliance,     Kneedler         Mgmt.
              542 U.S. 55 (2004)

4/21/2004     U.S. Dep't of Transp.    Edwin            Air Pollution
              v. Pub. Citizen, 541     Kneedler
              U.S. 752 (2004)

4/27/2004     Cheney v. U.S. Dist.     SG Theodore      Energy Policy
              Ct. D.C., 542 U.S. 367   Olson
              (2004)

10/6/2004     Cooper Indus., Inc. v.   Jeffrey          Contaminated
              Aviall Servs., Inc.,     Minear           Site
              543 U.S. 157 (2004)

1/10/2005     Bates v. Dow             Lisa Blatt       Pesticides
              Agrosciences LLC, 544
              U.S. 431 (2005)

1/10/2005     Alaska v. United         Jeffrey          Submerged
              States, 545 U.S. 75      Minear           Lands
              (2005) [conjunction]                      Ownership

2/22/2005     Lingle v. Chevron, 544   Edwin            Energy Markets
              U.S. 528 (2005)          Kneedler

2/22/2005     Kelo v. New London,                       Redevelopment
              545 U.S. 469 (2005)

2/21/2006     S.D. Warren Co. v.       Jeffrey          Water
              Maine Bd. of Envtl.      Minear           Pollution
              Prot., 547 U.S. 370
              (2006)

2/21/2006     Rapanos v. U.S. Army     SG Paul          Wetlands
              Corps of Eng'rs, 547     Clement          Protection
              U.S. 715 (2006)

11/1/2006     Envtl. Def. v. Duke      Thomas           Air Pollution
              Energy Corp., 549 U.S.   Hungar
              561 (2007)

11/29/2006    Massachusetts v. U.S.    Gregory          Climate Change
              Envtl. Prot. Agency,     Garre
              549 U.S. 497 (2007)

1/8/2007      United Haulers Ass'n, Inc. v.             Waste Disposal
              Oneida-Herkimer Solid
              Waste Mgmt. Agency, 550
              U.S. 330 (2007)

4/17/2007     Nat'l Ass'n of Home      Edwin            Water
              Builders, et al. v.      Kneedler         Pollution;
              Defs. of Wildlife, 551                    Species
              U.S. 664 (2007)                           Protection

4/23/2007     United States v. Atl.    Thomas           Contaminated
              Research Corp., 551      Hungar           Site
              U.S. 128 (2007)

11/6/2007     John R. Sand & Gravel    Malcolm          Contaminated
              Co. v. United States,    Stewart          Site
              552 U.S. 130 (2008)

11/27/2007    New Jersey v.                             ([section])
              Delaware, 552 U.S. 597                    Submerged
              (2008) [conjunction]                      Lands
                                                        Regulatory
                                                        Jurisdiction

10/8/2008     Summers v. Earth         Edwin            Public Lands
              Island Inst, 555 U.S.    Kneedler         Mgmt.
              488 (2009)

10/8/2008     Winter v. NRDC, 555      SG (acting)      Marine Species
              U.S. 7 (2008)            Gregory          Protection
                                       Garre

12/1/2008     Kansas v. Colorado,                       ([section])
              556 U.S. 98 (2009)                        Water Rights
              [conjunction]

1/12/2009     Coeur Alaska, Inc. v.    SG Gregory       Water
              Se. Alaska               Garre            Pollution
              Conservation Council,
              557 U.S. 261 (2009)

2/23/2009     United States v.         SG (acting)      ([double
              Navajo Nation, 556       Edwin            dagger])
              U.S. 287 (2009)          Kneedler         Mineral Rights

2/24/2009     Burlington N. v.         Malcolm          Contaminated
              United States, 556       Stewart          Site
              U.S. 559 (2009)

2/25/2009     Hawaii v. Office of      William M.       Public Trust-
              Hawaiian Affairs, 556    Jay              Hawaii
              U.S. 163 (2009)

10/13/2009    South Carolina v.        Eric Miller      Water Rights
              North Carolina, 558
              U.S. 256 (2010)
              [conjunction]

12/2/2009     Entergy Corp. v.         Daryl            Species
              Riverkeeper, 556 U.S.    Joseffer         Protection
              208 (2009)

12/2/2009     Stop the Beach           Edwin            Coastal
              Renourishment Inc. v.    Kneedler         Erosion
              Fla. Dep't of Envtl.
              Prot., 560 U.S. 702
              (2010)

1/11/2010     Alabama v. North         Edwin            Waste Disposal
              Carolina, 560 U.S. 330   Kneedler
              (2010) [conjunction]

4/27/2010     Monsanto v. Geertson     Malcolm          Genetically
              Seed Farms, 561 U.S.     Stewart          Modified
              139 (2010)                                Organisms

1/10/2011     Montana v. Wyoming,      William M.       Water Rights
              563 U.S. 368 (2011)      Jay
              [conjunction]

4/19/2011     Am. Elec. Power Co. v.   SC (acting)      Climate Change
              Connecticut, 131 S.      Neal Katyal
              Ct. 2527 (2011)

12/7/2011     PPL Mont. v. Montana,    Edwin            Submerged
              132 S. Ct. 1215 (2012)   Kneedler         Lands
                                                        Ownership

1/9/2012      Sackett v. U.S. Envtl.   Malcolm          Wetlands
              Prot. Agency, 132 S.     Stewart          Protection
              Ct. 1367 (2012)

3/19/2012     S. Union Co. v. United   Michael          Waste Disposal
              States, 132 S. Ct.       Dreeben
              2344 (2012)

10/3/2012     Ark. Game & Fish         Edwin            Flood Control
              Comm'n v. United         Kneedler
              States, 133 S. Ct. 511
              (2012)

12/3/2012     Decker v. Nw. Envtl.     Malcolm          Water
              Def. Ctr., 133 S. Ct.    Stewart          Pollution
              1326 (2013)

12/4/2012     L.A. Cnty. Flood         PratikShah       Water
              Control Dist. v. NRDC,                    Pollution
              133 S. Ct. 710 (2013)

1/15/2013     Koontz v. St. Johns      Edwin            Wetlands
              River Water Mgmt., 133   Kneedler         Protection
              S. Ct. 2586 (2013)

4/16/2013     Am. Trucking v. Los      John Bash        Air Pollution
              Angeles, 133 S. Ct.
              2096 (2013)

4/23/2013     Tarrant Reg'l Water      Ann              Water Rights
              Dist. v. Herrmann, 133   O'Connell
              S. Ct. 2120 (2013)

12/10/2013    U.S. Envtl. Prot.        Malcolm          Air Pollution
              Agency v. EME Homer      Stewart
              City Generation, 134
              S. Ct. 1584 (2014)

2/24/2014     Util. Air Regulatory     SG Donald        Climate Change
              Grp. v. U.S. Envtl.      Verilli, Jr.
              Prot. Agency, 134 S.
              Ct. 2427 (2014)

4/23/2014     CTS Corp. v.             Joseph           Contaminated
              Waldburger, 134 S. Ct.   Palmore          Site
              2175 (2014)

10/14/2014    Kansas v. Nebraska,      Ann              ([section])
              135 S. Ct. 1042 (2015)   O'Connell        Water Rights

11/5/2011     Yates v. United          Roman            Fishery
              States, 135 S. Ct.       Martinez         Protection
              1074 (2015)

3/25/2015     Michigan v. U.S.         SG Donald        Air Pollution
              Envtl. Prot. Agency,     Verilli, Jr.
              135 S. Ct. 2699 (2015)


(1) WILLIAM Wordsworth, Thought of a Briton on the Subjugation of Switzerland, in Selected Poems 265 (John O. Hayden ed., Penguin Books 1994) (1807).

(2) The Court's annual terms begin on the first Monday in October. See 28 U.S.C. [section] 2 (2012).

(3) Oyez, IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law (Oyez), About Oyez, http://oyez.org/about (last visited Nov. 21, 2015) [hereinafter About Oyez].

(4) Supreme Court of the United States, Members of the Supreme Court of the United States, http://www.supremecourt.gov/abouUmembers_text.aspx (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(5) The U.S. Dept., of Justice, Solicitors General 1870-Present, http://www.justice.gov/osg/ historical-bios Oast visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(6) Today, the tapes and master reels that are available to the public are in an official repository at the National Archives Motion Picture and Sound Branch at College Park, Maryland. About Oyez, supra note 3.

(7) Argument audio hosted on the Supreme Court's website presently begins with the October 2010 Term. Supreme Court of the United States, Argument Audio, http://www.supremecourt.gov/oral_arguments/argument_audio.aspx (last visited Nov. 21, 2015). Meanwhile, the Oyez website, first known as the "Oyez Project" website, now digitally catalogs all available recordings back to 1955. See About Oyez, supra note 3. Contrast these resources with the limitations of the first portable music player for the digital MP3 format, introduced in 1997, a device that lacked the storage capacity for even one hour-long argument session. See Willie D. Jones, MP3: Compress Me a Song in Next to Best Technologies of 2000-2010, IEEE Spectrum, Jan. 2011, http://spectrum.ieee.org/at-work/innovation/nexttothebest-technologiesof-20002010 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(8) See, e.g., Paul R. Baier, Beyond Black Ink: From Langdell to the Oyez Project--The Voice of the Past; 55 Loy. L. Rev. 277, 286 (2009) (arguing that the Oyez Project may be a "doctrinal tool of extraordinary vitality" in classrooms regardless of subject). See generally Stephen A. Higginson, Constitutional Advocacy Explains Constitutional Outcomes, 60 Fla. L. Rev. 857 (2008) (citing tapes available through the Oyez Project to illustrate examples of effective advocacy). Moreover, apparently no works have taken stock of increasingly available audio recordings from lower appellate courts. At the time of this writing, only Second, Tenth, and Eleventh Circuit Courts of Appeals are not posting oral argument recordings online. In the fall of 2013, the D.C. Circuit began posting its arguments online, a noteworthy development for a major hub of environmental litigation. See, e.g., 42 U.S.C. [section] 7607(b) (2012) (conferring exclusive jurisdiction to the D.C. Circuit over various rules promulgated under the Clean Air Act); see also Eric M. Fraser, et al., The Jurisdiction of the D.C. Circuit, 23 Cornell J.L. & Pub. Pol'y 131, 149 (2013) (identifying the prominence of the D.C. Circuit in U.S. Code Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare).

