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Soft power of the mega events within the spectrum of the media: a case study of Olympics and Paralympics Games 2012 in London.

INTRODUCTION

'Mega Events' are assumed as the events in which by attracting the international attention, influx of tourists, temporary economic boost, prestige and many other beneficiary facets can lead to elevate a country comprehensively; in terms of internal and external issues like economic power, political prestige and hence hegemony and etc. However, it should be taken into consideration that those aforementioned utilities are not restricted to the internal issues and even can affect the international position of a country in the global stage by projecting a new portrait of it among its other counterparts too.

In fact, recently the main accentuation of the mega events has been delineated to its social, cultural and environmental influences and implications, significantly for those dilapidated and blighted urban areas to eradicate poverty, remove slums and ghettos, eliminate social discrimination, decrease crime rate and ultimately provide an opportunity for the downtrodden people who live in run-down urban areas [8,11,13,25,48,49]. Accordingly, there is a severe competence among the countries, saliently global cities, to win the bidding process for hosting mega events through propounding how they are going to utilize mega events to increase the social welfare of their citizens. In tandem with different advantageous legacies of hosting mega events, some others have evaluated them just as a sophisticated short-cut for the maintenance of the super powers' control and hegemony in the global stage, but within indirect hierarchical system. One reason, can be attributed to their place "were predominately staged by wealthy Western states" and in the global cities like London, Paris, etc. Consequently, Olympics and Paralympics Games 2012 have provided a good and noteworthy occasion for more analysis and anatomization in this respect.

Soft Power of the Mega Events through the Spectacles of the Media:

R. Gold and M. Gold besides emphasizing on the general characteristics of the 'Mega Events', have asserted a definition for better recognition between 'Hallmark Events' and 'Mega Events'. According to R. Gold and M. Gold:

Many are so-called 'hallmark events', which become synonymous with the places where they are habitually staged. They include the ever lengthening lists of cities staging street circuit road races (e.g. Boston, Buenos Aires, Shanghai and London) or international arts festivals such as those held at Edinburgh, Glastonbury, Roskilde, Chelsea and Salzburg. These can draw in huge tourist revenues and focus international media attention on the host city, but by virtue of their recurrence are run by cores of permanent staff that utilize well-established sets of practices to stage their events. In contrast, there are a select number of prestige 'mega-events' that have an ambulatory character and are normally subject to a bidding process by potential hosts. Defined as festivals that achieve sufficient size and scope to affect whole economies and receive sustained global media attention, 'mega-events' include the World's Fairs (although these are now of declining influence); the World Cups in soccer, rugby union and cricket; the larger regional sports gatherings (e.g. European Championships, Asian Games and Pan-American Games); and the Olympic Games.

Accordingly, the 'Mega Events' are subsumed as the extraordinary events in the life of a city which can absorb international and global attention and hence; will initiate the injection of the new investments to the city, interpolate the massive influx of the tourists, ameliorate the infrastructure of a city through reinforcing the economic foundation of the city (e.g.: transport system, water supply, sewage disposal, airport and telecommunications system and etc), and consequently, boosting the economic, political and social aspects of a city in which will lead to leverage the viability criteria of a city for its residents. However, it should be taken into consideration that some of these improvements have been assessed as temporary benefits of hosting mega events for the cities, rather than permanent legacies [1,3,46].

In retrospect to what defined as the implications of the mega events, now it seems justifiable why the most of the major and global cities compete for hosting mega events: attracting and increasing foreign investment; as well as increasing their prestige and reputation in the global stage. However, it should be taken in to contemplation that hosting mega events like the other investments has its own plausible negative implications too, like gentrification, increasing the cost of living in the targeted place, more marginalization of the minorities, infringement upon citizens' rights through compulsory purchase, venturing on high financial investments in which can jeopardize the economic structure of the city and run up too many debts and the 'opportunity cost' of investment for the city and finally security and safety issues in terms of terroristic attacks [10,12,46].

