Social and Political Dynamics of Higher Education in Pakistan.
Education is a fundamental institution of change which impacts generations. Education lay basisfor social and economic development,it is defined in oxford dictionary as "the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university". According to Merriam-Webster dictionary education is "the knowledge, skill, and understanding that is obtained from attending a school, college, or university". The success and development of Western countries especially the leading ones are mainly due to education. It has played an important role in transforming previously less developed societies into leading nations; therefore, education could be a tool of reformation. Western countries have worked hard on developing their social capital as per the contemporary requirements. It is only because of their skilled labor that has helped them to develop modern technologies.
Those countries not only use education as a tool for skilled development but they also used education for the purpose of nation building. They use education to implement their modern social and political values as well as keep their old traditions. They encourage and facilitate their youth to take up higher education so that they can train them not only to compete in the world but also to turn them into better citizens. They designed education according to their own needs and to fulfill the national and international demands of the modern times.
According to Merriam-Webster, higher education can be defined as the "study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in disciplinessuch as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. These also include teacher-training schools, community colleges, and institutes of technology. At the end of a prescribed course of study, a degree, diploma, or certificate is awarded".It may take at least three or four years to be graduated from a higher education institution after that one will work in his field of profession, and he will learn improved research activity in such environment. In short, higher education mostly and usually means the education of university level. The western countries used education especially higher education to produce intellectual people throughout the world.
All the leading educational institutions of the world are situated in these countries and this contributes to their global dom inance as they use these seats of learning to acquire international talents and use them to achieve their goals. Many scholarship programs have been introduced by these Western countries to attract and acquire talents of students from third world and under these scholarships they give admissions to students from the underdeveloped countries. One other reason given for these scholarships is that the most locals are not interested in higher education so that's why one observes that it is the not locals but students of foreign origin that dominate the admissions in these institutions.
By an estimate, Pakistan is a developing country and world's sixth largest population and major portion of the country's population is quite young. In Pakistan, since her inception education has taken back seat and this is mainly due to the problems that she faced immediately after her independence which made her to give priority to her security over education. The adult literacy rate in Pakistan is also considerably low. The other major reason of concern is the female education in the country that make more than one half of Pakistan's population and due to old rigid traditions and customs that still prevail in our society they are discouraged to get education. One other reason for this literacy rate is the dearth of educational infrastructure as most of the areas are without schools and if there is any then it lacks basic facilities and teaching staff.
In order to increase education rate in the country it is very important that more importance should be given to education and the local talent should be promoted as it will also to protect Pakistan from brain drain. Most of the educated and skilled people are migrating to developed countries in the search for better opportunities. Pakistan should work on retaining her social capital in her country otherwise the local educational condition will further deteriorate.
Higher education plays a very important role in developing skilled labor and with such a proportion of young population Pakistan can progress if only provide youth with educational facilities after that they will be able to compete at international level but the most important role that education can play and especially higher education can play is that of social and political training of the Pakistani youth. The biggest gift that education gives to an individual is the power to thinking and to evaluate one's surroundings and this is the first step towards awareness regarding the ills and evils that exist in the society. The education also enables an individual to identify ways through which social evils ought to be eliminated. It also plays a very important role in creating collective mind-set that is very important in eradicating social and political ills.
The previous government established institutions such as Higher Education Commission (HEC) to promote and regularize higher education in the country before that University grants commission was the institution that dealt with the higher education in the country. Higher Education Commission (HEC) played a very important role in promoting higher education in Pakistan. They arranged scholarships for Pakistani students and also regularized local higher education institutions by formulating national standards for all the local universities. Those standards were of international standards and increased the quality of education in the country. The number of PhD scholars has significantly increased after the formation of Higher Education Commission.
The Higher Education Commission also promoted and encouraged research culture. HEC also provided the researchers opportunities to use international academic resources and collaborate with other international academic personalities and institutions so that they can conduct their research in a better manner. But with the politicization of Higher Education Commission and after the 18th amendment the Higher Education Commission has become defunct of some sort and has not remained active like before mainly because of cutting in its budget. One pattern that has been observed globally and Pakistan is also not an exception is that even local education has become a source for the propagation of western ideals while in reality the socio-political dynamics of Pakistan are quite different from the other countries thoughit may resemble to the neighboring countries.