(9) See, e.g., Higginson, supra note 8, at 861 (arguing that constitutional decision making can be better understood through "advocacy moments" at oral argument); Baier, supra note 8, at 286 ("I teach constitutional law. It is in this field, preeminently, that the Oyez Project is a miracle.").

(10) Significantly, the argument recordings are more extensive than any presently compiled transcripts database. The collections of transcripts available through Westlaw, LexisNexis, and physically at the Supreme Court's own library only begin in 1990, 1979, and 1968, respectively. Supreme Court of the United States, Transcripts and Recordings of Oral Arguments, http://www.supremecourt.gov/oral_arguments/availabilityoforalargumenttranscripts.aspx (last visited Nov. 21, 2015). The Oyez website has developed many new transcripts to serve as multimedia aids for audio recording playback. See About Oyez, supra note 3.

(11) See infra Appendix B.

(12) See generally Oyez, Cases, https://www.oyez.org/cases (last visited Nov. 21, 2015). At this point, the readership may wonder whether the author listened to every single recording. Several cases before 1970 are confessedly beyond even this aficionado's breaking point. Arizona v. California, a landmark ruling over water rights, issued only after being "orally argued twice, the first time about 16 hours, the second, over six." 373 U.S. 546, 551 (1963) (subsequent history omitted). Those behemoth recordings from the first argument session--and several other characteristically long arguments from the surrounding time period--were only added to the Oyez website after listening research for this Article concluded. See Oyez, Arizona v. California, https://www.oyez.org/cases/1961/8%20ORIG (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(13) Richard J. Lazarus, Environmental Law and the Supreme Court: Three Years Later, 19 PACE Envtl. L. Rev. 653, 656 (2002) [hereinafter Lazarus, Environmental Law and the Supreme Court]; see also Richard J. Lazarus, Restoring What's Environmental about Environmental Law in the Supreme Court; 47 UCLA L. REV. 703, 704, 708 n.4 (1999) [hereinafter Lazarus, Restoring What's Environmental about Environmental Law] (explaining that the Court's original actions, including interstate boundary and water allocation disputes, contribute to a larger data set).

(14) See infra Appendix B.

(15) Oral Argument at 12:43, Cal. Coastal Comm'n v. Granite Rock Co., 480 U.S. 572 (1987) (No. 85-1200), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1986/85-1200 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(16) Professor Todd Aagard observes that environmental law, usefully defined, should be neither overinclusive nor underinclusive. See Todd S. Aagard, Environmental Law as a Legal Field: An Inquiry in Legal Taxonomy, 95 CORNELL L. Rev. 221, 263 (2010). He proposes that environmental law "encompasses laws that reflect a consideration of human impacts on the natural environment." Id. In subtle contrast, cases in Appendix B were identified as having environmental values at stake. For example, a Supreme Court case that concerns attorney's fees in a Clean Water Act suit could impact the incentive structure for future litigation over water pollution. Although Appendix B has a smattering of fringe cases, it probably exaggerates to deem it overinclusive. As one of few examples, I include New Orleans Pub. Serv. v. City Council, 491 U.S. 350 (1989), in the Appendix with deference to Professor Lazarus having identified it as an environmental case; however, I have difficulty identifying it as anything more than a utility ratemaking case.

(17) Professor Lazarus's studies, based on a narrower study period, ranged across some 240 cases. Appendix B, chronologically organized by argument date, is largely comprehensive of that data set and others, with the addition of cases that are both newer and substantially older. See also Michael C. Blumm & Sherry L. Bosse, Justice Kennedy and the Environment: Property, States' Rights, and a Persistent Search for Nexus, 82 Wash. L. Rev. 667, 730-36 (2007) (listing 80 environmental decisions from 1989-2007); Jeffrey G. Miller, The Supreme Court's Water Pollution Jurisprudence: Is the Court All Wet?, 24 Va. ENVTL. L.J. 125, 175-78 (2005) (listing 75 environmental decisions from 1973-2004).

(18) The ordinary course is for a case to be argued and decided on the merits, but the merits may not be reached--even when briefed and argued--when the Court finds a lack of jurisdiction. See, e.g., Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife, 504 U.S. 555, 558 (1992) ("The preliminary issue, and the only one we reach, is whether respondents ... have standing."). Other docket anomalies make clear that the Court does not write a decision for every oral argument, or hold arguments for every written decision. See, e.g., Fri v. Sierra Club, 412 U.S. 541, 542 (1973) (orally argued, but no written opinion due to affirmance by an equally divided Court); see also Strycker's Bay Neighborhood Counsel v. Karlen, 444 U.S. 223 (1980) (decided by summary disposition--i.e., without oral arguments). In this respect, the sound recordings can provide an otherwise missing angle on environmental litigation before the Court.

(19) See The Supreme Court Historical Soc'y, Significant Oral Arguments 1955-1993, http://supremecourthistory.org/history_oral_decisions.html (last visited Nov. 21, 2015) [hereinafter Significant Oral Arguments].

(20) The answer to this has implications for whether future scholarship might beneficially examine the audio trove for insights on other discrete disciplines, such as patents or energy regulation, or other aspects of social history like civil rights.

(21) 2014 Year-End Report on the Federal Judiciary 2-3 (2014), available at http://www.supremecourt.gov/publicinfo/year-end/2014year-endreport.pclf.

(22) In keeping with longstanding tradition, quill pens are left at counsel table as gifts and souvenirs to the Court's oral advocates. See The Supreme Court Historical Soc'y, How the Court Works: Oral Argument, http://supremecourthistory.org/htcw_oralargument.html (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(23) See Significant Oral Arguments, supra note 19; infra Part H.B. For an example of a famous misstep from a famous, non-environmental case, see Ryan A. Malphurs, "People Did Sometimes Stick Things in my Underwear": The Function of Laughter at the US. Supreme Court, Commc'n L. Rev., no. 2, 2010, at 48 (describing a failed attempt at a joke during oral arguments for Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973)).

(24) See, eg., Margaret Meriwether Cordray & Richard Cordray, The Solicitor General's Changing Role in Supreme Court Litigation, 51 B.C. L. Rev. 1323, 1337 (2010).

(25) A convention for one and a half hours per side began in 1911, less than the two hours per side that were allotted in 1849, and far less than the Court's earliest days where the Court had no written briefs and lawyers were known to argue a single case for two or three days. Lawrence S. Wrightsman, Oral Arguments Before the Supreme Court: An Empirical Approach 17 (2008). Justice Frankfurter's volunteered admission during arguments in United States v. Republic Steel Corp. that he had not read "either of the briefs" would be unthinkable today. Oral Argument at 46:43, United States v. Republic Steel Corp., 362 U.S. 482 (1960) (No. 56), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1959/56 Past visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(26) SUP. Ct. R. 44, 398 U.S. 1058 (1970).

(27) See Stephen M. Shapiro, Oral Argument in the Supreme Court of the United States, 33 Cath. U. L. Rev. 529, 544 (1984).

(28) Id. at 547-48.

(29) See, e.g., Oral Argument at 01:14-01:23, United States v. Rand, 389 U.S. 121 (1967) (No. 54), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1967/54 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015) (beginning oral argument with "This case is here on writ of certiorari from ..."); Oral Argument at 00:31-00:36, Puyallup Tribe v. Wash. Dep't of Fame, 391 U.S. 392 (1968) (No. 247), https://www.oyez.org/ cases/1967/247 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015) (same). The cases in Appendix B were almost entirely brought on certiorari from courts of appeals. A substantial number are from the Court's original docket. See 28 U.S.C. [section] 1251 (2012) (Original Jurisdiction). Cases on certiorari from the highest courts of states or on direct appeal from federal district courts are rare outliers. See Air Pollution Variance Bd. v. W. Alfalfa Corp., 416 U.S. 861 (1974) (appeal from the state of Colorado); Duke v. Carolina Envtl. Study Grp., Inc., 438 U.S. 59 (1978) (direct appeal from district court under 28 U.S.C. [section] 1252, a basis for jurisdiction that was repealed in 1988).

(30) See U.S. Courts, Supreme Court Procedures: Oral Arguments, http://www.uscourts.gov/ about-federal-courts/educational-resources/about-educational-outreach/activity-resources/ supreme-1 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015) (instructing attorneys to begin their arguments by stating "Mr. Chief Justice, and may it please the Court....").

(31) See Jacob Gershman, The Supreme Court Has Gotten A Lot "Friendlier" Under Roberts, Wall St. J., July 16, 2014, http://blogs.wsj.com/law/2014/07/16/the-supreme-court-has-gotten-alot-friendlier- under-roberts/ (last visted Nov. 21, 2015). Of similar note, following Justice O'Connor's ascendance to the bench as the first female Justice, the Justices ceased referring to each other as "brother" and "brethren."

