Socio-Political and Economic Status of Minorities In India.
Muslims being one of the greatest minorities of India' are facing the bad impact of socio political and economic issues due to some of the devastating customs and policies of Hinduism. Hinduism heavily depends upon the caste system; it has its overwhelming effect on the people of their own religion. The Dalits are so much fed-up of it that they are impelled to change their religion. From the advent of Muslims in India the Indian Hindus have prejudicial attitude towards, them. Different social and political movements support this icon. In present India RSS and Modi look active to achieve the goals and objectives of these movements. Nehru being the greatest leader of India does not remain on the back, he also suppressed the Muslims as "during the1960s, much of the Muslims voice was vented through Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru". So, Muslims and Christians do not have their representation in the secular and democratic "Lok Sahha" of India.
All this has left the Muslims of India at the helm of affairs without any active leadership. This has multiplied their problems relating to status uniformity, poverty, credit flow, bank facilities and access to government jobs: Minorities of India are not enjoying the status as prescribed in the Constitution of India. Minorities and ethnicity posses' political, social and economic vitality, which is less recognized that causes problems of peace, security and Government Stability. Presence of minorities is not an issue in itself. India is in the crux of minorities' problems with a secular political and constitutional face, but veiled to hide the real, original face of Hinduism. It, at a time, is contrasting with the self-caste system of Hindus, where the Dalit are fed-up of it and trying to trap the bandages of caste, but no opportunity and out-let is available to them however they have one option to change the religion and get rid of Hindu bondage.
They accept Islam and Christianity, where one GOD looks after all the humanity and in Christianity the God Father has all kindness for its people. But the staunch Hindus due to their mentality and limited approach have failed to accept all this. Transformation of Hindu to Budhism is acceptable to them as they consider it is the child of the same mother. Hinduism and Budhism both have commonalities. Therefore, the activities of Dalai-Lama in India are on the peak and has forgotten Tibat and bussy in converting the Hindus to Budhmat and creating a set of its new followers. In all the above we have discussed that the face of India is changing in the future, with the minority to rule in future deny the presence of minorities and the vicissitude lies in the system and view is essentially effective in future. I do not see the India united for a longer time. The Indian political system is wearisome, fatigued and exhausted though looking a little balanced.
"There was also the anti-incumbency factor which has destroyed many a political career, and the so-called 'Libra!' press, which tended to view Modi through the prism of the horrific genocide of 2002.... Twin mantras of development and Hindutva based on an anti-terror platform proved too potent a weapon and the reverberations were feet outside Gujerat".1
Pakistan and Bangladesh are the living examples of ethno-religions division of India, based on the Hindus short sightedness. Now India takes full advantage of being upper. Riparian and Pakistan is disadvantageous being lower Riparian. India is working on the policy to barren Pakistan turning the water resources towards India and World's big powers are supporting him either way. Pakistan's voice is suppressing day-by-day either under terrorism or such other ways. Even America plays political games with Pakistan at the time of need, he makes it friend otherwise no relationship. Now it looks that "Sindh Basen Treaty is a part of International Conspiracy"2. e.g,'
Pakistan has always been betrayed by the Pakistan based World Bank employees
"In Ayub's regime, his Finance Minister, employee of World Bank, eased the finalization of Sindh-Basen Treaty and in 2007 Mr. Shaukat Aziz did not challenge India's developments on Baglihar Dam, he is also an employee of World Bank"3.
Involvement ofIndian army in raising the communal and minority riots is not hidden and a report of Daily Dawn 21st November 2008 is showing:
"Lt. Col. Srikant Parsad Purohit. He is the senior serving officer who has allegedly played a* key role in the Malegaon bombings of September 29. The blasts took place in mostly Muslim localities, killing 31. As usual initial suspicion fell on Muslims"4.
India has permanent enmity with Pakistan from the day of Independence. Any kind of riots in India, are used to charge sheet Pakistan. Indian Politicians are thinking like the super power of America. India cannot become a super power; it has attained a status of a hegemonic state. A country like India in the crux of complex phenomenon of ethnicity, religions, languages and of state sponsored Hindutva,lead by the political leadership having secular face; it created a hidden rivalry among ethnic group, setting the balanced constitutional prevision aside, that look unworkable and this has been learnt from past British India.
Secularism is a Muslim invention, as we know from History that Muhammad Bin Qasim, after conquering India handed it over to local leadership and power to control lying at with Arabian* Kingdom. World today understands that this term is coinage of modern Europe and applied in India. It is clear that this term was coined for India and used in India.
"A symmetrical secularism breeds religious intolerance. It breeds the Intolerance of arrogance in those who benefit from it, and intolerance of resentment in those who are at its receiving and it also creates the paradox of both the majority and minority nurturing grievances simultaneously. It pushes the members of all religions into a narrow confine of their own traditions. Fanaticism consists in standing so close to one's own religious tradition as to be blinded by the intensity of its luminosity, instead of seeing the whole world transfigured initslights"5.