However, notwithstanding the side-effects of hosting mega events in the global cities and subsequent imposed budgets that is chiefly burdened with the citizens of the subject place, the others have evaluated them as a resource of soft power. In fact, Nye has propounded that in the contemporary era there is a tangible shift of the very nature of power, from "Hard Power" i.e. military and economic resources to "Soft Power" that refers to the schema of attracting the others; but within the deployment of cultural and ideological means of provoking acquiescence [37]. He has asserted that "A country's soft power can come from three resources: its culture (in places where it is attractive to others), its political values (when it lives up to them at home and abroad), and its foreign policies (when they are seen as legitimate and having moral authority" [37]. Nonetheless, it should be taken into account that soft power merely cannot produce effective repercussions in the field of foreign policy, and should be combined with hard power for the generation of 'Smart Power', (a term developed by Nye in [37]) i.e. efficient mixture of economic power and sophisticated diplomatic skills to authenticate the country's rising role as a leader in world affairs and global status [6].

Consequently, "Mega Events" can be utilized as a salient means of 'Soft Power' on account of their international feature. In this respect, Nye [37] has asserted that:

The countries that are likely to gain soft power in an information age are (1) those whose dominant culture and ideas are closer to prevailing global norms (which now emphasize liberalism, pluralism, and autonomy), (2) those with the most access to multiple channels of communication and thus more influence over how issues are framed, and (3) those whose credibility is enhanced by their domestic and international performance. [37]

Consequently, as communication is contemplated as the cornerstone of one of effective resources of soft power and diplomacy in the Information Age, 'Cultural permeation' has been accelerated through "increased access to communication technologies such as the web, television, and radio--leading to increased exposure to foreign ideas and ways of life". Nonetheless, in tandem with soft power, there is another robust notion in which eclipse the concept of soft power and has been mainly attributed to Antonio Gramsci's theory of hegemony, or the perception that "man is not ruled by force alone, but also by ideas" [2] that can undoubtedly elucidate soft power and its primitive foundation: "idea of using information and culture for the purposes of diplomacy" [37].

Broadly speaking, Gramsci has perceived the society as a complicated hierarchical system, that can be divided into different spheres i.e. 1.Political stratification (the political influential people who rule the society within force) and a 2. Civil Stratum (which are ruled through consent), or in the other words "the sphere in which ideas and beliefs were shaped, where bourgeois 'hegemony' was reproduced in cultural life through the media, universities and religious institutions to 'manufacture consent' and legitimacy". Nonetheless, implementation of this alleged 'Cultural Hegemony' specifically within IR as a main source of 'Soft Power'; is assumed as one of the most neglected facets of mega events in which this paper seeks to anatomize and analyze. In this respect, Figure 1 can elucidate this hierarchical system more vividly. However, it should be taken into account that there are different approaches in terms of cultural hegemony embodied within soft power and its execution via the global stage and IR scope: 1. Horizontal Approach: a. Internal and b. External affairs and relations, (i.e. where the targeted place and society located and considered: national or international level) 2. Vertical Approach: a. Top-down approach (how the governments make effort to get their citizens' consent and approval within pre-defined legal channels like the media and the press), b. Intermediate approach: NGO and IGOs' which act on behalf of the governments to reinforce their position; not only in the country but also in the international stage or vice versa (undermine their condition due to some particular reasons and approaches, it depends on mainly on their association and correlation), c. Bottom-up approach: some people in return for some beneficiary or non- beneficiary repercussions struggle to consolidate governments' policies and situation (volunteer or non-volunteery [trained to do so]) but as aforementioned, within cultural perspectives.

In this respect, the modern Olympics Games are observed as "a hegemonic opportunity for the host nation to display its values to an international audience and garner viewer appreciation and amity" (Hochstatter, 2013, p. 15). Nonetheless, before revolving around the theoretical framework of this article, it seems pertinent to illustrate the utilized methodology of this study to depict how this survey has been propelled.