So, during the course of this studywe will try to explain that how higher education impact social and political dynamics and how higher education can be used to achieve national integration and socio-political awareness of our people. Some of the essential elements of Higher Education system are discussed below. Institutions that are associated with higher education play the role of backbone both in public and private affairs. There interests can be on numerous levels which can go in the favor of this discipline and can also the cause of weakness for it simultaneously. They can be categorizing according to their role and the special tasks that are assigned to them. All the binaries that are focused in this discipline which controls finance management which are attached with higher education are not devoid from public and private sectors. Rules are necessary for the nourishment of institutions which made a trend in formal policies and the functioning of institutions(Hosni, 2000).
Labor market is connected via this system and the business community is also depends upon this. Various departments of government that arrange the environment policy also operates by this system. Regional and communities of global higher education, plus donors of bilateral and multilateral category, foundations and organizations of non-government, also have international links with higher educationas mentioned by Hosni. A successful system of higher education depends on the effective administration of the state. It must be ensured by the government that the system should serve the interests of public, it should offer those higher education elements that would not be given if left to market alone, it should also support equity, and promotes basic research on which the needs of country is dependent.
Higher educational institutions must be insured by the state, and as a whole, the system should operate financial transparency and justice. Higher education systems might get weakened by the inadequate government ac tions.
The word "governance" signifies about formal and informal array that allows institutions of higher education to make resolutions, on which they make actions (Akhtar and Kalsoom, 2012).It comprises of external governance, which is related to individual institutions and their faculties including supervisors, and on the other hand internal governance. Formal governance is authorized and precise. Informal governance depends on the unwritten regulations that control how people are related to one another within system of higher education. Educational quality is promoted by good governance. Governance has different traditions that vary from one country to another. A wider impact can be caused by politicization of the academic environment of the system.
While political activity has helped to work with injustices throughout the World and it also promotes democracy, however politicization, improper and disturbed life at campuses is observed. Research, learning and teaching becomes very difficult in such type of environment when there is a presence of rival political fractions.
A significant element in the interest of public in higher education is its position in making a meritocratic society that is capable to assure the greatest political leaders, doctors, teachers and civil servants, lawyers and engineers, and business and civic leaders. Such persons are frequently chosen from the majority of educated area, and financial system is less likely to grow when they are selected from the category of richest, instead of the most talented (Altbach, 1982). The concept relies on the argument that graduates from university constitute elites of society, and by now they have the benefit of tending to get here from the richer families. Thus, this is not worthy of public financial support. This point overlooks two tendencies which are self-corrective. A learned and skilled stratum is crucial for the development of social and economic modern society. They are doing well for the betterments of the society as a whole. Not only to those who are educated but also the whole society.
This should comprise of serving disadvantaged groups to overwhelm these prevalent problems, due to which they are eliminated from the system. Similarly, it is important to be careful in the system of examination to improve tuition and fee structures so that candidates from inferior backgrounds face less difficulties. And lastly, measures are necessary to crush out corruption in the universities (Lim,1999).
Disadvantaged groups, whether cultural, linguistic, or related to religious groups in particular societies or women which are present almost everywhere find it difficult to struggle for places in the system of higher education. Usually they have gained low quality of primary and secondary education, making it difficult for them to continue further progression in system of education, making it much harder to attain.For many years, such groups have been badly represented in higher educational systems, which means that faculty is expected to be unreliable for disadvantaged groups, and real or distinguish problems will remain there in institutional prejudice. Higher education is also dependent on the rest of the system of education, and those who have obtained less schooling from primary or secondary education are obviously far less likely to move towards in the development of higher education.
A suggestion could therefore be the emphasis on need of investments from all of public at all degree of education system, in order that large amounts of competent candidates from deprived groups may participate in this system to access higher education.Well-organized and brilliant students face problems in achieving access to higher education when the expenditure of education goes beyond to their means. These expenses include tuition fees, books and materials, room and board and technology access, plus income that are inevitable while attending school. This difficulty, comes certainly from mainly limiting small income levels, and is motivated by the poor performance of marketplaces in numerous unindustrialized countries.