(32) Shapiro, supra note 27, at 532.

(33) 438 U.S. 104, 106 (1978) (leading case on regulatory takings).

(34) 436 U.S. 604, 605 (1978) (argument on the scope of a mining claim under federal legislation).

(35) For more on the history of women as advocates, including Harriet Shapiro, see generally Clare Cushman, Woman Advocates Before the Supreme Court, 26 J. SUP. Ct. Hist. 67 (2002); Mary Clark, Women as Supreme Court Advocates, 1879-1979, 30 J. Sup. Ct. Hist. 47 (2005).

(36) Andrus v. Allard, 444 U.S. 51 (1979) (argument on prohibitions against the sale of eagle feathers).

(37) The highest profile case may be Burlington Northern & Santa Fe Railroad Co. v. United States, 556 U.S. 599 (2009), where Kathleen Sullivan and Maureen Mahoney, both veteran advocates, argued for separate petitioners.

(38) See United States v. Clarke, 445 U.S. 253 (1980) (concerning the manner by which Indian lands may be condemned for a public purpose); Minnesota v. Clover Leaf Creamery Co., 449 U.S. 456 (1981) (concerning solid waste disposal).

(39) Harlon Dalton is today a prominent law professor at Yale Law School. Yale Law School Faculty, http://www.law.yale.edu/faculty/HDalton.htm (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(40) Mark Sherman, Black Lawyers Rare at Supreme Court, USA TODAY, Oct. 28, 2007, http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/washington/2007-10-28-3842117658_x.htm (last visited Nov. 21, 2015). This article quotes Robert Harris, an African American, who argued in the environmental case of Pacific Gas & Electric Co. v. Public Utility Commission, 475 U.S. 1 (1986). Solicitor General Wade McCree, also an African American, argued two cases included in Appendix B. As far as the author is aware, it has been decades since an African American voice has been heard from the lectern in any environmental case argued before the Court. As for the Justices, Thurgood Marshall enlivened many recordings during his tenure, and the famously silent Clarence Thomas has announced several opinions, including the opinion announcement in Department of Transportation, v. Public Citizen, 541 U.S. 752 (2004).

(41) See Diane Schmidt, "The First 13" Brings Together Indian Law Pioneers, Navajo Times, Apr. 5, 2012, http://navajotimes.eom/politics/2012/0412/0405121aw.php#.VgykJOnin8E (last visited Nov. 21, 2015) (stating that thirteen Native American advocates argued Indian law cases at the Supreme Court between 1980 and 2001). Of the thirteen advocates identified in this article, only three argued Indian law cases concerning environmental issues: Jeanne Whiteing, Blackfeet (who argued Montana v. Blackfeet Tribe of Indians, 471 U.S. 795 (1985)); Marilyn Miles, Kickapoo ancestry (who argued Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Prot. Ass'n, 485 U.S. 439 (1988)); and Heather Kendall-Miller, Athabascan (who argued Alaska v. Native Village of Venetie Tribal Government, 522 U.S. 520 (1998)). Id.

(42) Notably, Shiro Kashiwa, of Japanese ancestry, served as Assistant Attorney of the Land and Natural Resources Division at the Department of Justice. He argued in an eminent domain case not here classifiable as an environmental case. See United States v. Reynolds, 397 U.S. 14 (1970); U.S. Dep't of Justice, History, http://www.justice.gov/enrd/history-3 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015). However, Hawaii Attorney General Bert Kobayashi, also of Japanese ancestry, argued briefly in Hawaii v. Gordon, 373 U.S. 57 (1963).

(43) Remarkably, today's bench better reflects societal diversity than does its pool of oral advocates. In October Term 2013, when the bench composition was only 33% female, female advocates only made 16% of total appearances for arguments. See Kedar Bhatia, Introducing the State Pack for October Term 2013 and an Update on the Docket, SCOTUSBLOG, Mar. 17, 2014, http://www.scotusblog.com/2014/03/introducing-the-stat-pack-for-october-term-2013-and-anupdate-on-the-docket/ (last visited Nov. 21, 2015). Trends point to an increasingly specialized and insular private Supreme Court Bar, a phenomenon that has already been the subject of substantial scholarship. See Richard J. Lazarus, Docket Capture at the High Court, 119 Yale L. J. Online 89, 90 (2009), available at http://yalelawjoumal.org/forum/docket-capture-at-the-highcourt [hereinafter Lazarus, Docket Capture}-, see also John G. Roberts, Jr., Oral Advocacy and the Re-Emergence of a Supreme Court Bar, 30 J. Sup. Ct. Hist. 68, 75-76 (2005); Thomas G. Hungar & Nikesh Jindal, Observations on the Rise of the Appellate Litigator, 29 REV. LITIG. 511, 512-13 (2010); Richard J. Lazarus, Advocacy Matters Before and Within the Supreme Court: Transforming the Court by Transforming the Bar, 96 Geo. L.J. 1487, 1497-98, 1501 (2008) [hereinafter Lazarus, Advocacy Matters].

(44) John Kyi, later a United States Senator of Arizona, argued for the state in Arizona v. San Carlos Apache Tribe, 463 U.S. 545, 547 (1983).

(45) Christine Gregoire, later the Governor of Washington state, argued for the respondent in PUD No. 1 v. Washington Department of Ecology, 511 U.S. 700, 702 (1994).

(46) Warren Christopher, later Secretary of State during the Clinton administration, argued for the petitioner in Summa Corp. v. California ex. rel. State Lands Commission, 466 U.S. 198, 199 (1984).

(47) John Roberts argued for the United States in multiple cases, including Liyan v. National Wildlife Foundation, 497 U.S. 871, 874 (1990). Samuel Alito argued for the United States in Chemical Manufacturers Ass'n v. Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), 470 U.S. 116, 117 (1985).

(48) These advocates included the future Judge Easterbrook of the 7th Circuit and Judge Boggs of the 6th Circuit, and at least four future judges of the D.C. Circuit: Judges Bork, Wald, Randolph, and Roberts. See infra Appendix B. Ken Starr, arguing as Solicitor General, had previously served on the D.C. Circuit.

(49) To name several: Professor Laurence Tribe argued in Pacific Gas & Electric Co. v. State Energy Resources Conservation & Development Commission, 461 U.S. 190, 192 (1983) and Hawaii Housing Authority v. Midkiff, 467 U.S. 229, 231 (1984). Professor Zygmunt Plater argued the famous case of Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill {TVA v. Hill), 437 U.S. 153, 155 (1978). In and out of government, Professor Richard Lazarus has argued multiple cases. Professor Peter Strauss argued superbly in several cases in the early 1970s.

(50) Appearances by political office holders are also not uncommon in cases where a State is a party. See, e.g., PUD No. 1, 511 U.S. at 792 (argued by the Attorney General for the State of Washington).

(51) See infra Appendix B.

(52) See infra Appendix B. This run of advocates captures some of the history of the Environment and Natural Resources Division of the United States Department of Justice, which has been organized under a variety of names in past decades. The Environmental and Natural Resources Division, assumed its organizational name in 1990, but traces back to the Public Lands Division, beginning in 1909; the Lands Division, beginning 1933; and the Land and Natural Resources Division, beginning 1965. See Richard J. Lazarus, One Hundred Years of the Environment and Natural Resources Division, 41 Envtl. L. Rep. 10,986 (2011). Assistant Attorney Generals (AAGs) from the division who argued include Kent Frizell (1972-1973), Peter Taft (1975-1977), James Moorman (1977-1981), F. Henry Habicht H (1983-1987), Lois Schiffer (1993-2001), and Thomas Sansonetti (2001-2005). Id. at 10,992-94. Ramsey Clark, a former AAG of the Lands Division and former Attorney General, argued after leaving government service in Environmental Protection Agency v. Mink, 410 U.S. 73 (1973), fighting for government information on underground nuclear testing.

(53) See Japan Whaling Ass'n v. Am. Cetacean Soc'y, 478 U.S. 221, 223 (1986) (argued by Associate Attorney General Arnold Bums).

(54) Opinion Announcement at 0:18, TVA v. Hill, 437 U.S. 153 https://www.oyez.org/cases/ 1977/76-1701 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(55) 437 U.S. 153 (1978). And at that moment, a Justice--perhaps Justice John Paul Stevens-drew a laugh by asking, "Is it alive?" Oral Argument at 5:28, TVA v. Hill, 437 U.S. 153 (No. 761701), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1977/76-1701 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015). In several cases, mainly in the 1970s, advocates can be heard to use and explain demonstrative exhibits such as maps. The snail darter exhibit was singular enough that Chief Justice Burger recalled it during his opinion announcement.

(56) See infra note 66 and accompanying text (providing an example of an attorney being chastised by Chief Justice Rehnquist for interrupting a question from the bench).

(57) See, e.g., infra note 73 and accompanying text.

(58) Wrightsman, supra note 25, at 47-48. For additional practice pointer resources see Shapiro, supra note 27.

(59) 414 U.S. 313 (1973), overruled by Oregon ex rel. State Land Bd. v. Corvallis Sand & Gravel Co., 429 U.S. 363 (1977).

(60) Oral Argument at 10:20, Bonelli Cattle Co., 414 U.S. 313 (No. 72-397), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1973/72-397 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(61) 459 U.S. 176 (1982).