Methodology:

Yin [54] has defined case study "as an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context; when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident; and in which multiple sources of evidence are use" [54]. Subsequently, case study research is appropriate for contemporary events; significantly when the pertinent behavior cannot be manipulated through utilization of a wide range of evidence driven from miscellaneous primary and secondary sources like documents, interviews, observation [26,40,44]. On the other hand, Case studies are more functional for shaping descriptive inferences of homogeneous issues to indicate the influence of different context and condition on them [18]. In this regard, Gerring [18] has discussed that:

Single-unit studies provide cases that are likely to be comparable to one another. After all, they are all drawn from the same unit (by definition). Cases drawn from different units, in contrast, often force the researcher to make heroic assumptions about the comparability of concepts and causal relationships across the chosen cases. After all, they are different units. [18]

Woodside [52] has described the main objective of a case study as a deep understanding in which is attainable through the application of multiple research methods (Qualitative and Quantitative) in the progressive line of time. These methods generally can be abridged as:

1--Direct observation by the researcher

2--Probing by asking the case participants' explanations and interpretations of the information

3--Analysis of written documents about the case of study [52]

Woodside [52] has asserted that utilization of dissimilar and multiple methods in tandem with inclusion of multiple study objectives will lead to enhance the validity of a case study research report [52]. However, this method has been rigorously criticized by virtue of generalization of the repercussions, while the others believe that the uniqueness of the case; inhibits it from being generalized in the other cases [52]. Also, another common discussion has been devoted to the high rank of concentration on a specific case in which can probably thwart the researches to anatomize other intervening variables and even may lead to the interpolation of researcher's personal viewpoint [52].

Notwithstanding the addressed criticisms towards the case study, the other scholars still believe that these critiques cannot inquire the validity of this kind of research method, significantly on account of using multiple sources in parallel with multi-methods [40,45]. Accordingly, illustrative case study has been chosen and utilized to propel this research. Illustrative Case Studies are described mainly as the primarily descriptive studies on account of consensual belief that the readers know too little about a program or situation. In fact, the function of these types of case studies have been devoted to make the unfamiliar; familiar by application of one or two instances of an event to indicate what a situation is like [9,16,47,53].

Theoretical Framework:

The theoretical framework of this article has been principally established based on three main theories: Antonio Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony, Nye's soft power and finally Lass Well's model of communication.

The idea of the third dimension of power, or '1 has been driven basically from Marxist philosophy as a 'False consciousness' for more indoctrination and control of the civil society in favor of politicians and the ruling class [41]. Subsequently, Gramsci has nurtured this tenet in the realm of ideas and knowledge--"expressed through consent rather than force" to illustrate how it can be utilized to infuse hegemonic norms of supreme bourgeois and their legitimacy with the people who are dominated by them [14,30,41]. However, Nye by introduction of a new categorization of power and its classification into soft, hard and finally smart power heralded a new ideology in the sphere of IR to shed light on new facets of power, its exploitation and mutation in the 21st century. He has asserted that--power is the ability to influence the behavior of others to get the outcomes one wants ... [or more obviously can be defined as] the possession of capabilities or resources that can influence outcomes" [37]. However, according to Nye [37] the second facet of power in which enable the others to obtain their desirable outcomes without implementation of military or economic power (sources of hard power) is called "Soft Power" that is assumed as the new source of power, saliently in IR and in the global stage [37].