This indicates that students cannot assure loans at realistic rates to invest in their schooling. In countries that have diverse organizations of higher education, it depends on the interest of public to limit the cost barriers to the institutions of private as well as to public (Pu ryear, 1995).With higher education which offers such definite private benefits, both economical as well as social in the university places with some corruptive systems are unsurprising. Each place of higher education which is rewarded through corruption will make the way for less deserving. If the difficulty is still prevalent, an unsuccessful educational class will build up which have low talent and low ability. Even minor corruptions are corrosive and can cause great change, which increase the likelihood of dissonance within an institution and its reputation can be compromised (Bloom and Rivera-Batiz, 1999).
This research will focus on the socio-political dynamics of higher education on students and how it is making thempolitically active and socially responsible. The main reason for selecting this topic was that it is relevant these days as Pakistan has a growing population, most of them are youthand most of them are or aspire to be engaged in the higher education. It is very important to understand that what they are thinking and how their thinking process is being affected by the higher education they are receiving. The main objectives of the study are:
1. To understand the relationship between the students and governance.
2. To understand how lack of resources is affecting higher education in Pakistan.
3. To identify that what should be the role of students in politics.
4. To understand the social dynamics of higher education on students.
5. To understand the political dynamics of higher education on students.
Secondary data is being analyzed in this research, these include books, research articles and national level research reports. Secondary sources are used to explore the dynamics of higher education in Pakistan. Secondary data is being used considering it more efficient as compared to conducting a primary research.
Analysis of previously existing data is less time consuming, economically cheaper and can be utilized for various purposes. Changes over the period of time might also be observed through this process. Moreover, it also compliments primary information gathered for some other purpose relevant to the topic. Researcher with little experience or knowledge about methodological techniques may also benefit from it (Baeulieu, 1992). It is being observed that there are very few scientific studies being conducted on the topic. Higher Education Commission of Pakistan has many national level reports which are accessible online. These reports enabled us to understand the phenomena and changes over the period of time. Data which is being analyzed in this study was recycled by professionals and experts and observe various aspects for developing higher education policy.Following themes have been derived from the secondary sources:
* Relationship between students and governance
* Lack of resources and higher education in Pakistan
* Role of students in politics of Pakistan
* Social dynamics of higher education of Pakistan with reference to students
* Political dynamics of higher education of Pakistan with reference to student
SOCIAL DYNAMICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Higher education is not only meant for transmission of knowledge. The idea is multidimensional, including social, cultural and economic dimensions (Moore and Farris, 1991). Education cannot be separated from its social perspective. Religious, ethical, historical, and intellectual ethos pass through the framework of educational institutions in a country (Best, 1970). During the time of rapid global, political, and economical changes, the universities of South Asia and developing countries are in transition. Communal expectations concerning access to the system of higher education directly concern with role which universities are able to play in social and economic development (Allen, 1998).
A country's development is parallel to the development in higher education system. Unfortunately, its significance is underestimated in developing countries. For more than a decade, countries have been working to strengthen their standards of education by giving quality education to their people, other than that the re are a lot of obstacles and difficulties that are up-and-coming. These challenges of quantity, justice, and quality are common around the world and need to be tackled.Social dynamic is a fundamental aspect in third world countries from which we can determine the significance of social environment that make it possible to alleviate poverty among developing countries of Asia as defined by Merrian-Webster dictionary. Higher education is known as capital investment; moreover, it is important for fiscal and social development of the state (Barnet, 1990).
Organizations of higher education have the main responsibility for providing individuals with higher knowledge and skills necessary for positions of liability in government, industry, and additional professions (Mughal and Mazoor, 1990).Quality higher education is a cause of immense potential for the development related to socio economic and educational progress of the country. Recent development is higher education system is based on characteristic nature of its institutions like worldwide mobility of students, accessibility of teachers, computer-based learning and pursuit of scholarship and research, globalization of financial system, and to deal with rising challenges.
