Socio-economic background, career goals and occupational values of the future managers: a comparative study.
My interest in studying occupational values of students dates back to the early sixties when, in the course of my postgraduate studies in America, I carried out my first study comparing the values of students of business and engineering (Sharma, 1962). That study was inspired by the famous Cornell Values Studies (Rosenberg, 1957). Back in India, I carried out a series of studies in the 1970s covering students from a variety of professions, including management and engineering (Sharma, 1971a; 1971b; 1976b; 1976c). After a gap of more than thirty years, I have decided to revisit this topic to find out whether the trends observed in the mid-seventies are still prevalent or not.
Data for the present study on which this paper is based were collected during 2007-2008 from a leading self financed business school located in the National Capital Region (NCR). The respondents were one hundred eighty eight students pursuing a two-year MBA degree programme. What follows is a sociological analysis of the data collected with the help of a specially-designed questionnaire. The broad themes covered are (a) socio-economic background; (b) occupational choice; (c) occupational goals; and (d) occupational values of the future Indian managers. Wherever possible, the findings of the present study will be compared with those of my 1973-1974 study.
Background Profile of Students
Table 1 presents data from the two studies in terms of ten demographic/socio-economic background factors for the two groups of students. In the last column of this table are presented the results of chi-square test of association between the two time periods and each of the 10 background factors. The purpose of this analysis is to test the hypothesis of no association between "time" and any of the background factors. Rejection of the "null" hypothesis would mean, therefore, that there has been a significant change in the background profile of students during the period between the two studies.
Unlike some well-known American business schools (e.g., Harvard) that insist on prior work experience before allowing admission to their MBA course, the MBA students in India continue to be twenty three year old fresh college graduates. This trend--has not changed during the last more than three decades. What has changed during this period is the composition of the student body in terms of gender. The proportion of female students is nine times higher today than what it was in 1973-1974. The representation of Hindu students has slightly come down and their representation today is roughly the same as that found in the society at large. The proportion of Sikhs, Jains and other religious communities has roughly doubled while that of Christians has declined.
In terms of caste composition of the future managers, the proportion of Brahmins has come down drastically, while that of both Kshatriyas and Vaishyas has gone up. There is no change between the two study periods in terms of rural-urban background of the students and the type of schools attended by them. A vast majority of them were born and brought up in big cities and metros and had studied in private schools. The proportion of students who had studied through the English medium, which was already quite high in 1973-1974, has further gone up.
Whether we look at the level of parents' education or father's occupation, it is quite clear that the future Indian managers belong largely to upper and upper-middle class families. This was the case in 1973-1974 and continues to be so even today. There are some important differences between the two study periods. The proportion of mothers with graduate or postgraduate degrees has almost tripled during the intervening period while that of fathers has also gone up significantly. Insofar as father's occupation is concerned, students whose fathers are businessmen or professionals continue to be in the majority but their proportion has come down significantly. Consequently, the proportion of students whose fathers are in lower or middle status occupations has almost doubled. This appears to be due to the growing prosperity of the Indian middle class as a result of the overall economic development.
The process of choosing one out of several occupations open to a person involves "progressive delimitation of alternatives" (Rosenberg, 1957). A number of factors, both psychological and sociological, operate to reduce the large number of available possibilities. Ginsberg (1951) considers occupational choice as a developmental process that begins with "fantasy choices" in early childhood, proceeds through "tentative choices" in early adolescence, and ends with the "realistic choice" in early adulthood. Holland (1963) contends that through occupational choice an individual tries to locate an environment that is congruent with his personal orientation. This view affirms the position taken by Rosenberg, who had used the term "values" instead of "orientation." Choosing a career in India is not an entirely idiosyncratic act of an individual but is socially determined to a large extent. Since in most cases the cost of education is borne by the parents, family plays a determining role in deciding who i takes up what type of career in life
In the present study, it was found that over three-fourth of the students decided to join the management course during their college studies. Partly because of their age and also due to the exorbitant cost of management education, parents played the dominant role in influencing the students to go for a management course. Others who influenced, though to a lesser extent, were friends, management practitioners, and those already pursuing this course, in that order. Management was certainly not the only field of interest for these students. For every one who wanted to join a management course, there was another who wished to pursue some other field of study. Even after having joined this course, a little less than half of them (46percent) admitted that they did have doubts as to whether they had made the right choice. But the process of socialization that they have already gone through appears to have reduced the ambivalence of the students to some extent. This is apparent from answers to the following hypothetical question:
"If you could go back to the age of 15 to start life all over again, would you like to take up a field of study other than management?"