Nevertheless, it should be taken in to account that how this hegemonic 'False consciousness' is imbued through 'Soft Power' to inculcate the targeted society in order to get the favorite outcomes. As a result, it can be inferred that there are two phases of cultural hegemony: 1. the norms and conventions that are defined and tailored to the traditions, religion and customs of a nation and have been appreciated nationally (but, this is a controversial issue: who is defining them? and for what purposes? As it is evident they are usually characterized by the ruling class and in the progressive line of time they can be changed, abolished or distorted); 2. those prestigious ones in which are contemplated to boost and raise the identity of a nation within the global stage and have been acknowledged internationally. As a result, there is a kind of precise stratification that should be taken into observation and is juxtaposed by the ruling class to consolidate their position nationally and internationally. The national level in fact, refers to the social cohesion and reinforcing of the ruling class position, how they manipulate the public opinion to justify their adopted policies and ultimately, benefit from them. But the utilities in the international level have been attributed to this fact that how they want to portrait and introduce themselves as the delegates and advocates of internationally accepted values likes: liberty, freedom of speech, welfare and etc. Therefore, mega events provide this condition for them, a unique opportunity in which countries can demonstrate their new capabilities, progress, state-of-the-art accomplishments, tolerance and more prominently; enhancing their international position to fortify their international situation.

Consequently, this paper has initiated the incorporation of aforementioned theories with the Lass Well's model of communication to demonstrate how this invisible aspect of power through the lens of the media and the press can cultivate people's mind and hence, affect IR internationally.

Harold Dwight Lasswell (February 13, 1902--December 18, 1978), the American political scientist has alluded to a new verbal model of communication: "Who says what to whom through what medium with what effect?" that is still prevalent and implies the basic components of mass communication [19,55]. The next figure can elucidate this linear model more clearly. Actually, Lasswell has suggested three media functions: "(1) surveillance of the environment (news coverage); (2) correlation of the parts of society (interpretation of news and information, commentary, and editorial opinion); and (3) transmission of culture (history, values, religion, language, etc.)" [19]. In this respect, now it seems pertinent why this theory has been selected to be assimilated for more illumination of soft power of the mega events. In fact, the media by virtue of its very nature of wide accessibility (national and international) have the capability of conveying and cultivating the particular message to its audiences i.e. targeted society. Nevertheless, there is a concrete dichotomy towards this targeted society too: passive audiences and active audiences. The passive audiences are usually fostered by the news released by the mainstream, but it is the active audiences who withstand in front of the mainstream and can challenge their idealistic utopias. Accordingly, based on the Gramsci' theory of hegemony and Nye's theory of Soft Power (1990) embodied within the theory of Lass well Formula imperious exploitation of mega events, in this case Olympics and Paralympics Games 2012 in London, are anatomized for the scrutiny over correlation between mega events and soft power but; through the spectrum of the media.

The Soft Power of the Olympics and Paralympics Games 2012 in London:

Before revolving around the culture and its role in respect of soft power, there are some significant reservations in respect of mega events and soft power that should be considered in detail: 'Security and safety'. In fact, security and safety of the mega events, regardless of the military interventions and preparation that is classified into 'Hard Power', represents how much a country is ready to counter potential threats and terroristic attacks that can be labeled as an intangible source of soft power due to its correlation with the reputation of a country and nation. Consequently, comprehensive provision of 'Safety and Security' for not only the inhabitants, but also for athletes and tourists through mega events like Olympics and Paralympics games is another noteworthy and challengeable issue that should be taken into consideration by the host cities and governments [15]. In the other words, in tandem with positive implications of hosting mega events in terms of economic, cultural and even political dimensions; insufficient reservations in this respect (Safety and Security) can lead to devastating results like the notorieties of Munich 1972 and terrorist attacks [3,15]. Accordingly, mega events provide an opportunity that the governments can illustrate their military abilities and preparation to counter the terrorist attacks and so, their strategic management. In regards of Olympics and Paralympics Games 2012, the matter of safety and security became more serious; significantly when four suicide bombers killed fifty six people, embracing themselves, in attacks on underground trains and a bus in central London in which led to terminate celebration over winning the bid for Olympic Games 2012 and compelled the government to ponder about the issue more carefully [7]. However, concerns corresponding to the safety and security exacerbated when the committee came across dramatically underestimated capital budget offered in the successful bid.

