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Soil borne fungi associated with different vegetable crops in Sindh, Pakistan.

Introduction

Vegetables included in daily schedule of diet viz. sweet pepper, cauliflower, carrot, cabbage, lettuce, spinach, tomato, potato, reddish, and bottle gourd are rich in proximate composition, vitamin and mineral contents. The soil and climatic conditions of Pakistan are congenial for the production of vegetables and widely diversified agro climatic zones (Hanif et al., 2006). The nature has endowed Pakistan with diverse types of climatic conditions and land for vegetable crops. Therefore, a large variety of vegetables are cultivated in Pakistan throughout the year. In excess of 63 vegetable species are grown in various parts of the country as summer and winter vegetables particularly in Sindh province, Pakistan (Athar and Bokhari, 2006). In Sindh, Mirpurkhas division is positioned atop a fertile land making conditions suitable for cropping and vegetation. The major crops and vegetables are widely cultivated in this region (Hussain et al., 2012). Vegetables are divided into two groups on the basis of season including winter vegetable (cultivated during the winter months of October-March) and summer vegetables (cultivated during the month of April-September). Some vegetables plants have no particular time for sowing including cucumber, radish etc. (Ali, 2000).

Vegetables are important food and highly beneficial ingredients which can be successfully utilised to build up and repair the body. They are valued mainly for their high carbohydrate, vitamin and mineral contents (Hanif et al., 2006). The yield of vegetables is reducing gradually every year due to the soil-borne fungi. It is facing several biotic problems and is under threat due to soil borne pathogens in all over vegetable growing areas. Soil-borne plant diseases cause significant damage to almost all crops particularly to the vegetables (Usman et al., 2013).

Infection of the vegetable plants in the field may occur at any time during the growing season. Early infections caused seedling blight and later infections caused foliar blight, stem lesion, vine rot, fruit rot and root and crown rot (Usman et al., 2013). Islam and Babadoost (2002) and Lee et al. (2001) reported that in the vegetable crops of different areas of Sindh province including Karachi (Malir, Sharafi Goth, Memon Goth and Gadap Town), Kunri, Mirpurkhas, Ghotaki, Tando Allahyar and Digri show heavy losses and several symptoms including wilting stunted growth, chlorosis, and blotch on vegetable crops. Fatima et al., (2009) indicated that Alternaria alternata, A. citri, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Drechslera australeinsis, Fusarium solani, Fusarium sp., Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium sp., Phytophthora capsici and Rhizopus stolonifer are responsible for postharvest deterioration of fresh fruits and vegetables.

The yield of vegetables is reducing gradually every year due to the soil-borne and root rot pathogens. Soil borne and root rot pathogens cause significant damage to almost all crops particularly to the vegetables. The association of root-knot with soil borne and root rot such as Macrophominaphaseolina, Fuasrium sp., and Rhizoctonia solani is causing diseases in different vegetable crops particularly chilli, brinjal, okra, tomato and spinach (Farzana et al., 2013; Hussain et al., 2013c; Maqbool et al., 1988). The soil borne root infecting fungi like Macrophomina phaseolina is reported to produce charcoal rot, damping off, root rot, stem rot, pod rot in more than 500 plant species (Sheikh and Ghaffar, 1992; Sinclair, 1982) with more than 67 hosts recorded from Pakistan alone (Mirza and Qureshi, 1978). Soil borne plant pathogens cause significant crop losses in chilli crop alone in Sindh. Root rot fungi including Fusarium sp., Macrophominaphaseolina, R. solani, Phytophthora root rot and Alternaria spp., are causing heavy losses in chilli and other crops (Hussain et al., 2013a; 2013b; Hussain and Abid, 2011).

The objectives of the present study were; 1) to survey the various fungi infecting (soil borne and root) vegetables, 2) to compare the fungal composition of assemblages in soil borne and root rot of vegetables in seven different localities of Sindh province, and 3) to measure the infection % of the fungal assemblages.