Only 30 percent of the students answered the question in the affirmative, whereas the remaining 70 percent replied with a categorical "no". The ambivalence or self-doubt is still there but it appears to be getting reduced. The commitment of the students to their chosen field of study (management) was studied through another indirect question. The students were given a list of six major PROFESSIONS (one of them being Management) and they were asked to rank them in the order of social prestige they enjoyed in society. Not surprisingly, "management" was given the first rank by an overwhelming' majority (82 percent) but almost the same majority (81 percent) gave the second rank to "medicine". Ranks given to the 6 professions were given above.
Rank Profession Respondents 1. Management 82 percent 2. Medicine 81 percent 3. Engineering 58 percent 4. Law 46 percent 5. Social Work 44 percent 6. Architecture 37 percent
The foregoing evidence suggests that even though "management" was not the only field of interest to all students initially, the process of socialization they went through at the institute was instrumental in reducing their ambivalence over the choice they had made. After they have completed their studies and have landed themselves with decent jobs, it can be expected that these bright young men and women will be fully committed to their career as future managers, leaving far behind the doubts they had initially.
A comparison of the findings of the present study with those of the earlier (1973-1974) study has revealed both similarities and dissimilarities. In both cases, the decision to pursue management education was taken when the students were still in college or just out of it. In choosing this field of study, the parents of the students had only a marginal role to play in 1973. But the present study has revealed that the parents played a dominant role. This may be because the cost of management education has skyrocketed today and most of the students depend on their parents to support them financially.
After having made the occupational choice, most of the students in 1973-1974 never had any doubts as to whether they had made the right choice. As against this, nearly half of today's students did have doubts about their choice. One reason for this difference could be due to the absence of alternative options in 1973-1974 and the availability of many more options today. However, as a result of the socialisation process that they had already gone through as students of management, most of them agreed (in 1973-1974 as well as 2007-2008) that, if they were to start life all over again, they would still prefer to pursue management as a career.
Different occupations provide a different set of benefits and facilities to their members, some of which are common across all occupations while others are unique to each of them. The word "benefit" refers not just to tangible rewards such as pay and perks but also includes many intangibles like opportunities to learn and grow, to be creative and original, to feel safe and secure, to work with people, or to be helpful to others. Just as occupations differ from one another in providing various benefits to their members, so do individuals who have their own sets of priorities in terms of what they expect to achieve through their career.
A good "fit" between what an occupation can offer and what its members aspire to achieve is the hallmark of an effective selection process. What are the occupational goals of mangers in-the-making? An answer to this question was sought through an indirect query: "Which of the following requirements a job will have to satisfy before you may consider
it an ideal job?" A list of twelve requirements was provided out of which every student was required to select any three that he considered as the most important. Table II provides data about the occupational goals of future managers.
The characteristics of a job that make it an ideal vocation have been classified into the following three broad categories: (1) extrinsic rewards; (2) intrinsic rewards; and (3) opportunity to work with people. Who chooses which of these three sets of job attributes would depend on the occupational goals of that person.
As shown in Table II, the dominant goals of the students of management happen to revolve around "extrinsic rewards" (45.16 percent), whereas goals relating to "intrinsic rewards" follow close behind at number two (39.79 percent). On the other hand, goals like working with people (rather than things) and helping (or leading) other people rank quite low at number three (15.05 percent). Out of these three sets of occupational goals, people-related goals were ranked as the lowest (20.12 percent) in the 1973-1974 study as well. The remaining 80 percent of the MBA students in that study opted for primarily intrinsic rewards (44.79 percent) followed by extrinsic rewards (35.09 percent).
Apart from the indirect question described above, a few direct questions were also used to ascertain the occupational goals of students. Responses to these direct questions are presented in Table III. Only 24 percent of the students aspire to be "well-liked", while most of them (77 percent) would like to be "successful" or "independent". Again, most of them (61 percent) would like to have a boss who allows them "freedom and discretion" in work or "pays liberally" even if he is a hard task master. Only 39 percent of the students prefer to have a boss who takes interest in their personal growth. Finally, over two-thirds of the students (69 percent) would like to have a job that involves "tackling new problems" or one that provides "job security", whereas less than one-third of them prefer a job in which they are "team leaders". The information presented in Table III is in general accord with that shown in Table II. Once again we find that "people orientation" as an occupational goal has emerged as relatively less important compared to the other (self-centred) goals.