Nevertheless, notwithstanding newly employed policies for frustration of any feasible terrorist attacks, the failure and inability of prominent contractors like G4S in implementation of their expected and required security duties, like provision and training of enough security staff, made another budget raise and panic among the British and London Organizing Committee of the Olympics and Paralympics Games (LOCOG) [23]. Just less than 12 months before the start of the Olympics Games 2012; LOCOG released considerable problems attributed mainly to underestimation of security staff recruitments (Instead of 10,000 staff at the 34 Olympic venues, LOCOG asserted for at least 20,000 security staff would be needed) [24]. In fact, the total security cost at its first stage had been evaluated about 213 million[pounds sterling]: "approximately 23 million[pounds sterling] for in-Games security (to be borne on the LOCOG budget) and approximately 190 million [pounds sterling] in site security costs, to be borne by the ODA from the public sector funding package" [38]. Nonetheless, by observing simultaneously imposed limitations, like deployment of soldiers in Afghanistan and Libya, budget cuts and redundancy rounds and full deployment and involvement of police force significantly in the riots of 2011, aggravated by resentment at the extravagant cost [7,23]. Finally it was MoD (Ministry of Defense) who took the responsibility just for provision of 2,0003,000 soldiers in the security part of Olympics and Paralympics Games 2012 [24] although it went up in the following years.

Actually, G4S won the venue security contract in December 2010 and took the responsibility for provision of 10,000 workforces, 2,000 newly recruited staff in which would be trained by G4S and remained 8,000 staff from other sources, albeit finalized report in 2011 depicted more required workforce. Consequently, in December 2011, it was publicized for exploitation of 23,700 workforce, compromising of 10,400 staff provided by G4S, 5,000 soldiers deployed from Army, 3,000 volunteer Games Makers employed by LOCOG, 3,700 students conscripted through a program called Bridging the Gap, 1,000 guards engaged by Wilson James (another security company) and other and different smaller groups of staff (Parliament, 2012). These underestimations of security costs and required staffs, led to an acute rise in delineated security budget, as Guardian (2012) has published:

Providing 7,500 troops for venue security during the peak periods this summer--only 1,500 fewer than the number now serving in Afghanistan. That was on top of 5,000 military personnel to assist the police outside the venues and another 1,000 for "logistical support" ... The overall security costs--now exceeding 1bn [pounds sterling], with the in-venue security element costing 553m [pounds sterling] alone--were always going to be met from the public purse. [24]

Subsequently, the next table can elucidate the principal evaluation of security costs through other correlated costs in respect of Olympic Park in 2008 in which Provoked severe criticism of acute increase in the security costs from the Olympics budget for venue from 282m [pounds sterling] to 553m [pounds sterling] in just a year [24]. As it is clear from the next table, security and safety costs compelled high budget to the economic system of the government. Consequently, some important issues can be deduced here. First of all, just countries can participate in the bidding process of the mega events that benefit from highly robust economic system to alleviate the hazards of economic failure and underestimation of the essential budget. Notwithstanding this fact that all of the countries have the same and equal right to participate in the bidding process, regardless of their proposals, the outstanding issue has been primarily attributed to the latter repercussions and implications which can eclipse not only the reputation of a nation but also can affect its position in the IR and global stage. Based on Bogdanova:

The major reason why emerging states are thus willing to bid for and stage the mega sporting events is that hosting a sporting event of world importance has proven to boost the positive image of a country ... [Also] Emerging countries have capitalized on hosting mega-sporting events as an effective way to engage soft power as a foreign policy tool. [4]

The second noteworthy issue of the soft power of the mega events has been contributed to the readiness of the countries and their ingenuity to maximize their profits by utilization of such a great opportunity. As it is clear from the next table, irrespective of some mistakes in terms of underestimation of security and safety budget, a very good and formidable schedule has been provided to predict each step, its sources of funding and pre-assessed revenues, in tandem with the other important programs i.e. broadcasting. Apart from these marginal aspects of mega events, significantly in respect of Olympics and Paralympics Games 2012, there is another newly appeared issue in terms of soft power that should be scrutinized carefully: the index of soft power, a tool for the measurement of soft power of the different countries to quantify their soft power in the global stage [34]. As McClory has cited, the aim of the index is not to introduce and label who is better than whom, in fact it is a kind of measurement to understand the sources of soft power and its evaluation [34]. The next figure will illuminate those contemplated sources in the index of soft power and categorize miscellaneous countries with their index of soft power. As it can be clarified through the next figure, this measurement has been implemented through five chief categorizations "built on a survey of existing literature on soft power" [34]. Mcclory [34] has asserted that:

When a country's culture promotes universal values that other nations can readily identify with, it makes them naturally attractive to others. The reach and volume of cultural output is important in building soft power, but mass production does not lead to mass influence. As a result, our measures of culture focus on capturing both the quality and the international reach of a country's cultural output. The Culture sub-index includes measures like the annual number of visiting international tourists, the global reach of a country's music industry, and even a nation's international sporting success. [34]

Conclusion:

The mega events are assumed as the new tenet and source of soft power in the global stage. Subsequently, there is a severe competence among the emerging states to participate in the bidding process and win them as the prestigious events to consolidate and reinforce their position in the international level and utilize them to leverage their position. In this respect, this article by concentrating on Olympics and Paralympics Games 2012 in London, through an illustrative case study, has anatomized how a super power has exploited this unique opportunity to represent itself among her other counterparts in the world. Actually, this paper by focusing on the three main theories i.e. Antonio Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony (1971), Nye's soft power (1990) and finally Lass Well's model of communication (1948) has heralded a new ideology in regards of soft power, saliently by referring to the index of soft power, a new measurement to quantify soft power and evaluate it among the different countries in the global stage. In fact, Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony asserts that how the ruling class tries to indoctrinate their desirable values and beliefs to the civil society and hence, reinforce their position in the society in the national and international level. Nye's theory of soft power, in parallel with Gramsci's theory alludes to the other facets of power and mentions that soft power is the new orthodoxy in which players make effort to gain their final outcomes but through resources except for economic and military aspects (hard power). Ultimately, Lass well's model of communication has been utilized to depict how culture in the conduit of the media is mirrored to portrait and project new identity of a nation in the worldwide. Accordingly, as it has been expected, regardless of some problematic issues in terms of security and safety and their budget and human force underestimation, finally it was concluded that UK has been able to maximize her benefits from hosting Olympics and Paralympics Games 2102 as a unique occasion to leverage not only its soft power but also its identity as a utopia of multicultural and tolerant country. Respectively, the media and the press in tandem with each other are assumed as the strong and useful sources to project such a portrait of UK in the world. As it was aforementioned; based on Lass well's formula: the owner of the media and the press on behalf of the government and the mainstream policies tried to elucidate a new portrait of the UK to accentuate its power, tolerance, progress within the media and cyberspace to all of the world; in order to leverage their position nationally and internationally. As it is evident from the above tables and figures, UK by exploitation of the great and unique opportunity of hosting Olympics and Paralympics Games 2012 has been really successful to reach the first grade of soft power among the other countries, significantly through utilization of culture as one of the main resources of soft power.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 15 April 2014

Received in revised form 22 May

2014

Accepted 25 May 2014

Available online 15 June 2014

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(1) Mahsima Sohrabi, (2) Mahdi Sharifi Moghadam, (3) Khatereh Karami, (4) Zahra Keivani, (5) Fatemeh Saidi

(1) MA in British Studies, Faculty of World Studies, from University of Tehran, Iran.

(2) Department of Physical Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

(3) Ms Sport management. Payame noor university rey branch

(4) Islamic azad university. shahrekord branch shahrekord. Iran.

(5) Department of Physical Education, Mobarakeh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mobarakeh, Iran.