Social and intellectual issues, which cannot be ignored, are as important as any of the practical factors in the formation and accomplishment of any institutional policy. A balanced relation between these policies and factors is a must need as university administrations evidently reveals that the success and failure of university organizational reforms depend on the presence or absence of factors such as.
* Strong obligation and leadership
* Conducive political environment
* Facilitative social environment
* Types of agents that cause reforms
* Nature of reforms
* Constructive bureaucratic approach towards change
The idea of social integrity is much similar to the code of good practice on integration of employment equity. It is a development above the idea of intrinsic discrimination which was required to be explained by indigenous differences among individuals (Bayli, 1987).The rapidly increasing population in South Asian developing countries is another problem which is causing overfilling in the institutions of higher education because the quantity of high ranked institutes is not sufficient to meet demand. The necessity for the expansion of number of education institutions is one of the most significant concerns for a long time. The developing countries have approximately 50% of the world population comparedto 66% in 1950. Most of the South Asian countries have not sufficient resources (Meyer and Rubinson, 1975).
Responsibilities of Higher Education Institutions
Throughout the past, institutions associated with the higher education have played significant roles, these include conveying, creating and protecting knowledge, selecting and teaching elites, facilitating social unity, transmitting customs, providing the labor marketplace with expert workforce and so on.
Nowadays, it has been disagreed that the customary pact involving higher education as well as society is experiencing important change, while there are various remarkable influences of higher education institutions with reference to this change (Cher Conference, 2012).
Consequences of Societal Dynamics of Higher Education System
It is usually acknowledged that in the previous numerous decades almost all characteristics of the means in which our societies role has been influenced by the innovations in technology, communication and information. The progression in these areas of human activity has been unparalleled. The social, financial and political amendments in the meantime have changed the dynamics of an association between these organizations. As a result, the nature and principle within institutions of higher education are being modified according to the needs of time(Cher Conference, 2012).
Social Dynamics of Higher Education in Pakistan
In Pakistan, the development of higher education is a debatable issue. It is argued that whether higher education contributes in a country's skilled work force. Brilliant managers may become great leaders, engineers as well as scientists are also examples of scientific innovations and coaching professionals train the young for potential development.Those with higher degrees contribute to qualified and skilled labor force which efficiently increases work and also become a cause of high national income. Research and development (RandD) behavior in industry, besides universities are undertaken mainly by those who are qualified higher education institutions and have with education of institution of higher education and have selected degrees (Akbar and Naqvi, 2008).
Currently, several countries intend to elevate social rates of return of research and development by universities. Greater social unity and strengthened basics for democracy that encourage property rights and assist imposed law and order are essential conditions to generate incentives. If centrality of higher education is considered in the development of human society, it astonishes that merely since 2002 in Pakistan; post-secondary education has received some attention in public sector. The government has increased the part of post-secondary education in the budget of education to 13.7% by 2005-06, which results in expansion of public universities as well as colleges all over the country and there is more than double increase in the enrolment of students. A current study indicates that Pakistan is undergoing a demographic change because it's declining growth of population, causing an alteration in the country's age structure.
The proportion of the secondary to the pre-secondary school-age populace will keep on declining so as to the population of post-secondary school-age is 18-24 years which will increase until 2050.
Pakistan can promote from this demographic share merely by planning forward and continuing its importance on education which would be post-secondary. Based on the present low student contribution rate of 2.5% (the proportion of the populace aged 18-24 who are attending post-secondary institutions) and the expected increase in population, around 450,000 new students enter in institutes of post-secondary in 2010. The aim of government is to double this rate (as by the declaration of the leader of Pakistan). Though, given the restrictions of the physical as well as human resources, investment should be made to assemble the future development to maintain a balance between supply and demand for the system of higher education.
It is estimated that it would be signify if at least present share would be doubled as compared to the present expenses in the sector of higher education sector. By the way, a 5% participation of student rate is still too low as compared to the international standards (Akbar and Naqvi, 2008).