Going by the past experience of management education in India, more than 99 percent of the students aspire to become employee managers serving the corporate world. The proportion of those who want to pursue a career as self-employed professionals or as entrepreneurs is negligible indeed. As employee managers, their preference is to take up jobs in multinational companies or Indian companies in the private sector, both of which are known to offer high salaries and perquisites as well as opportunities for career advancement. These and other such extrinsic rewards are precisely what the students of management are looking for and, therefore, there appears to be a good "fit" between the needs of the students and what their chosen profession is capable of providing to them.
But this "fit" is certainly not perfect! Every manager regardless of his function has to work with people under his charge. To be able to achieve organizational goals, he must be able to motivate and enthuse his subordinates so that they provide their best efforts at work. As an effective leader, therefore, a manager has to have not only HRM skills but also an aptitude or ability to work with people. That is why there is a saying that a good leader is "a friend, philosopher and guide" for his subordinates.
Schwartz (1992) has defined values as beliefs that serve as guiding principles in the life of a person. Since values are enduring beliefs, they are very difficult to change. Value systems tend to form early in life and are very stable. There is research evidence to show that students opting for different occupations differ in their values (Rosenberg, 1957; Pestonjee et al., 1970). Krishnan (2003 and 2008) has investigated the role of management education in changing the value system of MBA students. His conclusion is that management education appears to make people more selfish and less concerned about other people. Rather than holding management education responsible for this change of values, it is more likely that the MBA programme attracts largely those students who already possess the said values. In the present study, a set of 24 statements were used to tap four occupational values of students. The statements were mixed up and arranged in a random order to ensure an accurate response to each of them. A summary of the findings is given below:
With an overall average score of 90.63 percent, the students of management are found to be very highly progressive in terms of various social issues. Likewise, they are highly liberal insofar as economic issues are concerned, the overall average score for this value being 75.10 percent. A little over half of the students (54.41 percent) were found to be machiavellian. The emphasis on success as a life goal is so high that over half of the students are willing to adopt unethical means to achieve that goal. For these students, in other words, ends justify the means! Closely associated with this value is the low level of faith in people (40.99 percent) among the students of management. As already reported, these students have a very low level of "people orientation". Their low faith in people, therefore, is consistent with the fact that to be working with people or to help others does not rank high as one of their career goals.
Sl.No. Occupational Value 1973-1974 2007-2008 (N = 238) (N = 188) 1. Progressive 73.1 percent 90.63 percent 2. Liberal 83.7 percent 75.10 percent 3. Machiavellian * 54.41 percent 4. Faith in People 46.6 percent 40.99 percent * Data not available
A comparison of data on values from the two studies clearly shows that, despite difference in time, the values of MBA students show a high degree of similarity. The students were highly progressive and liberal in 1973-74 as their counterparts are in 2007-08. Likewise, both groups of students reflect a relatively lower level of faith in people. Two conclusions can be drawn from these findings. First, the similarity of values observed among the two groups of students is not a mere coincidence but the result of some underlying cause. And, second, the students of management seem convinced that the values they possess are the values that management as a profession demands. The background profile of these young students of management shows that a vast majority of them come from upper or upper-middle class homes, were born and brought up in cities, and had studied in private schools through the English medium. Their liberal and progressive values appear to be the direct outcome of their socio-economic background.
Discussion and Conclusion
Socio-Economic Background: A typical student of management is 23 years old. He joined the postgraduate course having come straight from an undergraduate college and has no previous work experience. A vast majority of the students were born and brought up in urban centres and studied in private schools through the English medium. Both parents of a typical student of management possessed graduate and (in many cases) postgraduate degrees. The upper and upper-middle class background of the students of management is also reflected in the occupational status of their fathers.