Materials and Methods

Collection and isolation of fungi. The root rot fungi of vegetables including cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), brinjal (Solanum melongena L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) showing wilting, stunted growth, chlorosis and blotches were collected from Sindh province including Karachi, Tando Allahayar, Mirpurkhas, Ghotaki, Khairpur, Kunri and Umerkot from September 2010 to October 2011. The infected root samples were cut into small pieces up to 1.5 to 2 cm and surfaces were sterilised by 1% Ca [(OCl).sub.2] for 1 min and these pieces were transferred on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and Czapek's agar medium containing antibiotic (Penicillin and Streptomycin) drops. The petri dishes were incubated for 3-6 days at 28[degrees]C. Infection % was calculated with the help of following formula:

Infection % = [Number of plants infected by a pathogen/Total number of plants] x 100

Method of soil sampling. A total of 55 soil samples were collected between September 2010 and October 2011, from different locations of Sindh including Karachi, Tando Allahayar, Mirpurkhas, Ghotaki, Khairpur, Kunri and Umerkot. All samples were collected randomly from locations and they were associated with different vegetable fields particularly cabbage, brinjal, tomato, radish and spinach. About 300 g of soil was collected in polythene bags, tagged with name of vegetable and location, for each sample and taken to the laboratory for further analysis.

Soil dilution technique. One gram of soil was suspended in 9 mL of sterilised distilled water with the dilution of 1:10, followed by the dilutions of 1:100, 1:1000 and 1: 10000. One mL aliquot sample was poured in sterilised petri plates containing potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. Three replicates per sample were placed. The dishes were incubated at 30[degrees]C. The colonies of fungi on plates were counted and identified with the help of Singh et al. (1991). The number of colonies of each fungus was multiplied by the dilution factor which shows total number of propagules/g of soil (Waksman and Fred, 1922).

Identification of fungi. Isolated fungi were examined by using 10 x and 40 x magnifications on the microscope to identify hyphae, sporangia, sporangiophores, conidia, conidiophores and some other morphological characters including growth pattern, colony texture and growth rate of the colonies onPDA(Promputthaetal., 2005). Standard manuals or refernces including (Singh, 1991; Nelson et al., 1983; Domsch et al., 1980; Sutton, 1980; Ellis, 1976; 1971; Barnett and Hunter, 1972) were also used for the confirmation of various species.

Results and Discussion

Fungi isolated from roots. Twelve fungi were isolated from infected samples of soil collected from different vegetable crops (Table 1). Ten different fungi were isolated from roots of cabbage crop. Among these: Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Alternaria solani were predominant with mean values of 65, 53 and 40.57%, respectively as compared to other species including Rhizoctonia solani, Aspergillus orzae, Ulocladium sp., Aeromonium fusidiocles, Cladosporium sp., and Eurotium berbanbrum. The occurrence of these three fungi was maximum in samples collected from Tando Allahyar (75%), Khairpur (71%) and Ghotaki (68%), respectively, and minimum (6%) from Mirpurkhas region. These fungi were maximum in samples collected from Kunri (67 and 65%), Tando Allahyar and Khairpur (66%), respectively, and minimum (7%) from Mirpurkhas (Table 2).

The combined infection result of tomato, radish and spinach roots (Fig. 1) showed that Fusarium oxysporum was predominant with mean value of 58% as compared to other species Penicillium commune, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. On the basis of regions, comparison the occurrence of these fungi was maxi-mum in the samples from Kunri (69 and 63%), Tando Allahyar (67%) and Karachi (63%), respectively, and minimum (17%) from Khairpur region (Table 2).

Table 3 shows the results of ANOVA for the fungal infection % on roots samples collected from various localities of Sindh. Twelve fungal species including Alternaria solani, Aspergillus oryzae, Aeromonium fusidiocles, Cladosporium sp., Eurotium berbanbrum, Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Penicillium commune, Rhizoctonia solani, Trichoderma harzianum, Ulocladium sp., and unidentified black mycelium showed highly significant differences among localities.

The infection result of brinjal roots showed that Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Alternaria solani were predominant with mean values of 60.71, 52.29 and 41.86%, respectively, as compared to other species including Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium commune and Rhizoctonia solani (Fig. 2).

