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Some morphometric relationships of coral trouts Plectropomus pessuliferus and Plectropomus areolatus inhabiting Sudanese Red Sea.

Introduction

Sudan marine finfish fisheries account for about 9 percent of the total fish potential of the country and contributes 8.5 percent of total production (FAO, 2008). Coral trouts (Plectropomus pessuliferus "Najil" and Plectropomus areolatus "Silimani" ) are the main target species for artisanal fishers in Sudanese marine fisheries. Coral trouts of the genus Plectropomus are members of the serranid subfamily Epinephelinae, which are commonly known as groupers [7]. Sea basses (Serranidae) are among the most important families of commercially harvested tropical marine fishes worldwide. Most members of the Epinephelinae subfamily, in particular, are heavily exploited and bring high market prices [2,14] c.f. [1].

Size- free meristics and morphometric characters are valid tools to identify species, genera and fish stock units [12]. Morphometric characters are not sensitive to short-term, local fluctuations, and reflect average differences over long periods between environmental factors in different areas [10]. Many statistical techniques used the morphometric and meristic characters in classification and discrimination study, e.g., Ismen, [10], LAWSON, [11], Simon et al, [16] and Mekkawy and Mohammed, [12].

The morphometric measurements can help in identification of P. pessuliferus and P. areolatus in Sudanese Red Sea and also may facilitate the determination of the locality from where specimens of the same species came from (in which this species inhabits).

Materials and Methods

A total of 165 specimens of P. pessuliferus and 262 specimens of P. areolatus were collected during the period from August 2009 to August 2010 from Port Sudan fish market. The specimens were believed to be caught south of Port Sudan about 60 km (around Suakin). On the average, around 10-20 specimens for each species belonging to the same area were collected monthly.

Morphometric measurements followed the description by FAO, [5] (fig. 1). The Total length (TL), standard length (SL), depth (D), girth (G), were measured with tape to the nearest 0.1cm and head length (HL), eye diameter (ED), snout, pectoral fin length (PFL), pelvic fin length (PVFL), caudal peduncle depth (CPD), length of upper jaw (LUJ), open mouth width (OMW) were measured with Vernier to the nearest 0.01cm. Some proportions are adopted from the study e.g. (D: SL, HL: SL, Snout: HL, and PFL: HL).

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The relationships were plotted by Excel 2007 and the variables analyzed by SPSS 17.

Results and Discussion

All morphometric characters varied between two species. Descriptive statistics for each measurement character are given in Table 1. There was high significant differences between the two species in all morphometric characters (P< 0.000). For P. pessuliferus and P. areolatus the relationships between total length and others variables are very strong (P < 0.01), the regression analysis between different morphometric character and total length was calculated (Table 2and figs. 2-12). The correlation coefficient value (R-value) showed that high significant at (P< 0.01). Some body proportions are adopted from study (Table 3). The proportions showed that they are significant differences between the two species.

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Discussion:

Analysis of the morphometric characters are important for the identification of any fish species [3,4,9,13]. C.f. [15]. Meristic and morphometric features were used since they are still dependable tools to characterize fish species especially on the field and they are sensitive to any environmental changes [8]. C.f. (Omoniyi and Agbon, 2008). All morphometric characters of P. pessuliferus are larger than those of P. areolatus (Table 1). In the present study all relationships of morphogenetic measurements against the total length appeared that there is a strong correlation (Table 2). The morphogenetic measurements for the P. pessuliferus and P. areolatus around Suakin showed that these species significantly different. The patterns of differences in the morphogenetic characters between these species may be considered in term of their mode of growth, this found by Mekkawy and Mohammed, [12] who studied the morphometric and meristics of the three epinepheline species: (Cephalopholis argus, Cephalopholis miniata and Vriola louti) from Red Sea. Some body proportions are adopted from the study (Table 3), showed that all propositions means are compatible with FAO, [5] Records, except for HL: Snout which equals 4.07 and is larger than FAO, (1993) which is maximum value is 3.60. The correlations of these indices with TL and SL showed significant correlation at 0.01 level. Except for the index of HL: PLF, which showed no significance, all indices for P. pessuliferus and P. areolatus are vary significantly.