Hindutva has been developed on the five positive points:
1. Gyan Shakti - Knowledge Power.
2. Oorja Shakti - Energy Power.
3. Jal Shakti - Water Power
4. Jan Shakti - People Power.
5. Raksha Shakti - Power of Security.
These points are impressive but all ignored at all levels of societal formation out of these Modi raised his face as Role Model, became a hate figure. He proved a setback for shanty (Peace) and from India's point of view to the war against terrorism. "The war against terrorism cannot be selective the need of the hour is to bring all human forces on one platform against terrorism"6.
India is a country where status is determined on the basis of casts; the Dalits are changing their religion rapidly as they have to live in the same poor and lowest spectrum status. Therefore, to up-grade themselves and enhance their status the Dalits are either to accept Islam or Christianity, but the Indians like them to be the Budh, as they think that other than Christianity and Islam, Budhism is a branch of Hinduism and is very close to it. In this way the Muslims are being sidelined. A person or community if one is cut-off from the mainstream of society; it develops a kind of unstable personality. "The communal stereotyping of Muslim minorities only alienates them and weakens the fight against terrorism. This is what the RSS-BJP is doing today"7.
The British got a position of social status of community through Hunter Commission.
"The Hunter Commission was of the opinion that the adverse policies of the British government beginning with the permanent* settlement, change over from Persian to English as the medium of instruction and administration and. Virtual devastation of indigenous industry in the wake of British policy of .supporting import of British goods had dealt a death-blow to the social position of Muslims"8.
Muslims of India opined Government and India as a "State is substantially to blame for her Plight"9. The responsibilities of Government get sharpened when the case relates to the minorities. History is evident that in India Minorities are being marginalized.
"A process of marginalization of minority Communities exists in almost all societies and there is nothing to warrant that the same is not true of Muslims in India to a greater or lesser degree ... The popular public discourse ... can lead to disastrous Consequences"10.
The government continues its struggle to remove this equilibrium in society, however, society moves onwards with all its prejudices and hatred in case of heterogeneity, love and affection in case of homogeneity or in case of heterogeneity society, accommodate positive attitude and can carry on struggle for development and prosperity of all the segments of society. Deprived groups are identified on the basis of sex, caste, language, religion, disability, descent, place of birth, residence, race etc.
Population census shows that Muslim population is on the rise in India It has its political and economic impart, which is not acceptable to the Hindus so, they suggested Muslims to have birth control, whereas, Muslim population is on increase due to conversion of Dalit to most modern scientific religion Islam.
Indian Muslims suffered three ways after partition as mentioned by Zafar-ul-Islam Khan. "The Partition of India left Muslims a beleaguered and largely poverty-stricken leader less community, suffering from discrimination and violence of ever increasing intensity and scale"11.
Muslims of India had truncated status poor in education and they are lagging behind in Socio-Economic and political walk of Society. Reasons of this is; they send their' children - to Madrissas, that have no contemporary syllabus, develop only theological and religious knowledge, without considering the development made in the modern world. Their approach is stagnant, traditional, without mobility. So, Indian Muslims lack economic opportunity. They have only choice in movie and music industry and the sports arena to flourish.
Partition negatively affected the Indian Muslims as, elites including political and religious leadership. The administrator, police and Military officers and entrepreneurial Class migrated to Pakistan. India ceases the access of Muslims to government officers, army, Law enforcement and intelligent authorities that undermined their power and public representation. The Muslim community of India is not united and they did not comment on the declaration of all Muslims as terrorists, however all the Muslims are not terrorists. North-east of India 'gave' Hindu terrorist, Punjab gave Sikhs terrorism and Muslims of Kashmir were declared as terrorist, against their wish to fight for freedom and separate homeland. Indian minorities should join hand to suppress Hindu extremists.
Jamat Islamia of India and other organizations made a coordination committee of Indian Muslims and made a public show to highlight Muslims grieves and grievances. Muslims of India do not have political leadership. Leadership unites the people, in its absence the Muslims are scattered and Hindus are taking benefits of it, in collaboration with international conspirators.
A friendship train between. India and Pakistan was blasted by Indian Lt. Col. Purohit, it was feared that more than one serving and retired officer were found involved and the Lt. Col. Purohit Confessed it, as reported in the Daily Times, Lahore, November 19, 2008. Indian state of Gujerat gave birth to moderate leadership and trading elites. Now It is functioning under siege of BJP, it also opened the vista of Hindu terrorism. Hindu terrorism extended' to neighbor state and big business city Mumbai in October 2008. The Chief Minister of that state resigned, whereas, Modi reached there to celebrate the occasion by distributing huge amounts. To camouflage the Hindus act of terrorism anddivert public attention theIndian government started blame game against Pakistan, without proving the event. Thisshows the diversity between Hindu mentality and constitutional provisions.