All twelve species are pathogenic on all vegetable particularly tomato, radish, spinach brinjal and cabbage, crops. (Fig. 1-3).

Fungi isolated from soil. Twelve fungi were isolated from infected samples of soil collected from different vegetable crops. There are seven different fungi isolated from roots of cabbage crop. Among these Aspergillusflavus, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus niger were predominant with mean values of 58, 56.29 and 38.43%, respectively, as compared to other species such as Penicillium commune, Aspergillus fumigatus, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. The occurrence of these three fungi was maximum in samples collected from Umerkot (72 and 71%), Kunri (67%) and Mirpurkhas (66%), respectively, and minimum (11%) from Ghotaki region. The infection result of brinjal roots showed that Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Fusarium oxysporum were predominant with mean values of 51.29, 39 and 37%, respectively, as compared to other species including Aspergillus terrus, Penicillium commune, Trichoderma harzianum, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. These fungi were found maximum in samples collected from Kunri (61%), Umerkot (57%) and Karachi (56%), respec-tively, and minimum (10%) from Khairpur (Table 4).

The combined infection result of tomato, radish and spinach roots showed that Fusarium oxysporum and Macrophomina phaseolina were predominant with average mean value of 56 and 32%, respectively, as compared to other speciese i.e. Alternaria solani, Aspergillusflavus, A.fumigatus, A. niger, Rhizoctonia solani and Drechselra hawaiiensis. On the basis of regions' comparison, the occurrence of these fungi was maximum in the samples Tando Allahyar (82%), Khairpur (78%) and Mirpurkhas (71%), respectively, and minimum (10%) from Ghotaki region (Table 4).

Table 5 shows the results of ANOVA for the fungal infection % on soil samples collected from various localities of Sindh. Eleven fungal species including Alternaria solani, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. terrus, Drechselra hawaiiensis, Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Penicillium commune, Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma harzianum showed high significant differences among localities. Nine species are pathogenic on all vegetables particularly cabbage, brinjal, tomato, radish and spinach crops. In brinjal Penicillium commune showed non-significant difference than other vegetables.

Meteorological conditions such as high temperature and low humidity during the summer contribute to fewer fungi while in the rainy season the concentration of fungi is significantly increased in the soil (Kakde et al., 2001). It is interesting to note that in Karachi, located in southern Sindh, studies on airborne mycobiota (Rao et al., 2009; Afzal et al., 2004) have demonstrated that the aerospora is dominated by Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Altemaria solani. Thus, the atmospheric mycobiota trend to correspond with the soil of vegetable fungal dominance.

These results confirms the findings of Hussain et al. (2013a); Usman et al. (2013);Islam and Babadoost (2002) and Lee et al. (2001). The most frequent associated fungi isolated from the soil of vegetables are Alternaria solani, Aspergillusflavus, A.fumigatus, A. niger, A. oryzae, A. terrus, Aeromonium fusidiocles, Cladosporium sp., Drechselra hawaiiensis, Eurotium berbanbrum, Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Penicillium commune, Rhizoctonia solani, Trichoderma harzianum, and Ulocladium sp., etc. These results prove that these fungi were most prevalent in the soil of fields and also found to be responsible for most of the decline of the vegetable crops.

This preliminary study provides basis for the determination of fungi from root and soil losses of vegetables which are most demanded in Pakistan. A detailed and investigative survey is required to establish the soil and root resistance strategies to reduce the losses both in terms of economic and food supply especially caused by fungi.