(62) Oral Argument at 2:33, Colorado, 459 U.S. 176 (No. 80 Orig.), https://www.oyez.org/ cases/1982/80%200RIG (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(63) As compared to other Chief Justices, Rehnquist was especially curt in informing the advocate that his or her time had expired. Examples abound, but the final seconds of the arguments in Phillips Petroleum Co. v. Mississippi are typical. Oral Argument at 56:00, Phillips Petroleum Co. v. Mississippi, 484 U.S. 469 (1988) (No. 86-870), https://www.oyez.org/cases/ 1987/86-870 Oast visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(64) 522 U.S. 520 (1998).

(65) Oral Argument at 52:25, Native Vill. of Venetie Tribal Gov't, 522 U.S. 520 (No. 19-1577), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1997/96-1577 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(66) Rehnquist Dresses Down Attorney, CJ ONLINE, Nov. 1, 2000, http://cjonline.com/stories/ 110100/new_rehnquist.shtml#.VhMfldZHlpm (last visited Nov. 21, 2015); Oral Argument at 29:38, Solid Waste Agency of N. Cook Cty. v. Army Corps of Eng'rs, 531 U.S. 159 (2001) (No. 99-1178), https://www.oyez.org/cases/2000/99-1178 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(67) Wrightsman, supra note 25, at 65.

(68) See Kenneth A. Manaster, The Many Paths of Environmental Practice: A Response to Professor Bonine, 28 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 238, 262 (2010) (arguing that skilled environmental lawyers need to understand the "fundamental environmental protection imperatives at hand," in addition to the intricacies of the law).

(69) Wrightsman, supra note 25, at 62.

(70) 373 U.S. 546 (1963).

(71) 283 U.S. 336 (1931).

(72) Id. at 342.

(73) Oral Re-Argument of November 14, Part 1 at 7:47, Arizona, 373 U.S. 546 (No. 8 Orig.), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1961/8%200RIG (last visited Nov. 21, 2015) (emphasis added). Justice William O. Douglas, famously biased toward environmental protection, may not have been amused. He was a particular fan of this line, having cited it in the majority opinion in United States v. Republic Steel Corp., 362 U.S. 482, 491 (1960), and several later decisions.

(74) National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 42 U.S.C. [section][section] 4321-4370h (2012).

(75) 422 U.S. 289 (1975).

(76) Oral Argument at 5:23, 23:14, SCRAP, 422 U.S. 289 (No. 73-1966), https://www.oyez.org/ cases/1974/73-1966 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(77) 442 U.S. 347 (1979). Oral Argument at 3:04, Andrus, 442 U.S. 347 (No. 78-625), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1978/78-625 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(78) 503 U.S. 569 (1992). Oral Argument at 28:47, Alaska, 503 U.S. 569 (No. 118 Orig.), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1991/118%20ORIG Oast visited Nov. 21, 2015). Justice Rehnquist makes the same error in one of his opinion announcements. See Opinion Announcement at 01:29, Metro. Edison v. People Against Nuclear Energy, 460 U.S. 766 (1983) (No. 81-2399), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1982/81-2399 Oast visited Nov. 21, 2015). In fairness, this error appears to be a universal cognitive glitch that pervades even the written decisions of courts of appeals and dozens of law review articles. Along the same lines, Justice Thomas in his opinion announcement for Department of Transportation v. Public Citizen, errs when he states that an "environmental impact assessment" is an "EIS," giving unintended ironic effect to his quip that followed: "By the way there will be a quiz on all of the acronyms after this." Opinion Announcement at 2:15, Dep't of Transp. v. Pub. Citizen, 541 U.S. 752 (2004) (No. 03-358), https://www.oyez.org/cases/2003/03-358 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(79) 531 U.S. 457, 459 (2001).

(80) 42 U.S.C. [section][section] 7401-7671q (2012).

(81) Oral Argument at 59:39, Whitman, 531 U.S. 457 (No. 99-1257), https://www.oyez.org/ cases/2000/99-1257 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(82) Id. at 32:59.

(83) Id. at 34:00.

(84) 463 U.S. 110 (1983).

(85) Oral Argument at 26:54, Nevada, 463 U.S. 110 (No. 81-2245), https://oyez.org/cases/ 1982.81-2245 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(86) Id. at 27:00.

(87) 514 U.S. 673 (1995).

(88) Oral Argument at 3:22, Kansas, 514 U.S. 673 (No. 105 Orig.), https://www.oyez.org/cases/ 1994/105%20ORIG (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(89) Id. at 3:32.

(90) Lazarus, Restoring What's Environmental about Environmental Law, supra note 13, at 707.

(91) See Id. at 768.

(92) See Wrightsman, supra note 25, at 47-48.

(93) See Lazarus, Restoring What's Environmental about Environmental Law; supra note 13, at 737-38, 740 (giving examples of cases with the United States as a party in which the advocates argued environmental issues only incidental to main arguments).

(94) 431 U.S. 99 (1977).

(95) Oral Argument at 3:00, Brown, 431 U.S. 99 (No. 75-909), http://www.oyez.org/cases/ 1976/75-909 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(96) Not that there is room to try otherwise. As a contemporary matter there is minimal leeway for extended and uninterrupted statements such as this one. But the point that advocates may consciously minimize emphasis on the environmental stakes of a case extends even to written advocacy. See, e.g., Jonathan Z. Cannon, Environment in the Balance: The Green Movement and the Supreme Court 61-62 (2015) [hereinafter Environment in the Balance] (noting that petitioners concertedly sought to "disguise" Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency, 549 U.S. 497 (2007), "as an ordinary administrative and statutory matter" (citing Lisa Heinzerling, Climate Change in the Supreme Court, 38 Envtl. L. 1, 6 (2008)).

(97) Richard L. Hasen, Celebrity Justice: Supreme Court Edition (University of California, Irvine School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper Series, No. 2015-61, 2015) (on file with Law Library, University of California, Irvine School of Law).

(98) See Lazarus, Advocacy Matters, supra note 43, at 1490; Lazarus, Docket Capture, supra note 43, at 89-90.

(99) See, e.g., Kedar S. Bhatia, Top Supreme Court Advocates of the Twenty-First Century, 1 J. Legal Metrics 561, 570-74 (2012) (ranking advocates by number of total arguments, by most single-term appearances, and appearances during greatest number of terms).

(100) See, e.g., Press Release, U.S. Dep't of Justice, Deputy Solicitor General, Lawrence Wallace, to Retire From the Justice Department after 35 Years of Service (Nov. 1, 2002) (noting the accomplishments of former Solicitor General Lawrence Wallace in arguing 157 cases before the Supreme Court since the 1970s). Quality of representation was more inconsistent, however, in past decades. Justice Burger was notably critical of past advocacy on behalf of state and local governments, but today the Justices have fewer complaints. See Wrightsman, supra note 25, at 20. See also Bryan A. Gamer, Interview with Justice Stevens, SCRIBES J. Legal WRITING 41, 45 (2010).

(101) 412 U.S. 541 (1973).

(102) 401 U.S. 402 (1971), abrogated by Califano v. Sanders, 430 U.S. 99 (1977).

(103) See Wrightsman, supra note 25, at 20.

(104) Justices consider a conversational dialogue an ideal oral argument, even though advocates may arrive with a prepared outline of topics; this naturally disrupts the flow of an organized argument. Id. at 44.

(105) As an aid, Appendix B lists the advocates for each merits case or amicus position argued on behalf of the United States. For more on the Solicitor's General's office and how its sphere of litigation influence has shifted through time, see Cordray & Cordray, supra note 24.

(106) Lazarus, Advocacy Matters, supra note 43, at 1492.

(107) Id. at 1496-97.

(108) Lincoln Caplan, The Tenth Justice: The Solicitor General and the Rule of Law 7 (1987).

(109) Id. at 1. Solicitor General Rex Lee went on to private practice in the 1980s, and he is sometimes credited for inspiring the development of Supreme Court practice groups in large law firms. Lazarus, Advocacy Matters, supra note 43, at 1503. Several other government attorneys listed in Appendix B went on to argue for other clients in later cases, including cases against the United States. It can be interesting to follow the longitudinal changes in styles for advocates after their departure from the Office of the Solicitor General. See infra Appendix B.

(110) Lazarus, Advocacy Matters, supra note 43, at 1545 n.237 ("The Court cares deeply about the views of the Solicitor General not just because of advocacy expertise but also because of substantive expertise related to the impact of possible rulings on the national government and the general public.").

(111) See infra Appendix B (listing the environmental and natural resources cases argued by Solicitors General, or acting Solicitors General, before the Supreme Court).

(112) See infra Appendix B.

(113) See infra Appendix B. In contrast to the norm, the Court rarely denies requests by the Solicitor General to participate in oral argument as amicus curiae. Lazarus, Advocacy Matters, supra note 43, at 1494.

(114) Lazarus, Advocacy Matters, supra note 43, at 1497.

(115) Lazarus, supra note 52, at 10,991.

(116) CAPLAN, supra note 108, at 163.

(117) Id. at 164. Claiborne's original jurisdiction cases were principally submerged lands ownership disputes, though he also argued boundary and water rights cases from the Court's unique original docket. See Vincent L. McKusick, Discretionary Gatekeeping: The Supreme Court's Management of its Original Jurisdiction Docket Since 1961, 45 Me. L. Rev. 185, 186 (1993) (highlighting original jurisdiction cases involving water rights and ownership of submerged lands); see also Robert D. Cheren, Environmental Controversies "Between Two or More States," 31 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 105, 106 (2014) ("The state controversy jurisdiction is so far most frequently used to resolve disputes over territory and interstate waters.").