Conclusion:

All Morphometric measurements have high correlation with total length. There are significant differences in the morphometric measurements and body proportions between P. pessuliferus and P. areolatus around Suakin. Majority of body proportions for the two species conforms with FAO, [5] Identifications, except for HL: Snout. These variations between these two species are important and critical criteria for any fisheries management endeavor for P. pessuliferus and P. areolatus in Sudanese Red Sea.

Acknowledgement

Author acknowledges Red Sea University, UMT, also I gratefully acknowledge assistance in samples measurements by, O. Mogera, M. Mostafa, N. Hassan, I. Mokhtar, N. Mohamed, H. Ezeddin, H.Omer and E. Majdi.

References

[1.] Bacheler, N.M. and J.A. Buckel, 2004. Does hook type influence the catch rate, size, and injury of grouper in a North Carolina commercial fishery? Fisheries Research, 69: 303-311.

[2.] Beets, J., M.A. Hixon, 1994. Distribution, persistence, and growth of groupers (Pisces: Serranidae) on artificial and natural patch reefs in the Virgin Islands. Bull. Mar. Sci., 55: 470-483.

[3.] Ezzat, A., A.M. El-Maghraby, M.T. Hashem and M. Zaki, 1977. Age and growth of Mugil capito in Nozha Hydrodrome, Alexandria, ARE. Bull. Inst. Ocean. and Fish., 7: 191-206.

[4.] Ezzat, A.A., M.T. Hashem and M. El-Gharabawy, 1979. Biometric variations in Solea vulgaris acclimatized in Lake Quarun, Upper Egypt. J. Fish Biol., 14: 39-46.

[5.] Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 1993. FAO species catalogue Vol. 16. Grouper of the world. Rome, Italy.

[6.] Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2008. Review of the world marine capture fisheries management: Indian Ocean. Country review: Sudan.

[7.] Frisch, A.J. and J.A. Hobbs, 2007. In vitro hybridization of coral trouts, Plectropomus leopardus (LacepeMe, 1802) and Plectropomus maculatus (Bloch, 1790): a preliminary investigation. Aquaculture Research, 38: 215-218.

[8.] Fryer, G. and T.D. Iles, 1972. The Cichlid fish of the Great Lakes of Africa. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh., pp: 641.

[9.] Idris, M.A. and Z.N. Mahmoud, 2001. Studies on morphometric measurements and meristic count on Labeo niloticus (frosskal,1775). Sudan J. of Nat. Sci., 1: 89-108.

[10.] Ismen, A., 2001. Use of a Discriminant Function for the Morphometric and Meristic Separation of Whiting Stocks, Merlangius merlangus euxinus, along the Turkish Black Sea Coast. Turk J Zool., 25: 297-304.

[11.] LAWSON, E.O., 2010. Morphometric measurements and meristic counts in mudskipper (Periophthalmus papilio) from mangrove swamps of Lagos lagoon, Nigeria..J. Appl. Biosci., 34: 2166-2172.

[12.] Mekkawy, I.A.A. and A.S. Mohammad, 2011. Morphometrics and Meristics of the Three Epinepheline Species: Cephalopholis argus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801), Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskal, 1775) and Variola louti (Forsskal, 1775) from the Red Sea, Egypt. J. Biol. Sci., 11: 10-21.

[13.] Mohamed, E.H.A., 2003. A new approach to the systematic of some Synodontis (Siluridae, Teleostei). Sudan J. of Nat. Sci., 8: 71-87.

[14.] Morris, A.V., C.M. Roberts, J.P. Hawkins, 2000. The threatened status of groupers (Epinephelinae). Biodiversity Conserv., 9: 919-942.

[15.] Salih, S.A., 2006. Some Biological Aspects of Siganus rivulatus and Siganus stellatus from Abu Hashish Area in the Sudanese Red Sea Coast. M. Sc. Thesis. Department of Zoology, University of Khartoum.

[16.] Simon, K.D., Y. Bakar, A. Samat, C.C. Zaidi, A. Aziz and A.G. Mazlan, 2010. Population growth, trophic level, and reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fishes (Toxotes chatareus, Hamilton 1822 and Toxotes jaculatrix, Pallas 1767) inhabiting Malaysian coastal waters. J Hewing Unit Sci B., 10(12): 902-911.

(1) S.M. Elamin, (1) M.A. Ambak, (2) M.A. Samoilys and (3) M.E. Hamza

(1) Faculty of Agrotechnology and Food Science, UMT, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia.