References

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(received March 5, 2014; revised July 3, 2014; accepted July 10, 2014)

Farzana Usman (a), Muhammad Abid (a), Faisal Hussain (b) *, Shaheena Arshad Khan (a) and Jawaria Sultana (a)

(a) Dr. A.G. Lab. of Aerobiology and Plant Pathology, Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Art, Science & Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, Karachi, Pakistan

(b) Department of Agriculture & Agribusiness Management, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

* Author for correspondence; E-mail: faisal.botanist2011@gmail.com

Table 1. Fungi isolated from infected soil and roots of
different vegetables collected from different areas of
Sindh province, Pakistan

Host                     Name of fungi

Scientific     Common
name           name      Root                   Soil

Brassica       Cabbage   Aspergillus oryzae,    Aspergillus
oleracea L.              Aeromonium             flavus *,
                         fusidiocles,           A.fumigatus,
                         Alternaria             A. niger *,
                         Cladosporium sp.,      Fusarium
                         Eurotium               oxysporum *,
                         berbanbrum,            Macrophomina
                         Fusarium               phaseolina *,
                         oxysporum *,           Penicillium
                         Macrophomina           commune *,
                         phaseolina *,          Rhizoctonia
                         Rhizoctonia            solani *
                         solani *,
                         Ulocladium sp.

Solanum        Brinjal   Alternaria             Aspergillus
melongena L.             solani *,              flavus *, A. niger *,
                         Fusarium               A. terrus,
                         oxysporum *,           Fusarium
                         Macrophomina           oxysporum *,
                         phaseolina *,          Macrophomina
                         Rhizoctonia            phaseolina *,
                         solani *,              Penicillium
                         Penicillium            commune *,
                         commune *,             Rhizoctonia
                         Trichoderma            solani *,
                         harzianum *            Trichoderma
                                                harzianum *

Lycopersicon   Tomato    Fusarium               Alternaria solani *,
esculentum               oxysporum *,           Aspergillusflavus *,
Mill.                    Macrophomina           A. niger *,
                         phaseolina *,          Drechselra
                         Rhizoctonia            hawaiiensis,
                         solani *               Fusarium
                                                oxysporum *,
                                                Macrophomina
                                                phaseolina *,
                                                Rhizoctonia solani *

Raphanus       Radish    Fusarium               Aspergillus niger *,
sativus L.               oxysporum *,           Fusarium
                         Penicillium            oxysporum *,
                         commune *,             Macrophomina
                         Rhizoctonia            phaseolina *,
                         solani *               Rhizoctonia solani *

Spinacia       Spinach   Fusarium               Aspergillusflavus *,
oleracea L.              oxysporum *,           A.fumigates,
                         Macrophomina           Drechselra
                         Rhizoctonia            hawaiiensis,
                         solani *               Fusarium
                         phaseolina *,          oxysporum *,
                                                Macrophomina
                                                phaseolina *

= * major fungal disease.

Table 2. Infection % of different fungi isolated from roots
of vegetable at various localities of Sindh province, Pakistan

Isolated fungi           Root diseases infection %

               Cabbage   Brinjal   Tomato   Radish   Spinach

Aeromonium     16.29     0         0        0        0
fusidiocles

Alternaria     40.57     41.86     52.29    0        0
solani

Aspergillus    32.70     0         0        0        0
oryzae

Cladosporium   15        0         0        0        0
sp.

Eurotium       12.43     0         0        0        0
berbanbrum

Fusarium       65        60.71     58       58       53.14
oxysporum

Macrophomina   53        52.29     53.71    0        54.14
phaseolina

Penicillium    0         27.57     0        28.29    0
commune

Rhizoctonia    40        39.57     45.14    45.86    42.29
solani

Trichoderma    0         15.29     0        0        0
harzianum

Ulocladium     22.43     0         0        0        0
sp.

Unidentified   12.86     10.86     0        0        0
black
mycelium

Table 3. F-ratios derived from ANOVA for fungal
infection % of roots

Fungi species                 F-ratio   P-value      [LSD.sub.0.05]

                              Cabbage

Aspergillus oryzae            206.35    0.0000 ***   3.71
Aeromonium fusidiocles        70.11     0.0000 ***   2.92
Alternaria solani             72.67     0.0000 ***   3.81
Cladosporium sp.              98.84     0.0000 ***   2.63
Eurotium berbanbrum           28.03     0.0000 ***   2.24
Fusarium oxysporum            28        0.0000 ***   3.54
Macrophomina phaseolina       19.14     0.0000 ***   3.67
Rhizoctonia solani            76.16     0.0000 ***   3.65
Ulocladium sp.                46.02     0.0000 ***   2.65
Unidentified black mycelium   26.43     0.0000 ***   2.35