(118) Claiborne can be heard to sound perfectly natural and authentic, for example, with locutions such as, "I'm grateful to the Chief Justice for having focused my attention on that question." Oral Argument at 37:06, Gwaltney of Smithfield, Ltd. v. Chesapeake Bay Found., Inc., 484 U.S. 49 (1987) (No. 86473), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1987/86473/ (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(119) See generally John Briscoe, A Life of Law and Letters: Louis F. Claiborne, 1927-1999, 23 SUP. Ct. HIST. Q. 8, 8-14 (2002); see also Richard J. Lazarus, Judging Environmental Law, 18 Tul. Envtl. L.J. 201, 202-04 (2004); Richard J. Lazarus, A Farewell to the "Claiborne Style, "Envtl. Forum, November/December 1999, at 8.

(120) See James van R. Springer, Some Suggestions on Preparing Briefs on the Merits in the Supreme Court of the United States, 33 CATH. U. L. Rev. 593, 601 (1984) (discussing the feasibility of using presumed biases of individual Justices and the importance of being consistent with the Court's majority decisions when strategizing for a favorable decision).

(121) See, e.g., James R. May, Not at All: Environmental Sustainability in the Supreme Court, 10 Sustainable Dev. L. & Pol'y 20 (2009) (recognizing that the importance of sustainability has grown exponentially); Miller, supra note 17 (describing statistics that reflect the resolution of conflicts between environmental values and other social or legal values); J.B. Ruhl, The Endangered Species Act's Fall from Grace in the Supreme Court, 36 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 487 (2012) (discussing the Endangered Species Act's "fall from grace," and the implications for the Court's environmental jurisprudence); Robert W. Adler, The Supreme Court and Ecosystems: Environmental Science in Environmental Law, 27 Vt. L. Rev. 249 (2003) (using extrinsic principles of environmental science to interpret national environmental policy); Dean B. Suagee, The Supreme Court's "Whack-a-Mole" Game Theory in Federal Indian Law, a Theory that Has No Place in the Realm of Environmental Law, GREAT PLAINS NAT. RESOURCES J., Fall 2002, at 90 (discussing the lack of doctrinal coherence in Court decisions concerning federal Indian law); Richard Lazarus, The National Environmental Policy Act in the U.S. Supreme Court: A Reappraisal and a Peek Behind the Curtains, 100 Geo. L.J. 1507 (2012) [hereinafter Lazarus, National Environmental Policy Act] (exploring cases arising under NEPA to suggest a nuanced story of the government's "perfect record").

(122) See, e.g., Mark Latham, The Rehnquist Court and the Pollution Control Cases: Anti-Environmental and Pro-Business?, 10 U. Pa. J. CONST. L. 133 (2007); Robert V. Percival, Environmental Implications of the Rehnquist Court's New Federalism, NAT. RESOURCES & ENV'T. Summer 2002, at 3; Stephen M. Johnson, The Roberts Court and the Environment, 37 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 317 (2010). Works also traverse the most ambitious timeframes. See, e.g., Michael Allan Wolf, The Supreme Court and the Environment: The Reluctant Protector 3-4 (2012) (considering environmental decisions from the 1970s through the twenty-first century); see generally Jonathan Cannon, Environmentalism and the Supreme Court: A Cultural Analysis, 33 ECOLOGY L.Q. 363, 364 (2006) [hereinafter A Cultural Analysis] (considering "the Court's major environmental decisions of the last three decades in light of beliefs and values commonly associated with 'environmentalism'"); see also ENVIRONMENT IN THE BALANCE, supra note 96, at 46-50 (analyzing changing perspectives on environmentalism through the lens of Supreme Court decisions).

(123) See, e.g., William Funk, Justice Breyer and Environmental Law, 8 ADMIN. L. J. Am. U. 735 (1995); Michael C. Blumm & Sherry L. Bosse, Justice Kennedy and the Environment: Property, States' Rights, and a Persistent Search for Nexus, 82 Wash. L. Rev. 667 (2007); Tyson R. Smith, Shades of Green: Justice O'Connor and the Environment, 18 J. Envtl. L. & LITIG. 365 (2003); Michael A. Perino, Justice Scalia: Standing, Environmental Law and the Supreme Court, 15 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 135 (1987); Kenneth A. Manaster, Justice Stevens, Judicial Power, and the Varieties of Environmental Litigation, 74 Fordham L. Rev. 1963 (2006).

(124) See, e.g., Robert V. Percival, Environmental Law in the Supreme Court: Highlights from the Marshall Papers, 23 Envtl. L. Rep. 10606 (1993); see also Robert V. Percival, Environmental Law in the Supreme Court: Higldights from the Blackmun Papers, 35 Envtl. L. Rep. 10,637 (2005) [hereinafter Blackmun Papers]; Richard Lazarus, The National Environmental Policy Act in the U.S. Supreme Court: A Reappraisal and a Peek Behind the Curtains, 100 Geo. L.J. 1507, 1511 (2012) (analyzing the Court's NEPA jurisprudence by considering "the personal papers of former Justices").

(125) See discussion infra Parts III.A-B.

(126) See Wrightsman, supra note 25, at ix-x.

(127) Opinion Announcement at 00:13, United Haulers Ass'n v. Oneida-Herkimer, 550 U.S. 330 (2007) (No. 05-1345), https://www.oyez.org/cases/2006/05-1345 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(128) See, e.g., Christopher W. Schmidt & Carolyn Shapiro, Oral Dissenting on the Supreme Court, 19 Wm. & Mary Bill of Rts. J. 75, 78 (2010).

(129) For more on this phenomenon, see Id. at 110-12; Jill Duffy & Elizabeth Lambert, Dissents from the Bench: A Compilation of Oral Dissents by U.S. Supreme Court Justices, 102 Law Libr. J. 7, 8 (2010); Timothy R. Johnson et al., Hear Me Roar: What Provokes Supreme Court Justices to Dissent from the Bench?, 93 MINN. L. REV. 1560, 1581 (2009).

(130) See Johnson et al., supra note 129, at 1581.

(131) Here, the oral dissent deviates from the written dissent, beginning with Justice Powell's prescient remark that he was dissenting in the "famous snail darter case." Oral Dissent of Justice Powell, Opinion Announcement at 4:53, TVA v. Hill, 437 U.S. 153 (1978) (No. 761701), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1977/76-1701Gast visited Nov. 21, 2015). Interestingly, while the written dissent employs parade-of-horribles rhetoric by arguing a "water spider or amoeba" may stop future projects, TVA, 437 U.S. at 203-04 (Powell, J., dissenting), the oral dissent goes with the snappier "water spider or cockroach." Oral Dissent of Justice Powell, Opinion Announcement at 11:57, TVA v. Hill, 437 U.S. 153 (No. 76-1701), https://www.oyez.org/cases/ 1977/76-1701 Gast visited Nov. 21, 2015). Decades later, the case is often hailed as the "best-known case in environmental law." See, e.g., Daniel A. Farber, A Tale of Two Cases, 20 Va. Envtl. L. J. 33, 34 (2001).

(132) 512 U.S. 374 (1994); Oral Dissent of Justice Stevens, Opinion Announcement at 2:09, Dolan, 512 U.S. 374 (No. 93-518), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1993/93-518 fast visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(133) 521 U.S. 507 (1997). While this case dealt with historic preservation, Id. at 519-20, Justice O'Conner's dissent, written and oral, purely focuses on Free Exercise Clause concerns. Id. at 544-45; Oral Dissent of Justice O'Connor, Opinion Announcement at 4:39, City of Boeme, 521 U.S. 507 (No. 95-2074), http://www.oyez.org/cases/1996/95-2074 Gast visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(134) 547 U.S. 715 (2006). Deviating from his written dissent, Stevens remarks parenthetically that Chevron, U.S.A., Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., 467 U.S. 837 (1984), is "an opinion, by the way, that I am rather proud of." Oral Dissent of Justice Stevens, Opinion Announcement at 22:00, Rapanos, 547 U.S. 715 (No. 04-1034), http://www.oyez.org/cases/2005/ 04-1034 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(135) 134 S. Ct. 1584 (2014). Justice Scalia prefaces his dissent by remarking, "These are not cases of earth shaking importance." Oral Dissent of Justice Scalia, Opinion Announcement Part 2, at 00:10, EME Homer City, 134 S. Ct. 1584 (No. 12-1182), https://www.oyez.org/cases/2013/12-1182 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015). Regrettably, it seems only one environmental case with an oral dissent has not been archived: Justices Douglas and Blackmun each orally dissented in Sierra Club v. Morton, 405 U.S. 727 (1972).

(136) Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 33 U.S.C. [section][section] 1251-1387 (2012).

(137) See Oral Concurrence of Justice Kennedy, Opinion Announcement at 12:40, Rapanos, 547 U.S. 715 (No. 04-1034) http://www.oyez.org/cases/2005/04-1034 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015) ("[T]he regulation can be sustained if there is a significant nexus with the waters that are navigable in the usual sense.... The limits the plurality would impose, in my view, give insufficient deference to Congress's purposes of enacting the Clean Water Act.").

(138) See Blackmun Papers, supra note 124, at 10640 (revealing, for example, that in the Court's first NEPA case, Justice Brennan passed a note to Justice Blackman that read, "NEPA uber alles").