Corresponding Author: Niusha Eghtedari, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, College of Agriculture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Table 1: London 2012 Olympic Capital and Revenue Budget
Estimates (million [pounds sterling])

Capital and Operating Budget            London 2012    Estimates
                                        Bid Nov 2004   March 2009
New facilities & upgrades
Olympic Stadium                         280            538
Aquatic Centre                          }              244
Velodrome, Arenas and temporary         } 280          118
  upgrades
International Broadcasting &                           120
  Press Centre
Transport improvements (Olympic Park)   130            355
Bridges, Tunnels                        380            380
Site Security, Elite sport,             350            350
  Contingencies
Athletes Village                        650            1,100
Security                                200            600
Other infrastructure & regeneration     1,766          4,120
Contingency (balance as at                             1,400
December 2009)

Agreed Funding Package                  4,036          9,325

Lower Lea Valley Regeneration-site      800            1,300
acquisition, preparation,
infrastructure

Running costs [LOCOG]                   1,500          2,000

Athlete preparations [BOA, UK Sport]    300            600

Transport- Channel Tunnel Rail Link     6,620          6,620
(CTRL), East London Line Extension

Legacy Trust fund 2007-12               40             40

Legacy Projects                         -              253

Total Olympics & Regeneration           13,926         20,138

Capital and Operating Budget            Source of Funding

New facilities & upgrades
Olympic Stadium                        )
Aquatic Centre                         )5,975 Central Government
Velodrome, Arenas and temporary        )
  upgrades
International Broadcasting &           )2,175 National Lottery
  Press Centre
Transport improvements (Olympic Park)  )
Bridges, Tunnels                       ) 925 Greater London Authority
                                          (GLA)
Site Security, Elite sport,            )
  Contingencies
Athletes Village                       ) 250 London Development
                                          Agency (LDA)
Security                                }
Other infrastructure & regeneration     }
Contingency (balance as at              }
December 2009)

Agreed Funding Package

Lower Lea Valley Regeneration-site      LDASOO
acquisition, preparation,               Land sales 500
infrastructure

Running costs [LOCOG]                   Self-financing - including 560
                                        10CTV/marketing; 450
                                        sponsorship/ official
                                        suppliers; 300 tickets from
                                        venues; 60 Licensing

Athlete preparations [BOA, UK Sport]    550 Central Government; 50
                                        sponsorship

Transport- Channel Tunnel Rail Link     Central Government and
(CTRL), East London Line Extension      Transport for London. Of which
                                        330 from the Olympic budget,
                                        above

Legacy Trust fund 2007-12               34 National Lottery; 6 Central
                                        Government

Legacy Projects                         253 LDA

Total Olympics & Regeneration

Source: R. Gold & M. Gold, 2008, p. 7

Table 2: Soft Power Index Results

Rank    Country         Score

1       UK              7.289
2       USA             6.989
3       Germany         6.484
4       France          6.472
5       Sweden          5.752
6       Japan           5.613
7       Denmark         5.598
8       Switzerland     5.553
9       Australia       5.534
10      Canada          5.417
11      South Korea     5.350
12      Norway          5.327
13      Finland         5.267
14      Italy           5.186
15      Netherlands     5.161
16      Spain           4.981
17      Brazil          4.675
18      Austria         4.650
19      Belgium         4.556
20      Turkey          4.263

Rank    Country         Score

21      New Zealand     4.249
22      China           4.237
23      Portugal        4.217
24      Ireland         4.160
25      Poland          3.817
26      Singapore       3.759
27      Mexico          3.590
28      Russia          3.564
29      Israel          3.437
30      Thailand        3.347
31      Czech Rep.      3.346
32      Chile           3.285
33      Greece          3.260
34      South Africa    3.117
35      Argentina       3.062
36      India           2.776
37      Malaysia        2.606
38      UAE             2.416
39      Egypt           2.351
40      Indonesia       1.739

Source: McClory, 2012, p. 11
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Author:Sohrabi, Mahsima; Moghadam, Mahdi Sharifi; Karami, Khatereh; Keivani, Zahra; Saidi, Fatemeh
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Case study
Geographic Code:4EUUK
Date:Jun 1, 2014
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