                              Brinjal

Alternaria solani             76.33     0.0000 ***   4.07
Fusarium oxysporum            12.48     0.0000 ***   3.47
Macrophomina phaseolina       74.75     0.0000 ***   3.05
Rhizoctonia solani            83.78     0.0000 ***   3.45
Penicillium commune           48.03     0.0000 ***   3.7
Trichoderma harzianum         27.29     0.0000 ***   2.37
Unidentified black mycelium   12.86     0.0000 ***   2.15

                              Tomato

Fusarium oxysporum            13.70     0.0000 ***   3.20
Macrophomina phaseolina       32.37     0.0000 ***   4.06
Rhizoctonia solani            55.46     0.0000 ***   4.12

                              Radish

Fusarium oxysporum            39.92     0.0000 ***   3.77
Penicillium commune           13.28     0.0000 ***   4.68
Rhizoctonia solani            23.86     0.0000 ***   3.71

                              Spinach

Fusarium oxysporum            44.5      0.0000 ***   3.48
Macrophomina phaseolina       29.42     0.0000 ***   3.63
Rhizoctonia solani            54.57     0.0000 ***   3.34

Table 4. Mean and Standard error of different fungi isolated from
soil of vegetable at various localities of Sindh province, Pakistan

Name of fungi             Different fungi isolated from soil

                          KHI                TAND

Cabbage

Aspergillusflavus         34 [+ or -] 1.61   57 [+ or -] 2.12
A.fumigatus               41 [+ or -] 1.69   22 [+ or -] 2.83
A. niger                  27 [+ or -] 2.86   47 [+ or -] 1.41
Fusarium oxysporum        56 [+ or -] 2.12   61 [+ or -] 2.17
Macrophomina phaseolina   31 [+ or -] 2.86   23 [+ or -] 2.86
Penicillium commune       23 [+ or -] 2.86   12 [+ or -] 0.75
Rhizoctonia solani        46 [+ or -] 1.41   27 [+ or -] 2.86

Brinjal

Aspergillusflavus         56 [+ or -] 2.12   50 [+ or -] 2.37
A. niger                  41 [+ or -] 1.69   35 [+ or -] 1.40
A. terrus                 19 [+ or -] 2.04   11 [+ or -] 0.75
Fusarium oxysporum        37 [+ or -] 1.40   41 [+ or -] 1.69
Macrophomina phaseolina   29 [+ or -] 2.86   27 [+ or -] 2.86
Penicillium commune       17 [+ or -] 2.04   19 [+ or -] 2.04
Rhizoctonia solani        33 [+ or -] 1.40   29 [+ or -] 2.86
Trichoderma harzianum     17 [+ or -] 2.04   29 [+ or -] 2.86

Tomato

Alternaria solani         35 [+ or -] 1.40   19 [+ or -] 2.04
Aspergillusflavus         56 [+ or -] 2.37   53 [+ or -] 2.37
A. niger                  33 [+ or -] 1.40   27 [+ or -] 2.86
Drchselra hawaiiensis     29 [+ or -] 2.86   27 [+ or -] 2.86
Fusarium oxysporum        57 [+ or -] 2.37   51 [+ or -] 2.37
Macrophomina phaseolina   37 [+ or -] 1.45   31 [+ or -] 2.86
Rhizoctonia solani        65 [+ or -] 2.17   57 [+ or -] 2.37

Radish

Aspergillus niger         37 [+ or -] 1.45   39 [+ or -] 1.40
Fusarium oxysporum        57 [+ or -] 2.37   45 [+ or -] 1.41
Macrophomina phaseolina   27 [+ or -] 2.86   19 [+ or -] 2.04
Rhizoctonia solani        17 [+ or -] 2.04   11 [+ or -] 0.52