(139) 452 U.S. 314 (1981).

(140) Oral Argument at 00:49, Hodel, 452 U.S. 314 (No. 80-231), https://www.oyez.org/cases/ 1980/80-231 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(141) 452 U.S. 264, 264 (1981).

(142) 467 U.S. 229 (1984).

(143) Oral Argument at 00:20, Hawaii Housing Authority, 467 U.S. 229 (No. 83-141), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1983/83-141 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(144) See Supreme Court of the United States, The Court and Its Traditions, http://www.supremecourt.gov/about/traditions.aspx (last visited Nov. 21, 2015) (describing seating arrangements for Justices on the bench).

(145) 436 U.S. 604 (1978).

(146) Oral Argument at 00:40, Charlestone Stone Prods., 436 U.S. 604 (No. 77-380), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1977/77-380 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(147) Reply Brief for the Petitioner at 3-4, Charlestone Stone Products, 436 U.S. 604 (No. 77-380), 1978 WL 207059.

(148) Charlestone Stone Products, 436 U.S. at 604.

(149) 541 U.S. 752 (2004).

(150) Oral Argument at 28:47, Public Citizen, 541 U.S. 752 (No. 03-358), https://www.oyez.org/ cases/2003/03-358 Oast visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(151) Justice Breyer's hypothetical of cow and sheep states in Environmental Protection Agency v. EME Homer City Generation, 134 S. Ct. 1584 (2014), is yet another example. Oral Argument at 1:04:21, EME Homer City Generation, 134 S. Ct. 1584 (No. 12-1182), https://www.oyez.org/cases/2013/12-1182 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015) ("The cow men and the sheep men are in different States. They're not friends."). Even as this overgrazing hypothetical overtly borrows from Garret Hardin's celebrated The Tragedy of the Commons, 162 SCIENCE 1243 (1968), the details have sufficiently changed to make it inscrutable for an off the cuff response. This kind of homage contrasts with Justice Scalia's less kind reference to the snail darter in another case that concerned "cooling water intake structures" for large powerplants. During arguments, Justice Scalia asserted that the respondent was "just talking about [protection for] the snail darter," thus colouring images of that fish squated against an intake screen. Oral Argument at 54:57, Entergy Corp. v. Riverkeeper, Inc., 556 U.S. 208 (2009) (No. 07-588), https://www.oyez.org/cases/2008/07-588 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(152) 438 U.S. 59 (1978).

(153) Oral Argument at 1:15:52, Duke Power Co., 438 U.S. 59 (No. 77-262), https://www. oyez.org/cases/1977/77-262 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(154) The jurisdiction pathway under 28 U.S.C. [section] 1252 (1976), which provided for direct appeals after judicial invalidation of an Act of Congress, has since been repealed.

(155) The topic of humor at the Supreme Court draws occasional media interest and less occasional scholarly treatment. See Malphurs, supra note 23.

(156) Oral Argument at 59:39, Metromedia Inc. v. San Diego, 453 U.S. 490 (1981) (No. 80-195), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1980/80-195 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(157) Endangered Species Act of 1973, 16 U.S.C. [section][section] 1531-1544 (2012).

(158) Oral Argument at 55:49, Babbit v. Sweet Home Chapter of Cmtys. for a Great Or., 515 U.S. 687 (1995) (No. 94-859), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1994/94-859 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(159) Id. at 40:48.

(160) Oral Argument at 24:28, C & A Carbone, Inc. v. Town of Clarkstown, 511 U.S. 383 (1993) (No. 92-1402), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1993/92-1402 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(161) Id. at 42:57.

(162) Oral Argument at 46:28, Chem. Waste Mgmt. v. Hunt, 504 U.S. 334 (1992) (No. 91-471), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1991/91-471 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(163) Oral Argument at 47:17, Hodel v. Irving, 481 U.S. 704 (1986) (No. 85-637), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1986/85-637 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015). The case concerned the land rights of the Sioux nation. While Rehnquist's quip is tasteless, it is noteworthy that laughter can be heard in the courtroom. One scholar, on the basis of Rehnquist's written opinions, deems him one of the most "Indianophobic justices ever to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court." See Robert Williams, Jr., Like a Loaded Weapon: The Rehnquist Court, Indian Rights, and the Legal History of Racism in America 118 (2005).

(164) Oral Argument at 5:22, Envtl. Def. v. Duke Energy Corp., 549 U.S. 561 (2006) (No. 05-848), https://www.oyez.org/cases/2006/05-848 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(165) Oral Argument at 1:01:53, TVA v. Hill, 437 U.S. 153 (1978) (No. 76-1701), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1977/76-1701 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015). Justice Powell earlier in the same argument identified himself as a "bass fisherman." Id. at 48:52.

(166) Oral Argument at 47:33, Winter v. Natural Res. Def. Counsel, 555 U.S. 7 (2008) (No. 07-1239), https://www.oyez.org/cases/2008/07-1239 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(167) Oral Argument at 16:21, Kansas v. Colorado, 543 U.S. 105 (2004) (No. 105 Orig.), https://www.oyez.org/cases/2004/105_orig (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(168) Oral Argument at 26:47, Aberdeen & Rockfish R.R. Co. v. SCRAP, 422 U.S. 289 (1975) (No. 73-1966), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1974/73-1966 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015). "And they [are] moved on the nation's railroads every day Mr. Justice," responded Deputy Solicitor General Randolph. Id. at 26:48.

(169) 478 U.S. 221 (1986).

(170) Oral Argument at 5:30, Japan Whaling Ass'n., 478 U.S. 221 (No. 85-954), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1985/85-954 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(171) Justice Stewart, for example, cited his "personal experience" in game hunting when asking about the extravagant costs that people from outside Montana expect to pay on hunting trips. Oral Argument at 41:32, Baldwin v. Fish & Game Comm'n of Mont., 436 U.S. 371 (1978) (No. 76-1150), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1977/76-1150 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015). Similarly, in announcing the opinion for North Dakota v. United States, 460 U.S. 300 (1983), Justice Blackmun began, "[T]his case ... presents rather a refreshing subject matter because it concerns the wild fowl that fly our Midwest flyways, that is ducks and geese." Opinion Announcement at 00:08, North Dakota, 460 U.S. 300 (No. 81-773), https://www.oyez.org/cases/ (1982/81-773) (last visited Nov. 21, 2015) (emphasis added). See also supra note 128 and accompanying text.

(172) See, e.g., Oral Argument at 24:08, Massachusetts v. U.S. Envtl. Prot. Agency, 547 U.S. 497 (2007) (No. 05-1120), https://www.oyez.org/cases/2006/05-1120 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015). Justice Scalia mistakenly employed the terms "stratosphere" and "stratospheric pollutant" to describe the workings of greenhouse gases. Id. The likely and most charitable explanation for this failing was that Justice Scalia borrowed the word "stratosphere" from arguments on the distinctive status of stratospheric ozone pollution that was addressed by special legislation; he likely did not appreciate the stratosphere's definitional exclusion of the troposphere, only its distinctiveness and remoteness from the realm of local air pollution.

(173) Lazarus, National Environmental Policy Act, supra note at 121, at 1586.

(174) 460 U.S. 766 (1983). This is not the first NEPA decision Justice Rehnquist authored. See Lazarus, National Environmental Policy Act, supra note 135, at 1580 (explaining that Justice Rehnquist authored Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. in 1978).

(175) Opinion Announcement at 01:29, Metro. Edison Co., 460 U.S. 766 (No. 81-2399), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1982/81-2399 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(176) Oral Argument at 09:36, EME Homer City, 134 S. Ct. 1584 (2014) (No. 12-1182), https://www.oyez.org/cases/2013/12-1182 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(177) Oral Argument at 31:11, Nevada v. United States, 463 U.S. 110 (1983) (No. 81-2245), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1982/81-2245 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015) (emphasis added).

(178) Justice Marshall, while not a dissenter in TV A v. Hill, 437 U.S. 153 (1978), antagonized Respondent's counsel during oral arguments. Oral Argument at 43:58, TV A, 437 U.S. 153 (No. 761701), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1977/76-1701 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015). Zygmunt Plater's book vividly recreates the argument and his time at the lectern with a reconstructed interior monologue. Zygmunt Plater, The Snail Darter and the Dam: How Pork-Barrel Endangered a Little Fish and Killed a River 243-45 (2013).

(179) Oral Argument at 43:58, TVA, 437 U.S. 153 (No. 76-1701), https://www.oyez.org/cases/ 1977/76-1701 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015); Oral Argument at 31:11, Nevada, 463 U.S. 110 (No. 812245), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1982/81-2245 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(180) 500 U.S. 380 (1991).

(181) Oral Argument at 33:10, Illinois, 500 U.S. 380 (No. 106 Orig.), https://www.oyez.org/ cases/1990/106_orig (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(182) 438 U.S. 696 (1978).

(183) See, e.g., A Cultural Analysis, supra note 122, at 399 ("The dissent stands as among the most eloquent renderings of the ecological world view by a Supreme Court justice.").

(184) New Mexico, 438 U.S. at 719 (Powell, J., dissenting).

(185) Id.

(186) See Lazarus, Restoring What's Environmental about Environmental Law, supra note 13, at 716-17 (listing the New Mexico opinion as a representative example of why Justice Rehnquist has a reputation of being unsympathetic to environmental protection concerns).