Empirical studies that are addressed to the question of inclusive growth of higher education in India have found that children of lower income and lower occupational background families continue to be under-represented in institutions of higher education in India in relation to their proportion in the total population (Chalam, 2007; Kumar, 2003; Salim 1997). While high cost of professional education is an important barrier that accounts for the observed disparity, it is certainly not the only obstacle. As argued in my earlier papers, the so-called "objective" tests that are used for admission (e.g., CAT, XAT, MAT, etc) are biased in favour of the urban rich and against the rural poor (Sharma, 1972, 1976, 1977) and hence act as an additional barrier to inclusive growth of higher education. To ensure inclusive growth in the field of higher education, the Indian approach is based entirely on the policy of reservation of seats for the less-privileged sections of the society. This policy is flawed in many ways. First, reservation is available on the basis of caste (SC, ST, OBC, etc) and not on economic criteria. Second, there is still a gross neglect of primary and secondary education and the failure of the government to provide good quality education, especially in the rural areas (Desai, 2008). Because of this, the students who are able to utilize the benefit of reservation are mostly from the so-called "creamy layer" of the less privileged castes. Finally, as of today, the benefit of affirmative action in the form of reservation is available only at government-aided institutions. As suggested by Deshpande (2008), we must consider innovative measures that go beyond the scope of the current affirmative action programme, such as free, compulsory and good quality primary education.
The remedial measures for inclusive growth of higher education suggested by various authors relate to policy intervention at the macro level. The main thrust of the recommendations is for a major overhaul of the primary and secondary education system in the country. At present, there is a deep divide between the quality of education in the state-run and the state-aided schools on the one hand and private schools on the other. These two types of school systems obviously cater to different segments of society. The recently introduced legislation for free and compulsory education for all children between 6 and 14 years of age is unlikely to bridge the gap between the two types of school systems.
The impact of the right to education legislation and of other measures to improve the quality of primary and secondary education on the state of higher education in India is bound to take time. In the meantime, there is something that every schools of management can do to make its process of student admissions more just, fair and equitable. The total dependence on objective tests like CAT, XAT, MAT, etc. as the sole basis for shortlisting a small proportion of candidates (and thereby rejecting the vast majority) needs to be re-examined. What is required is a series of scientific studies to determine the value and bonafides of these so-called objective tests. If these tests are indeed valid, they should be positively correlated with subsequent performance of the students. As already mentioned, these tests are biased in favour of the urban rich and the rural poor. If, on top of this bias, these tests are unable to predict future performance of students, then their continued use for selection of students for higher education is not only unscientific and irrational but also unfair and unjust.
Career Goals: Of the three sets of career goals reported in Table II, the one that was given the lowest rating (15 percent) was "people orientation". Such a low level of concern for other people is certainly not going to be conductive for future managers to become effective leaders. Blake and Mouton's (1964) classic managerial grid suggests five basic styles of leadership based on varying combinations of "concern for people" and "concern for production, each ranging between 1 (low) and 9 (high). Based on their empirical evidence, they have argued that someone who has maximum concern for both people and production (9, 9 manager) has the most effective style of leadership.
After many years of research at University of Michigan, Likert (1967) proposed four basic systems of management leadership: (1) exploitive autocratic; (2) benevolent autocratic; (3) participative; and (4) democratic. The system 4 (democratic) manager has complete confidence and trust in subordinates in all matters. He always asks subordinates for their opinions and tries to make constructive use of them. Likert and his colleagues have found that the high-producing units are the ones that are perceived to be managed according to systems 3 and 4, while the low-producing units fell under systems 1 and 2.
One of the qualities of a charismatic and transformational leader (apart from having a clear vision and ability to generate energy by motivating employees) is to psychologically help people to perform in the face of challenging goals (Nadler and Tushman, 1990). This calls for ability to empathise with employees and expression of personal support to them. The approaches to leadership style outlined here have been around for a number of years, but are still relevant in the prescriptive sense of what managers should do, even in today's emerging organizations (Luthans, 1995).
There are essentially two ways for management institutes to respond to this situation. At the time of selection of students, human relations skill and aptitude can be used as an additional ingredient of the selection criteria. Equally if not more important is the need to provide adequate educational/ training inputs for developing "sensitivity" among the students so that they can know themselves as well as others as human beings. Apart from functional knowledge about theory and practice of management, ability to know oneself as well as others and to empathize with other people is known to be a key to become an effective leader.