Spinach

Aspergillusflavus         78 [+ or -] 2.50   65 [+ or -] 2.17
A.fumigatus               29 [+ or -] 2.86   15 [+ or -] 2.04
Drechselra hawaiiensis    33 [+ or -] 1.40   41 [+ or -] 1.69
Fusarium oxysporum        57 [+ or -] 2.37   82 [+ or -] 2.50
Macrophomina phaseolina   31 [+ or -] 2.86   47 [+ or -] 1.37

Name of fungi             Different fungi isolated from soil

                          MPK                GHO

Cabbage

Aspergillusflavus         61 [+ or -] 2.17   52 [+ or -] 2.37
A.fumigatus               17 [+ or -] 2.04   11 [+ or -] 0.75
A. niger                  33 [+ or -] 1.73   39 [+ or -] 1.40
Fusarium oxysporum        66 [+ or -] 2.16   39 [+ or -] 1.40
Macrophomina phaseolina   34 [+ or -] 1.74   29 [+ or -] 2.86
Penicillium commune       11 [+ or -] 0.75   17 [+ or -] 2.04
Rhizoctonia solani        23 [+ or -] 2.86   29 [+ or -] 2.86

Brinjal

Aspergillusflavus         46 [+ or -] 1.41   48 [+ or -] 1.41
A. niger                  34 [+ or -] 1.40   37 [+ or -] 1.40
A. terrus                 17 [+ or -] 2.04   16 [+ or -] 2.04
Fusarium oxysporum        33 [+ or -] 1.40   19 [+ or -] 2.04
Macrophomina phaseolina   31 [+ or -] 2.86   54 [+ or -] 2.37
Penicillium commune       17 [+ or -] 2.04   20 [+ or -] 2.04
Rhizoctonia solani        27 [+ or -] 2.86   24 [+ or -] 2.86
Trichoderma harzianum     34 [+ or -] 1.40   31 [+ or -] 2.86

Tomato

Alternaria solani         22 [+ or -] 2.86   27 [+ or -] 2.86
Aspergillusflavus         50 [+ or -] 1.41   57 [+ or -] 2.37
A. niger                  28 [+ or -] 2.86   31 [+ or -] 2.86
Drchselra hawaiiensis     31 [+ or -] 2.86   25 [+ or -] 2.86
Fusarium oxysporum        63 [+ or -] 2.17   48 [+ or -] 1.41
Macrophomina phaseolina   35 [+ or -] 1.40   36 [+ or -] 1.45
Rhizoctonia solani        44 [+ or -] 1.41   41 [+ or -] 1.69

Radish

Aspergillus niger         31 [+ or -] 2.86   28 [+ or -] 2.86
Fusarium oxysporum        61 [+ or -] 2.17   35 [+ or -] 1.40
Macrophomina phaseolina   18 [+ or -] 2.04   27 [+ or -] 2.86
Rhizoctonia solani        18 [+ or -] 2.04   27 [+ or -] 2.86

Spinach

Aspergillusflavus         57 [+ or -] 2.37   67 [+ or -] 2.16
A.fumigatus               11 [+ or -] 0.52   10 [+ or -] 0.52
Drechselra hawaiiensis    27 [+ or -] 2.86   29 [+ or -] 2.86
Fusarium oxysporum        71 [+ or -] 1.90   69 [+ or -] 2.16
Macrophomina phaseolina   45 [+ or -] 1.41   40 [+ or -] 1.69

Name of fungi             Different fungi isolated from soil

                          KHA                KUN

Cabbage

Aspergillusflavus         63 [+ or -] 2.67   67 [+ or -] 2.16
A.fumigatus               21 [+ or -] 2.83   13 [+ or -] 0.75
A. niger                  25 [+ or -] 2.86   47 [+ or -] 1.41
Fusarium oxysporum        34 [+ or -] 1.74   66 [+ or -] 2.16
Macrophomina phaseolina   37 [+ or -] 1.40   41 [+ or -] 1.69
Penicillium commune       21 [+ or -] 2.86   19 [+ or -] 2.04
Rhizoctonia solani        37 [+ or -] 1.40   33 [+ or -] 1.73