(187) Oral Argument at 10:33, New Mexico, 438 U.S. 696 (No. 77-510), https://www.oyez.org/ cases/1977/77-510 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(188) One commentator concludes Justice Powell was "informed by prevailing scientific understandings of the inherent connections between the various components of forest ecosystems." Robert W. Adler, The Supreme Court and Ecosystems: Environmental Science in Environmental Law, 27 Vt. L. Rev. 249, 328 (2003). Justice Rehnquist was arguably no less informed.

(189) Oral Argument at 10:17, New Mexico, 438 U.S. 696 (No. 77-510), https://www.oyez.org/ cases/1977/77-510 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(190) Mart A. Stewart, Environmental History: Profile of a Developing Meld, 31 HIST. Tchr. 351, 352 (1998) (emphasis omitted).

(191) Id.

(192) For example, the case of Morrison v. Olson, 487 U.S. 654 (1988), was part of an explosive interbranch dispute regarding oversight hearings into the Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund program. The case was momentous, even as a matter of the Agency's history, but the case was not about Superfund administration as much as the battle for oversight into its administration.

(193) See Stewart, supra note 190, at 353-54.

(194) See, e.g., Louisiana v. Mississippi, 516 U.S. 22 (1995) (deciding a boundary dispute between Louisiana and Mississippi stemming from changes in a river channel).

(195) See, e.g., Midlantic Nat'l Bank v. N.J. Dep't of Envtl. Prot., 474 U.S. 494 (1985) (considering whether filing for bankruptcy allowed a business to abandon property in contravention of New York and New Jersey environmental laws, thereby threatening public health and safety).

(196) Oral Argument at 2:09, Huron Portland Cement Co. v. Detroit, 362 U.S. 482 (1960) (No. 86), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1959/86 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015) (concerning pollution controls for the now-antiquated scotch marine boiler, a type of engine that once predominated when ships were propelled by steam).

(197) Air Pollution Variance Board v. Western Alfalfa discusses the Ringelmann Smoke Chart, one of the first tools for smoke abatement. See Oral Argument at 10:17, Air Pollution Variance Bd., 416 U.S. 861 (No, 73-690), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1973/73-690 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(198) During oral arguments in the water pollution case, Ohio v. Wyandotte Chemicals Corp., 401 U.S. 493 (1971), counsel invokes the example of mercury poisoning in Minamata Bay, Japan. Oral Argument at 10:41, Wyandotte Chems. Corp. 401 U.S. 493 (No. 41 Orig.), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1970/41%20ORIG Past visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(199) See Sheldon L. Trubatch, How, Why, and When the U.S. Supreme Court Supports Nuclear Power, 3 Ariz. J. Envtl. L. & Pol'y 1, 9-10 (2012) (analyzing early Supreme Court decisions regarding the environmental impacts of nuclear power). Excepting several waste cases, it has been more than 30 years since the Court showed any active interest in nuclear energy cases. It has also been more than 20 years since the Court has heard a case that dealt with hunting and fishing rights.

(200) See generally Neil D. McFeeley & Richard J. Ault, Supreme Court Oral Argument: An Exploratory Analysis, 20 Jurimetrics J. 52, 53 (1979) (discussing oral arguments before the Supreme Court and the probing questions from the Justices). Not to mention that in original jurisdiction cases, the Court makes findings of fact, usually by taking evidence and considering recommendations from an appointed special master.

(201) United States v. Republic Steel Corp., 362 U.S. 482 (1960); Citizens to Preserve Overton Park, Inc. v. Volpe, 401 U.S 402 (1971), abrogated by Califano v. Sanders, 430 U.S. 99 (1977); City of Phila. v. New Jersey, 437 U.S. 617 (1978).

(202) Republic Steel Corp., 362 U.S. at 489-90.

(203) Oral Argument at 1:14:26, Republic Steep Corp., 362 U.S. 482 (No. 56), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1959/56 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015). Amazingly, this scientific assertion was offered to reject and clarify a point made earlier, that "sewage in the light disappears." Id. at 1:14:16.

(204) Id. at 1:14:26.

(205) Id. at 1:15:13.

(206) Joel A. Tarr, The Search for the Ultimate Sink: Urban Pollution in Historical Perspective 154 (Jeffrey K Stine & William McGucken eds., 1996).

(207) See Missouri v. Illinois, 200 U.S. 496, 523 (1906).

(208) See generally Oral Argument, Part 1 at 1:14:26, Republic Steep Corp., 362 U.S. 482 (No. 56), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1959/56 Hast visited Nov. 21, 2015) (arguing outdated scientific theory).

(209) See generally Does Running Water Purify Itself?, PAC. Rural PRESS (San Francisco), Nov. 9, 1878, at 295, available at http://cdnc.ucr.edu/cgi-bin/cdnc?a=d&d=PRP18781109.2.20.1 (discussing the fallacy of running water purifying itself).

(210) Citizens to Pres. Overton Park, Inc. v. Volpe, 401 U.S. 402, 404-05 (1971).

(211) Oral Argument, Part 2, at 32:09, Citizens to Preserve Overton Park, 401 U.S. 402 (No. 1066), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1970/1066 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(212) Id. at 32:37.

(213) William Cronon, Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the ecology of new England 10-11 (1st rev. ed. 2003).

(214) See, e.g., Donald Worster, Nature's Economy: A History of ecological Ideas 205-11 (2d ed. 1994).

(215) Cronon, supra note 213, at 11.

(216) Id.

(217) See Citizens to Preserve Overton Park, 401 U.S. 402, 404 (1971); Oral Argument, Part 2, at 32:09, Citizens to Preserve Overton Park, 401 U.S. 402 (No. 1066), https://www.oyez.org/cases /1970/1066 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(218) See Citizens to Preserve Overton Park, 401 U.S. at 406 (describing the forest only in acreage).

(219) 430 U.S. 141 (1977).

(220) Id. at 141-42.

(221) Oral Argument at 49:54, New Jersey I, 430 U.S. 141 (No. 75-1150), https://www.oyez.org/ cases/1976/75-1150 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(222) See, e.g., Tarr, supra note 206, at 347 (explaining that in the postwar era, sanitary landfills looked to fill and eliminate marshes that would otherwise harbor pests such as mosquitoes and rats).

(223) Id. at 28.

(224) Oral Argument at 52:16, New Jersey I, 430 U.S. 141 (No. 75-1150), https://www.oyez.org/ cases/1976/75-1150 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015). "[G]arbage is not good for land reclamation unless you are talking about a light use such as a golf course." Id. at 53:07.

(225) 437 U.S. 617 (1978).

(226) Oral Argument at 6:25, New Jersey II, 437 U.S. 617 (No. 77-404), https://www.oyez.org/ cases/1977/77-404 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(227) It has become cliche for commentators to speculate on how the Justices' recreational pursuits--e.g., hunting, fishing and hiking--or the geography of their upbringing has influenced their views. See, e.g., Tyson R. Smith, Shades of Green: Justice O'Connor and the Environment, 18 J. Envtl. L. Litig. 365, 366 (2003) (asserting that Justice O'Connor's judicial decisions "reflect her personal experiences growing up in the American West"). There is room for more complex profiling. For example, did Justice Alito having once argued a Clean Water Act case before the Court in any way influence his service as the opinion writer for National Ass'n of Homebuilders v. Defenders of Wildlife, 551 U.S. 644 (2007), twenty-five years later?

(228) Miller, supra note 17, at 140.

(229) Consider Justice Scalia's role in the Court's trilogy of climate change cases. In writing the opinion in Utility Air Regulatory Group v. Environmental Protection Agency, 134 S. Ct. 2427 (2014), he scarcely cited the Court's decision in American Electric Power Co. v. Connecticut, 131 S. Ct. 2527 (2011). During arguments for that earlier decision, Justice Scalia had pressed counsel with lightly mocking questions on "(c]ow by cow" nuisance suits. Oral Argument at 56:19, Am. Elec. Power Co., 131 S. Ct. 2527 (No. 10-174), https://www.oyez.org/cases/2010/10-174 Oast visited Nov. 21, 2015). Perhaps fixated on the same bovine theme, in the seminal case of Massachusetts v. United States Environmental Protection Agency, the dissenting Justice Scalia posited that the Court was making everything--"from Frisbees to flatulence"--qualify as an air pollutant under the Clean Air Act. 549 U.S. 497, 558 (2007). Even as the Court in granting certiorari seems to acknowledge the blockbuster aspects to each of these cases individually, the Court skirts any self-awareness of their collective significance.

(230) Advocacy, Advocate, Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1986).

(231) Id.

(232) Id.

(233) Borrowing from the environmental law docket, one of the more vivid examples may be taken from the landmark takings and historic preservation case of Penn Central Transportation Co. v. New York City. 438 U.S. 104 (1978). Jackie Kennedy Onassis, an outspoken advocate for the railroad station's preservation, was present. As petitioner's counsel recalls it, she "marched into the spectator section of the Court with an entourage just before the argument started," causing "quite a stir." She "was probably the strongest argument presented in favor of the city." See Legends in the Law: Daniel M. Gribbon, Wash. Law., 1998 http://www.dcbar.org/ bar-resources/publications/washington-lawyer/articles/legend-gribbon.cfm (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(234) 405 U.S. 727 (1972) (Douglas, J., dissenting).

(235) Id. at 752. Legally distinct, but following a similar strand of thought, the "public trust doctrine" has much of its persuasive appeal in the point that future generations are stakeholders in problems of irrevocable environmental degradation. See, e.g., Nat'l Audubon Soc'y v. Superior Court of Alpine Cty., 658 P.2d 709, 724 (Cal. 1983) (citing public trust as "an affirmation of the duty of the state to protect the people's common heritage").