(2) Coastal Oceans Research and Development--Indian Ocean (CORDIO), Mombasa, Kenya.

(3) Faculty of Marine Science and Fisheries, Red Sea University, Port Sudan, Sudan.

Corresponding Author

S.M. Elamin, Faculty of Agrotechnology and Food Science, UMT, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

E-mail: sheikelamin@yahoo.com
Table 1: Descriptive Statistics of different body measurements
for P. pessuliferus and P.areolatus around Suakin.

Morphometric   P. pessuliferus
Character
               Min-Max       MeaniSE

T.L            32.60-90.00   56.90 [+ or -] 0.94
S.L            26.70-75.00   46.29 [+ or -] 0.79
H.L            8.92-28.00    16.25 [+ or -] 0.30
E.D            1.35-2.97     2.04 [+ or -] 0.02
D              9.00-28.50    16.62 [+ or -] 0.34
G              19.00-61.00   34.13 [+ or -] 0.68
Snout          2.30-9.00     4.78 [+ or -] 0.10
PFL            4.30-11.24    7.15 [+ or -] 0.12
PVFL           3.92-10.10    6.49 [+ or -] 0.11
CPD            2.98-9.00     5.16 [+ or -] 0.09
LUJ            3.92-12.50    7.27 [+ or -] 0.14
OMW            3.44-11.00    6.34 [+ or -] 0.10

Morphometric   P. areolatus
Character
               Min-Max      MeaniSE

T.L            24.5-57.6    38.77 [+ or -] 0.43
S.L            20.2-48.5    32.11 [+ or -] 0.36
H.L            6.84-17.65   11.11 [+ or -] 0.13
E.D            1.12-2.17    1.63 [+ or -] 0.01
D              6.1-18.2     10.84 [+ or -] 0.14
G              13.7-36.0    22.45 [+ or -] 0.27
Snout          1.51-4.60    2.76 [+ or -] 0.04
PFL            2.98-8.11    5.16 [+ or -] 0.06
PVFL           2.87-6.51    4.48 [+ or -] 0.05
CPD            2.08-5.73    3.83 [+ or -] 0.04
LUJ            3.00-8.33    5.11 [+ or -] 0.07
OMW            2.83-6.43    4.65 [+ or -] 0.05

Table 2: Regression analysis between the different body
measurements for P. pessuliferus and P.areolatus around Suakin.

Correlates    Species           a-value [+ or -] SE

TL Vs SL      P. pessuliferus   0.729 [+ or -] 0.012
              P. areolatus      0.788 [+ or -] 0.017
TL Vs HL      P. pessuliferus   0.194 [+ or -] 0.007
              P. areolatus      0.224 [+ or -] 0.008
TL Vs E.D     P. pessuliferus   0.179 [+ or -] 0.020
              P. areolatus      0.195 [+ or -] 0.016
TL Vs D       P. pessuliferus   0.135 [+ or -] 0.010
              P. areolatus      0.185 [+ or -] 0.013
TL Vs G       P. pessuliferus   0.312 [+ or -] 0.021
              P. areolatus      0.483 [+ or -] 0.025
TL Vs Snout   P. pessuliferus   0.033 [+ or -] 0.002
              P. areolatus      0.032 [+ or -] 0.003
TL Vs PFL     P. pessuliferus   0.138 [+ or -] 0.009
              P. areolatus      0.118 [+ or -] 0.009
TL Vs PVFL    P. pessuliferus   0.137 [+ or -] 0.009
              P. areolatus      0.174 [+ or -] 0.011
TL Vs CPD     P. pessuliferus   0.080 [+ or -] 0.007
              P. areolatus      0.127 [+ or -] 0.010
TL Vs LUJ     P. pessuliferus   0.075 [+ or -] 0.003
              P. areolatus      0.072 [+ or -] 0.004
TL Vs OMW     P. pessuliferus   0.179 [+ or -] 0.023
              P. areolatus      0.240 [+ or -] 0.030