The BJP is using technique to gain winning position in the country next coming election. This is what Hindutva is applied for. The world should not enjoy it, this fire can spread globally. BJP is turning India into an ideological state, by indicting Muslims being past rulers. Indian Muslims should get up to' gain political power for their survival. Whereas, the Congress stepped down the Muslim leadership.
"During the 1960s, much of the Muslims voice was vented through Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. By 1972, there were no Muslim leaders from the liberal elite in the government, except the likes of Ghani Khan Chowdery, says Ahmed. In the late 80s, while moderate Muslims. Intellectuals from the community expend ed energy on Urdu revival and personal law; a more street-smart leadership with vote garnering skills began to occupy the political space"12.
As discussed earlier, connections between Indian army and Hindu fundamentalists is causing a new wave of Hindu terrorism. For the purpose of peace and security it is the ripe time for India and Pakistan to join together to trace the hidden hands endangering the development in both countries.
Specific problems facing Indian Muslims are as follows:
1. The Muslims enjoy equal status to' other citizens of state. Constitution differs while its written words are not promulgated in letter' and spirit. There is a clear difference in ideological form and real face of constitution. As constitution does not allow Modi Model.
2. Muslims like other communities are not safe and secure. As society is different from state, so "Problem is not with constitution but with its working" (Krishna, 2008). Identity trap of Muslim in India has following reasons:
i. Historically; relate to Truma of Partition, creation of Pakistan' and at later stage Bangladesh.
ii. Geographically; India failed to have friendly relations with Pakistan, as Hindu thinks Hindustan is meant for Hindus.
iii. Religiously; Muslims pushed Hinduism in one corner of world. It can be a psychological reason. Islam is the most modern scientific religion.
iv. Politically; Hindutva faces problems with the Muslim community.
v. Developmentally, Hinduism gives personal freedom, whereas, Islam is the .religion of society and preserve personal rights.
3. National and International security concern are* of much importance. Indian Hindu majority projecting Hindutva, have formulated a class of' Hindu fanatics, who demolished Babri Masjid and destroyed "Dosti Train". Both gave a message of security concern. Now Mumbai action has proved the implementation of Modi Mode land justified the Hindu fanatics, setting aside all developments made with Pakistan, India started a blame game. Whereas there are pockets in India where Muslims are insecure and passing through the situation of Social Boycott.
4. Equity concern is a recurrent theme. It explores and exposes differently the backwardness of Muslims; their deprivation, lack of access to resources, opportunity structures, economic vulnerability and other such discriminations perpetrated against them. Equity concern was relevant to economic status and vulnerability of Muslims of India.
5. Economic status cannot be traced out without going into the indicators.
* Muslims do not have uniform status. A little can be well of others "exhibit deficit and deprivation in practically all dimensions of development" (Krishna, 2008).
* Statistical data shows that mostly Muslims live below poverty line.
* Flow of Bank credit is slow towards Muslims.
* Bank facilities show inverse relationship between flow of loans and Muslim population and such other.
* Mostly Muslims are self-employed; they have poor access to government jobs. In this* respect their representation in government is too less and level of their jobs is of lower level.
Data indicate that status of education in India is below the universally acceptable standards. The standard of Muslim community is particularly of great concern. Muslims are not able to reap the benefits of planning and progress.
1. Muslim community of India has been kept deprived from the very beginning.
2. Constitution fails to work where the concern is of Muslims.
3. Policy makers neglect the Muslim as bigger minority of India.
4. Indian government and public run day-to-day business based on social hatred and prejudices.
5. Key issue and policy implementation are not transparent and mostly data in not available.
6. Like Muslims Christians are also prey to Modi model terrorist activities, the world has not taken a serious notice of it.
7. The stay of Dalai Lama in India was not just a stay rather it proved itself that it is part of a policy i.e. yet potential and hidden. The world has to after all explore its objectives and implications that will have their perspective impression on the social, political and economic life of the Indian people.
Notes and References
1. Mahurkar, U. The Modi Method, India, India Today, (2008 January): 30.
2. Nayyar, K. Chanab ko Khusk Ker K Bharat Hamari Fasal Tabah Ker raha hai. Lahore: 1st Floor 9/1-A Near Hamid Centre Royal Park , (2009).
4. Nayyar, K. BJP is playing with fire. Daily Dawn,(2008 November).
5. Sharma, A. Secular Politicking, India, India Today, (2008 January): 37.
6. Mahurkar, U. The Modi Method, India, India Today.
7. Habib, I. Historian Terror, India,India Today, (2008 October).
8. Ahmad, I. Economic and Political. Weekly, (2007 September): 3703.
12. Rehman, S. Silence of The Lambs, (2008 October).
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|Publication:||Journal of Pakistan Vision|
|Date:||Jun 20, 2019|
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