Society, religion and violence: A humanistic perspective toward religion: Part XVII.
After the Islamic elements in the East backed away from the liberation movements, the Communists came forward with comprehensive programs and intellectual solutions for all kinds of projects. This explains why the liberation movements in the East resorted to Communist ideologies in terms of handling economic, political, and social issues such as human rights in general and youth and womenAEs rights in particular.
Following World War I and World War II, in addition to the Soviet superpower state, there emerged several Communist states, all of which formed what was later called the Eastern pole. America and Europe, on the other hand, formed the Western pole. This development led to the fact that the interests of the Eastern and Western poles were being imposed on those of other countries. And thus, national and liberation movements were not able to find support in order to prevail unless they tried to find room within either pole. I believe one of the big mistakes of the West-led liberalism was that they unconditionally supported left-over regimes of colonialism in order to confront Communism. This attitude of the West had both pros and cons. This way, regressive and dictatorial governments were made to accept change and reform, a process that could have lead to the end of dictatorial and dogmatic regimes in the long run. The negative effect was, however, that Soviet-led Communist hegemony brought about the concept of political coup dAEtat into political life. When national movements and Communist ideologies blended, the effect was seen within the military forums where groups of officers would come together to confront everything the West had planned to gradually implement in the East.
To challenge the Communists, on the other hand, the West did its best to protect left-over regimes from colonialism and implemented governing systems quite contrary to those of the Soviets. Moreover, they strengthened their military and security powers, distributed arms in the area and built their military news agencies within the intelligence apparatus of the local governments, and made various military commitments and promises to the region. The driving factor behind their support, of course, was to protect regimes that were clandestinely working in favor of the Western pole. These regimes had essentially been Westernized and were to prevail. This explains why such governments, such as the royal system in Iraq, were not sympathizing with the wishes of the national and liberation movements. When King Faisal was crowned king of Iraq, the system on which the kingdom was based did not allow any kind of change or reform. Moreover, were it not because of the governing system, there was a good chance of agreement with the Kurdish liberation movement in Iraq and a peaceful direction for Iraq to take toward its future. However, the challenge between the West and the Soviet Union forced Iraq to enter a military commitment and become a police state. Additionally, disagreements emerged within the countryAEs military. The results were many coup dAEtats and the fate of the people ended up in the hands of the then political leadership that unfortunately did not have a clear understanding of power, social, economical, and political life of the Iraqi people. Eventually, Eastern nationalists and liberalists came to believe the fact that the West supported only regressive and traditional local governments that could not respond to the social and economical needs of the people and therefore should be removed.
This belief became the absolute faith of the national and liberal movements among whom the ideology of the Communists became dominant and the then question was who was for or against imperialism, a question whose answer was used to define the social and political wings of that time. This helped determine the affiliation of the national and liberation movements who were requested to unite and stand together against imperialism regardless of the interests of Communism or the Soviet Union, a development that led to the emergence of what was later known as the front that defended the rights of nations. A century of experience showed that Communism failed to provide real support for oppressed nations. The best example for the situation was the Soviet Union itself within which there were many so-called national republics. However, only after 70 years did it become known that Soviet Union was in itself like a jail in which different nations there had been imprisoned.
After Islamic ideology withdrew from the national and liberation movements, it ended up under the shadow of the then prevailing regimes of countries that were under the protection of the West. This is attributed to that fact that those countries were very traditional and could care less about new thoughts. Moreover, the nature of most of their rules and legislation did not hurt the feelings of Islamic intellectuals. Back then, Islamic groups and movements were not like what they are today in terms of being organized syndicates or political groups. In the beginning of the 20th century, for example, there were individual Islamic personalities or leaders that were far more influential and powerful than a political party. Such characteristics of the Islamic movements differentiated them from the regular liberation and national movements, a fact that helped them easily merge into the then ruling traditional and regressive regimes. These regimes were the same countries that continued under the protection of the West and managed to make enough economical and technological progress to gradually give further characteristics to their political life. Jordan, Iran of the Shah, and Morocco are examples of such regimes. Even in countries where liberal and national movements came to power along with the Communists, they could not make any social or economical progress. Such countries were preoccupied with wards and could not resolve their fundamental social and economical issues. In pro-Western countries, some economical progress was witnessed. In countries that were supposed to be independent and supported by the Soviet Union, there was no major economical progress to get a competition going among the member governments of the union. Moreover, national wealth was used to purchase ammunition.
Our region suffered serious consequences from these developments. Form example, in terms of economical development, the political and intellectual discussion that started with the coming of colonialism to the region and the challenge between Islamic and Western civilizations had come to a full stop. Moreover, there was no social or political alternative to stabilize the situation and help the local authorities toward progress. Eventually, our region was pushed into a military challenge that served the interests of one of the two major poles behind the scenes. There is no doubt that Soviet Union used the concepts of freedom of nations and social justice to promote its economical and political interests. Moreover, many rightful national and liberation movements were victimized or crushed if they did not serve the interests of th
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|Publication:||The Kurdish Globe (Erbil, Iraq)|
|Date:||Aug 11, 2008|
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