Correlates    Species           b- value [+ or -] SE

TL Vs SL      P. pessuliferus   1.027 [+ or -] 0.004
              P. areolatus      1.014 [+ or -] 0.006
TL Vs HL      P. pessuliferus   1.095 [+ or -] 0.010
              P. areolatus      1.067 [+ or -] 0.010
TL Vs E.D     P. pessuliferus   0.603 [+ or -] 0.027
              P. areolatus      0.582 [+ or -] 0.022
TL Vs D       P. pessuliferus   1.189 [+ or -] 0.019
              P. areolatus      1.112 [+ or -] 0.019
TL Vs G       P. pessuliferus   1.160 [+ or -] 0.016
              P. areolatus      1.049 [+ or -] 0.014
TL Vs Snout   P. pessuliferus   1.231 [+ or -] 0.018
              P. areolatus      1.216 [+ or -] 0.022
TL Vs PFL     P. pessuliferus   0.976 [+ or -] 0.016
              P. areolatus      1.032 [+ or -] 0.020
TL Vs PVFL    P. pessuliferus   0.954 [+ or -] 0.017
              P. areolatus      0.889 [+ or -] 0.017
TL Vs CPD     P. pessuliferus   1.031 [+ or -] 0.021
              P. areolatus      0.931 [+ or -] 0.022
TL Vs LUJ     P. pessuliferus   1.130 [+ or -] 0.009
              P. areolatus      1.166 [+ or -] 0.013
TL Vs OMW     P. pessuliferus   0.882 [+ or -] 0.032
              P. areolatus      0.810 [+ or -] 0.034

                                           [R.sup.2]-
Correlates    Species           R-value    value

TL Vs SL      P. pessuliferus   0.999 **   0.997
              P. areolatus      0.995 **   0.991
TL Vs HL      P. pessuliferus   0.994 **   0.988
              P. areolatus      0.988 **   0.976
TL Vs E.D     P. pessuliferus   0.864 **   0.747
              P. areolatus      0.855 **   0.731
TL Vs D       P. pessuliferus   0.980 **   0.960
              P. areolatus      0.966 **   0.932
TL Vs G       P. pessuliferus   0.984 **   0.969
              P. areolatus      0.977 **   0.954
TL Vs Snout   P. pessuliferus   0.984 **   0.968
              P. areolatus      0.960 **   0.921
TL Vs PFL     P. pessuliferus   0.979 **   0.958
              P. areolatus      0.954 **   0.909
TL Vs PVFL    P. pessuliferus   0.976 **   0.953
              P. areolatus      0.954 **   0.909
TL Vs CPD     P. pessuliferus   0.969 **   0.939
              P. areolatus      0.935 **   0.875
TL Vs LUJ     P. pessuliferus   0.995 **   0.989
              P. areolatus      0.983 **   0.967
TL Vs OMW     P. pessuliferus   0.909 **   0.826
              P. areolatus      0.826 **   0.683

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table 3: Descriptive Statistics of different body proportions
for P. pessuliferus and P.areolatus around Suakin.

Body
proportion   Species           Present study

                               Min-Max     MeaniSE

SL: D        P. pessuliferus   2.31-3.50   2.81 [+ or -] 0.01
             P. areolatus      2.50-3.41   2.98 [+ or -] 0.01
S.L: HL      P. pessuliferus   2.63-3.17   2.86 [+ or -] 0.01
             P. areolatus      2.49-3.20   2.90 [+ or -] 0.01
H.L: Snout   P. pessuliferus   3.00-4.33   3.42 [+ or -] 0.01
             P. areolatus      2.90-4.79   4.07 [+ or -] 0.02
HL: PFL      P. pessuliferus   1.87-2.67   2.26 [+ or -] 0.01
             P. areolatus      1.89-2.91   2.16 [+ or -] 0.01

Body
proportion   Species           FAO (1993)

                               Min-Max     Mean

SL: D        P. pessuliferus   2.90-3.90   3.40
             P. areolatus      2.90-3.90   3.40
S.L: HL      P. pessuliferus   2.70-3.10   2.90
             P. areolatus      2.70-3.10   2.90
H.L: Snout   P. pessuliferus   2.80-3.60   3.20
             P. areolatus      2.80-3.60   3.20
HL: PFL      P. pessuliferus   1.90-2.30   2.10
             P. areolatus      1.90-2.30   2.20
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Elamin, S.M.; Ambak, M.A.; Samoilys, M.A.; Hamza, M.E.
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Aug 1, 2011
Words:2435
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