Brinjal

Aspergillusflavus         41 [+ or -] 1.69   61 [+ or -] 2.17
A. niger                  31 [+ or -] 2.86   42 [+ or -] 1.69
A. terrus                 10 [+ or -] 0.75   13 [+ or -] 0.75
Fusarium oxysporum        27 [+ or -] 2.86   53 [+ or -] 2.37
Macrophomina phaseolina   17 [+ or -] 2.04   22 [+ or -] 2.86
Penicillium commune       18 [+ or -] 2.04   16 [+ or -] 2.04
Rhizoctonia solani        19 [+ or -] 2.04   35 [+ or -] 1.40
Trichoderma harzianum     30 [+ or -] 2.86   29 [+ or -] 2.86

Tomato

Alternaria solani         29 [+ or -] 2.86   33 [+ or -] 1.40
Aspergillusflavus         47 [+ or -] 1.41   53 [+ or -] 2.37
A. niger                  39 [+ or -] 1.40   30 [+ or -] 2.86
Drchselra hawaiiensis     17 [+ or -] 2.04   11 [+ or -] 0.75
Fusarium oxysporum        53 [+ or -] 2.37   57 [+ or -] 2.37
Macrophomina phaseolina   29 [+ or -] 2.86   12 [+ or -] 0.67
Rhizoctonia solani        48 [+ or -] 1.41   33 [+ or -] 1.40

Radish

Aspergillus niger         33 [+ or -] 1.40   41 [+ or -] 1.69
Fusarium oxysporum        37 [+ or -] 1.45   31 [+ or -] 2.86
Macrophomina phaseolina   26 [+ or -] 2.86   39 [+ or -] 1.40
Rhizoctonia solani        29 [+ or -] 2.86   31 [+ or -] 2.86

Spinach

Aspergillusflavus         71 [+ or -] 1.90   47 [+ or -] 1.37
A.fumigatus               27 [+ or -] 2.86   35 [+ or -] 1.40
Drechselra hawaiiensis    21 [+ or -] 2.04   17 [+ or -] 2.04
Fusarium oxysporum        78 [+ or -] 2.50   66 [+ or -] 2.17
Macrophomina phaseolina   38 [+ or -] 1.45   41 [+ or -] 1.69

Name of fungi             Different fungi isolated from soil

                          UME                Grand mean

Cabbage

Aspergillusflavus         71 [+ or -] 1.90   58 [+ or -] 4.50
A.fumigatus               9 [+ or -] 0.75    19.14 [+ or -] 4.08
A. niger                  51 [+ or -] 2.37   38.43 [+ or -] 3.92
Fusarium oxysporum        72 [+ or -] 1.90   56.29 [+ or -] 5.46
Macrophomina phaseolina   23 [+ or -] 2.86   31.14 [+ or -] 2.57
Penicillium commune       16 [+ or -] 2.04   17 [+ or -] 1.68
Rhizoctonia solani        31 [+ or -] 2.86   32.29 [+ or -] 2.83

Brinjal

Aspergillusflavus         57 [+ or -] 2.12   51.29 [+ or -] 2.65
A. niger                  53 [+ or -] 2.37   39 [+ or -] 2.75
A. terrus                 17 [+ or -] 2.04   14.71 [+ or -] 1.29
Fusarium oxysporum        49 [+ or -] 1.41   37 [+ or -] 4.51
Macrophomina phaseolina   33 [+ or -] 1.40   30.43 [+ or -] 4.44
Penicillium commune       15 [+ or -] 2.04   17.43 [+ or -] 0.65
Rhizoctonia solani        41 [+ or -] 1.69   29.17 [+ or -] 2.77
Trichoderma harzianum     25 [+ or -] 2.86   27.86 [+ or -] 2.08