Occupational Values: That the students of management are found to be highly progressive as well as liberal in terms of their occupational values is quite appropriate for the leadership roles that they are expected to perform in the world of business and industry. There are howeve^ two values of students that caH for some serious thought and action on the part of the teachers and trainers of management. These are "machiavellianism" and "faith in people".
A little over half of the students are found to be Machiavellian, who tend to believe that ends justify the means! Manipulative behaviour and readiness to adopt unfair means to achieve one's goals are not the traits that a professionally trained manager is expected to possess. The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has swept companies globally and is believed to be an integral part of the modern businesses. CSR stands for an ongoing commitment by business to behave ethically and to contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large (Choudhary, 2009).
According to Gupta and Sharma (2009), CSR offers a new way to look at the relationship between business and society that does not treat corporate growth and social welfare as a zero-sum game. Grounding CSR in the values, purpose and strategy of business is recommended as the way forward. The implementation of any CSR scheme has to be carried out by managerial personnel all along the managerial hierarchy. It is necessary, therefore, that the values of all managerial employees should be in harmony with the ethical standards underlying any CSR scheme.
The findings of this study highlight the need for the future managers to be imbued with moral values that lead to ethical and socially responsible behaviour. The teachers and trainers of management may not be the right persons to "prescribe" moral values to their students/trainees. But they can certainly help sensitise them to the moral dimension in managerial decision-making. The best way to accomplish this is through case discussion. In some institutions, a course on business ethics or corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an integral part of the syllabus of the MBA programme.
The other issue that should be a matter of serious concern is the fairly low level of faith in people found among the students. One of the oldest definitions of management suggests that a manager has to manage 3Ms: Money, Materials and Manpower. Although a person's values influence how he manages the said 3Ms, the effect of values is more pronounced when it comes to managing manpower. In particular, a value like "faith in people" impinges directly on the style of leadership of a person. As already argued under "career goals", effective leadership calls for a careful balancing of concern for the task with concern for people. Based on his empirical studies of Indian leaders, Sinha (1980) has found that nurturant task leadership in the most effective leadership style in India.
Given the importance of concern for people and the fact that the future managers are found wanting in this attribute, both as a career goal and as an occupational value, there is definite need to inculcate this value among the students. Real change in one's goals and values can take place only with the initiative and sustained efforts of the person himself. But the teachers and trainers of management can play a vital role in kindling the need for such change. The most effective way of doing this is through sensitivity training, which helps enhance the level of self-awareness of a person. There are also some structured exercises for leadership development which too can be used to provide "feedback" to the students in terms of their strengths and weaknesses.
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Baldev R. Sharma
International Management Institute,