(236) See A Cultural Analysis, supra note 122, at 429-30.

(237) Sierra Club, 405 U.S. at 749-50.

(238) Daniel A. Farber, Is the Supreme Court Irrelevant? Reflections on the Judicial Role in Environmental Law, 81 Minn L. Rev. 547, 547-48, 569 (1997) (arguing that Supreme Court jurisprudence has essentially been irrelevant to the development of environmental law).

(239) See Sup. Ct. R. 28 ("Oral argument should emphasize and clarify the written arguments in the briefs on the merits.").

(240) See Tony Mauro, Opinion Announcements; 88 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 477, 483 (2012) ("[O]pinion announcements by their very nature are already selective summaries.").

(241) See Id. (discussing the fact that Justices do not want opinion announcements to be viewed as an official part of the opinion).

(242) See Shapiro, supra note 27, at 533 (discussing the value of listening to the Court's oral argument recordings in preparing for oral arguments).

(243) See Moot Court, Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1971).

(244) See Farber, supra note 238, at 547-50.

(245) See id at 569 ("[T]he Court has either stayed on the sidelines or participated ineffectually in the making of environmental law.").

(246) See Id. at 550.

(247) 426 U.S. 167 (1976).

(248) 434 U.S. 275 (1978).

(249) 496 U.S. 530 (1990).

(250) These cases were overruled by Clean Air Act Section 116, 42 U.S.C. [section] 7416 (2012); Section 112(d)(2)(D), 42 U.S.C. [section] 7412(d)(2)(D) (2012); and Section 110(k)(1)(B), 42 U.S.C. [section] 7410(k)(l)(B) (2012), respectively.

(251) 426 U.S. 200 (1976).

(252) Clean Water Act Section 313, 33 U.S.C. [section] 1323 (2012).

(253) See Zygmunt Plater, Classic Lessons from a Little Fish in a Pork Barrel--Featuring the Notorious Story of the Endangered Snail Darter and TVA's Last Dam, 32 UTAH Envtl. L. Rev. 211, 230-31(2012).

(254) See, e.g., Environment in the Balance, supra note 96, at 100-08 (relating that political efforts following the decision in Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Ass'n, 485 U.S. 439 (1988)--a dispute over road construction through a natural, to some sacred, setting--resulted in Congressional expansion of an existing wilderness area, terminating further road construction).

(255) In a way of thinking, Massachusetts v. United States Environmental Protection Agency 549 U.S. 497 (2007), was administratively superseded by the agency's greenhouse gas endangerment finding. Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases Under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act, 74 Fed. Reg. 66,496 (Dec. 15, 2009).

(256) In Seminole Tribe v. Florida, 517 U.S. 44 (1996), not an environmental case, the Supreme Court overturned its holding in Pennsylvania v. Union Gas Co., 491 U.S. 1 (1989), a contaminated site case.

(257) See Significant Oral Arguments, supra note 19 (providing examples of oral arguments made by skillful advocates).

(258) For example, Professor Jonathan Cannon's Environment in the Balance presents an appendix of thirty selected cases, including widely known cases and others having, in his judgment, "particular cultural as well as legal significance" that "might deserve canonical status." Environment in the Balance, supra note 96, at 47, 301-02.

(259) On this point, it bears noting that not all "air pollution" cases have been decided under the Clean Air Act. See, e.g., Air Pollution Variance Bd. v. W. Alfalfa Corp., 416 U.S. 861 (1974) (involving Colorado state pollution control laws, decided on Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment grounds); Huron Portland Cement Co v. Detroit, 362 U.S. 440 (1960) (concerning a violation of Detroit's Smoke Abatement Code).

(260) James Salzman & J.B. Ruhl, Who's Number One?, Envtl. Forum, November/December 2009, at 36, 41 [hereinafter Number One] (surveying the "greatest hits" in environmental jurisprudence, and identifying a significant number of important cases from the 1970s).

(261) Compare Oral Argument, Massachusetts v. U.S. Envtl. Prot. Agency, 547 U.S. 497 (2007) (No. 05-1120), https://www.oyez.org/cases/2006/05-1120 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015) (providing a modern example of oral arguments in which the Justices tire active from the start and ask a lot of questions), with Oral Argument, Air Pollution Variance Bd. v. W. Alfalfa Corp., 416 U.S. 861 (1974) (No. 73-690), https://www.oyez.org/cases/1973/73-690 (last visited Nov. 21, 2015) (typifying earlier oral arguments in which the Justices asked fewer questions and gave the advocates more time to speak).

(262) James Salzman & J.B. Ruhl, New Kids on the Block--A Survey of Practitioner Views on Important Cases in Environmental and Natural Resources Law, 25 Nat. Resources & Env't 45 (2010) [hereinafter New Kids on the Block].

(263) Salzman, supra note 260, at 36.

(264) Salzman, supra note 262, at 45 (identifying Massachusetts, 547 U.S. 497 (2007), Chevron U.S.A. Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, 467 U.S. 837 (1984), and Rapanos v. United States, 547 U.S. 715 (2006), as the most significant cases in environmental law).

(265) Salzman, supra note 262, at 45. By some measures, Chevron--at its roots, a Clean Air Act case--may be the Court's most important case of the last fifty years. See Frank B. Cross and James F. Spriggs n, The Most Important (and Best) Supreme Court Opinions and Justices, 60 Emory L. J. 407, 432 (2010) (indicating that Chevron is the only case since 1967 in the list of "Top 25 Cases by Supreme Court Citation Numbers").

(266) New Kids on the Block, supra note 262, at 45.

(267) Cf. William H. Rodgers, Jr., The Most Creative Moments in the History of Environmental Law: The Who's, 39 WASHBURN L.J. 1, 3-5, 10 (1999). Professor Rodgers points to several "creative moments" in environmental law that intersect with litigation at the highest Court, such as Silkwood v. Kerr McGee Corp., 464 U.S. 238 (1984), and United States v. SCRAP, 412 U.S. 669 (1973). Id.

(268) See Id. at 3 (exploring examples of interesting risk-taking strategies in oral arguments).

(269) Significant Oral Arguments, supra note 19.

(270) Supreme Court Historical Society, Significant Oral Arguments 1955-1993: The Burger Court, http://supremecourthistory.org/history_oral_decisions_burger.html (last visited Nov. 21, 2015) (listing Sierra Club v. Morton, 405 U.S. 727 (1972), United States v. SCRAP, 412 U.S. 669 (1973), Penn Central Transportation Co. v. New York City, 438 U.S. 104 (1978), Philadelphia v. New Jersey, 437 U.S. 617 (1978), TVA v. Hill, 437 U.S. 153 (1978), Central Hudson Gas & Electric Co. v. Public Service Commission of New York, 447 U.S. 557 (1980), Metromedia Inc. v. City of San Diego, 453 U.S. 490 (1981), Silkwood v. Kerr McGee, 464 U.S. 238 (1983), and Hawaii Housing Authority v. Midkiff, 467 U.S. 229 (1984)).

(271) Supreme Court Historical Society, Significant Oral Arguments 1955-1993: The Rehnquist Court, http://supremecourthistory.org/history_oral_decisions_rehnquist.html (last visited Nov. 21, 2015) (listing First Lutheran Church v. Los Angeles County, 482 U.S. 304 (1987), Keystone Bituminous Coal Ass'n. v. De Benedictis, 480 U.S. 470 (1987), Nollan v. California Coastal Commission, 483 U.S. 825 (1987), Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council, 505 U.S. 1003 (1992), Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife, 504 U.S. 555 (1992), and New York v. United States, 505 U.S. 144 (1992)).

(272) Id.

(273) See, e.g., Oyez, About Oyez, http://oyez.org/about (last visited Nov. 21, 2015) (making it known that Oyez is available to the public and hosts all of the court's audio recordings since October 1955).

(274) In a ranking of advocates who argued the most before the Supreme Court from 2000-2012, the first nine attorneys--and many ranked thereafter--have argued environmental cases. See, e.g., Bhatia, supra note 99, at 570-72.

(275) Members of the Supreme Court of the United States, supra note 4.

(276) Id. See also The Oxford Guide to United States Supreme Court Decisions 384-94 (Kermit L. Hall ed., 1999) (appendices pinpointing the succession of Justices through 1994).

(277) Office of the Solicitor General, Solicitors General 1870-Present, http://www.justice.gov/ osg/aboutosg/osghistlist.php (last visited Nov. 21, 2015).

(278) Environmental and Natural Resources Division Assistant Attorney General. ENRD Assistant Attorneys General: Then and Now.; http://www.justice.gov/enrd/2987.htm (last visited Nov. 21, 2015). This information field imposes several approximations due to regular vacancies and delays in Senate confirmations.

* M.A., Energy and Earth Resources, University of Texas at Austin; J.D., Loyola Law School of Los Angeles; Attorney, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These remarks were written in the author's private capacity and do not necessarily represent the views of the Environmental Protection Agency or the United States. The author wishes to thank the editors of Environmental Lawton their helpful suggestions and Oyez[R], a multimedia judicial archive at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law, for its assistance and for providing audio files that were indispensable to the author's research.
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Title Annotation:Continuation of IV. Audience through V. Conclusion, with footnotes and appendices, p. 927-955
Author:Tomasovic, Brian S.
Publication:Environmental Law
Date:Sep 22, 2015
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