Tomato

Alternaria solani         41 [+ or -] 1.69   29.43 [+ or -] 2.88
Aspergillusflavus         44 [+ or -] 1.41   51.43 [+ or -] 1.78
A. niger                  35 [+ or -] 1.40   31.86 [+ or -] 1.58
Drchselra hawaiiensis     19 [+ or -] 2.04   22.71 [+ or -] 2.74
Fusarium oxysporum        66 [+ or -] 2.16   56.43 [+ or -] 2.43
Macrophomina phaseolina   17 [+ or -] 2.04   28.14 [+ or -] 3.72
Rhizoctonia solani        39 [+ or -] 1.40   46.71 [+ or -] 4.17

Radish

Aspergillus niger         19 [+ or -] 2.04   32.57 [+ or -] 2.84
Fusarium oxysporum        36 [+ or -] 1.45   43.14 [+ or -] 4.41
Macrophomina phaseolina   48 [+ or -] 1.41   29.14 [+ or -] 4.08
Rhizoctonia solani        33 [+ or -] 1.40   23.17 [+ or -] 3.15

Spinach

Aspergillusflavus         61 [+ or -] 2.17   63.71 [+ or -] 3.78
A.fumigatus               31 [+ or -] 2.86   22.57 [+ or -] 3.89
Drechselra hawaiiensis    35 [+ or -] 1.40   29 [+ or -] 3.12
Fusarium oxysporum        61 [+ or -] 2.17   69.14 [+ or -] 3.35
Macrophomina phaseolina   36 [+ or -] 1.45   39.71 [+ or -] 2.04

KHI = Karachi, TAND = Tando AHahyar, MPK= Mirpurkhas, GHO = Ghotaki,
KHA = Khairpur, KUN= Kunri, UME = Umerkot.

Table 5. F-ratios derived from ANOVA for fungal
infection % of soil

Fungi species                F-ratio   P-value      LSD0.05

                             Cabbage

Aspergillus flavus           31.87     0.0000 ***   6.11
A.fumigatus                  33.08     0.0000 ***   5.30
A. niger                     24.40     0.0000 ***   5.93
Fusarium oxysporum           53.89     0.0000 ***   5.56
Macrophomina phaseolina      7.97      0.0000 ***   6.97
Penicillium commune          4.59      0.0006 ***   5.84
Rhizoctonia solani           9.94      0.0000 ***   6.71

                             Brinjal

Aspergillus flavus           13.16     0.0000 ***   5.46
A. niger                     14.63     0.0000 ***   5.37
A. terrus                    4.40      0.0009 ***   4.57
Fusarium oxysporum           37.38     0.0000 ***   5.52
Macrophomina phaseolina      21.77     0.0000 ***   7.11
Penicillium commune          0.70      0.6453ns     5.77
Rhizoctonia solani           10.58     0.0000 ***   6.35
Trichoderma harzianum        4.49      0.0007 ***   7.31

                             Tomato

Alternaria solani            11.45     0.0000 ***   6.35
Aspergillus flavus           5.49      0.0001 ***   5.69
A. niger                     3.17      0.0087 **    6.62
Drechselra hawaiiensis       8.86      0.0000 ***   6.88
Fusarium oxysporum           8.56      0.0000 ***   6.20
Macrophomina phaseolina      24.99     0.0000 ***   5.56
Rhizoctonia solani           40.39     0.0000 ***   4.90

                             Radish

Aspergillus niger            13.49     0.0000 ***   5.78
Fusarium oxysporum           35.79     0.0000 ***   5.51
Macrophomina phaseolina      22.16     0.0000 ***   6.47
Rhizoctonia solani           13.89     0.0000 ***   6.32

                             Spinach

Aspergillus flavus           22.34     0.0000 ***   5.98
A.fumigatus                  23.82     0.0000 ***   5.96
Drechselra hawaiiensis       15.13     0.0000 ***   5.98
Fusarium oxysporum           15.35     0.0000 ***   6.38
Macrophomina phaseolina      9.30      0.0000 ***   5.01
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Author:Usman, Farzana; Abid, Muhammad; Hussain, Faisal; Khan, Shaheena Arshad; Sultana, Jawaria
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series B: Biological Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Nov 1, 2014
Words:4955
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