Table - 1 Background Profile of Students of Management Background Factor 1973-1974 Number Percent 1 . Age Distribution Upto 20 21 8.9 21 44 18.6 22 43 18.1 23 50 21.1 24-25 40 16.9 Over 25 39 16.5 Total 237 100.1 Mean Age 23.03 yrs 2. Gender Male 229 96.2 Female 9 3.8 Total 238 100.0 3. Religious Composition Hindu 206 86.6 Christian 14 5.9 Sikh 8 3.4 Jain 6 2.5 Others 4 1.6 Total 238 100.0 4. Caste Composition (Hindu only) Brahmin 115 55.8 Kshatriya 47 22.8 Vaishya 21 10.2 Others 23 11.2 Total 206 100.0 5. Rural-Urban Background Village/Town 46 19.4 City/Metro 191 80.6 Total 237 100.0 6. Type of School Government 25 10.7 Private 209 89.3 Total 234 100.0 7. Medium of School Education Vernacular 70 29.8 English 165 70.2 Total 235 100.0 8. Father's Education High School or Less 60 26.0 Graduate or Postgraduate 171 74.0 Total 231 100.0 9. Mother's Education High School or Less 170 73.0 Graduate or Postgraduate 63 27.0 Total 233 100.0 10. Father's Occupation Manual/Clerical 13 5.8 Semi-Prof./Supervisory 39 17.6 Professional/Businessman 170 76.6 Total 222 100.0 Background Factor 2007-2008 Number Percent 1 . Age Distribution Upto 20 1 0.5 21 20 10.6t 22 52 27.7 23 47 25.0 24-25 44 23.4 Over 25 24 12.8 Total 188 100.0 Mean Age 23.33 yrs. 2. Gender Male 123 65.4 Female 65 34.6 Total 188 100.0 3. Religious Composition Hindu 149 79.3 Christian 7 3.7 Sikh 14 7.4 Jain 11 5.9 Others 7 3.7 Total 188 100.0 4. Caste Composition (Hindu only) Brahmin 29 19.5 Kshatriya 50 33.5 Vaishya 66 44.3 Others 4 2.7 Total 149 100.0 5. Rural-Urban Background Village/Town 30 16.0 City/Metro 157 84.0 Total 187 100.0 6. Type of School Government 24 12.8 Private 164 87.0 Total 188 100.0 7. Medium of School Education Vernacular 25 13.5 English 160 86.5 Total 185 100.0 8. Father's Education High School or Less 22 12.2 Graduate or Postgraduate 158 87.8 Total 180 100.0 9. Mother's Education High School or Less 43 23.5 Graduate or Postgraduate 140 76.5 Total 183 100.0 10. Father's Occupation Manual/Clerical 17 9.4 Semi-Prof./Supervisory 61 33.7 Professional/Businessman 103 56.5 Total 181 100.0 Background Factor [X.sup.2] Test of Association 1 . Age Distribution Upto 20 21 [X.sup.2] = 26.49 22 d.f. = 5 23 P <.001 24-25 Over 25 Total Mean Age 2. Gender Male [X.sup.2] = 69.18 Female d.f.= 1 P <.001 Total 3. Religious Composition Hindu Christian [X.sup.2] = 9.65 Sikh d.f.= 4 Jain P <.05 Others Total 4. Caste Composition (Hindu only) Brahmin [X.sup.2] = 80.96 Kshatriya d.f.= 3 Vaishya P < .001 Others Total 5. Rural-Urban Background [X.sup.2] = 0.797 Village/Town d.f.= 1 City/Metro (n.s) * Total 6. Type of School [X.sup.2] = 0.452 Government d.f. = 5 Private (n.s) * Total 7. Medium of School Education [X.sup.2] = 15.580 Vernacular d.f. = 1 English P< .001 Total 8. Father's Education High School or Less [X.sup.2] = 11.959 Graduate or Postgraduate d.f. = 1 P< .001 Total 9. Mother's Education [X.sup.2] = 100.372 High School or Less d.f. = 1 Graduate or Postgraduate P< .001 Total 10. Father's Occupation Manual/Clerical [X.sup.2] = 17.813 Semi-Prof./Supervisory d.f. = 2 Professional/Businessman P< .001 Total * "n.s." stands for "not significant". Table--II Career Goals of Managers in-the-Making Career Goals Present Study Old Study (2007-2008) * (1973-1974) [DELTA] Number Percent Percent I. Extrinsic Reward Orientation (a) To earn a good 100 17.92 deal of money (b) Scope for advancement 53 9.50 (c) To derive social 50 8.96 status & prestige (d) To ensure stable & 49 8.78 secure future Sub-Total 252 45.16 35.09 II. Intrinsic Reward Orientation (a) To be able to use 77 13.80 special abilities (b) To be creative & original 59 10.57 (c) Work that involves variety 42 7.53 (d) Freedom from supervision 25 4.48 (e) Scope for adventure 19 3.41 Sub-Total 222 39.79 44.79 III. People Orientation (a) Chance to exercise 35 6.27 leadership (b) To be helpful to others 29 5.20 (c) To work with people 20 3.58 rather than things Sub-Total 84 15.05 20.12 Grand Total 558 100 100 * This table is based on the pooled responses of students who chose three most important occupational goals. Because of this, the total number of respondents comes to 186 x 3= 558. ([DELTA]) Item-wise frequencies are not available for the 1973-1974 study. Table--III Further Evidence on Career Goals of Students (N = 188) Q.1. Given a choice, which of the following would you enjoy most to be? a. Successful : 54percent b. Well-liked : 24percent c. Independent : 23percent Q.2. What kind of a person would you like to have as your boss? a. One who allows me freedom & discretion in work : 49percent b. One who takes interest in my personal growth : 39percent c. One who pays me liberally but is a hard task master : 12percent Q.3. Which type of job you would prefer most? a. One that involves tackling new problems : 59percent b. One in which I am a team leader : 31percent c. One that provides job security : 10percent Note: Unfortunately, corresponding data for the 1973-74 study is not available.
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|Author:||Sharma, Baldev R.|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2010|
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