New projects should be explored while balance should be maintained between distributions to a variety of academic disciplines. A student of engineering university gets about 2.4 times more, and one which is enrolled in a medical university obtains 1.3 times more, share than does a general university student. Engineers and doctors as well as other scientists are supposed to contribute more to the economic development than graduates in the fields of arts, humanities, and social sciences. Funds which are allocated to institutions of higher education have been used to encourage the academic activities of universities of public sector as suggested by Medium-Term Development Framework 2005.
POLITICAL DYNAMICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN
Students have always been playing key role in politics of the subcontinent.
Students played role of freedom fighters and revolutionists at the time of independence. After 1947 first student political party in Pakistan was Muslim student federation. In 1950s two political groups of students were emerged the Marxist party like the Democratic Student Federation and religious party like the IslamiJamiat-a-talba. These groups were not treated properly and kindly by the powers at the time, in 1953 during a protest that was escorted by the Democratic Student Federation, police shout down six students. During the following year these political groups were banned due to their possible connection to the communist parties of Pakistan, shortly after its ban another group the All Pakistan Student Organization was also banned. After these two groups another group came into being that is National Student Federation (NSF) which is still working (Paracha, 2009).
Student unions in 1960s were playing for power between the Maoist-Soviet leaning and the religious parties and the National Students Organization was coming on top with National Students Federation. In 1974 Student Union Ordinance was passed so in1970s great parties of students were emerged. The Ordinance actually encouraged the on-campus student activity, and many prominent new student organizations came into being and grew during 1970s. During this time the fight between the Marxist and religious students proliferated and both sides created their own respective alliances, though both groups had to face the political infighting (Paracha, 2009).
In late 1970s and start of 1980s the groups of students began to fight frequently and violently with each other and the government. Everything happened because of Zia Ul Haq, who put restrictions and then banned the progressive, liberal and democratic students. The way to the colleges and universities was closed for students of PSF, but in presence of all the difficulties at MAO College Lahore students like Tanveer Khan, Jamshed Butt, Sahar Dabir and Main Ayub continued their struggle. Jamshed butt was an excellent speaker and he was the main person behind all those political games which were being played in those days between the liberal students. Jamshed spoke and wrote against Zia-ul-haq during the ruling days of Zia. Sunny and Tanver were criminals and they were involved in different criminal cases and they were fighting tigers. There was witnessed a popular Kalashnikov culture in the campuses (Paracha, 2009).
The student politics can be observed by four important historical struggles and the changes that time. These are:
i. Independence and freedom movement
ii. Bhutto supporters
iii. Against Zia-ul-haq, and
iv. Against the emergency imposed by President Musharraf.
General Musharraf imposed emergency and then other student federation's rose that was the time of modernization and privatization in Pakistan It was also kept in complete check that the students should have minimum opportunities to interact and get together so that the prospects of any student movements could be eradicated. But there were few exceptions to the rule as healthy activities and leadership development programs kept persisting in a selected some educational institutions that institute were traditionally sources of generating professional and bureaucratic elite class of the country i.e., Kinnaird College, Government College and Aitcheson College in Lahore. There was a new trend and enthusiasm on secular higher education and in 2002, the government declared new law for higher education in.
Formation of HEC was based on the report presented by the appointed commission on higher education in Pakistan March 2002 conducted at the federal ministry of education, government of Pakistan, it clearly ascertains in its mission statement to "build a patient and pluralistic society based on the culture of Pakistan". The sermon of removing the ban on student unions by today's government gives an opportunity to re-experience the effects of student politics on national politics and policy and formulate ways to reinforce it in service of gender friendly and peace loving campuses Higher Education Commission of Pakistan is working for welfare and better studies of student in Pakistan and also sending them abroad. HEC is lifting the standard of education in Pakistan offering scholarships. In this era of competition HEC is playing a very supportive role for students' offers indigenous as well overseas scholarship (Paracha, 2009).
New fields of education are been introduced so that student may find platform to share their views, fields like mass communication, international relations etc. has changed the trends of students. Student politics is next to nothing in most of the institutes of Pakistan instead there are many groups of students with secular, modernized and progressive thinking. But still few institutes have active political groups like in Punjab university Jamiat-a-ulma-a-Islam is still effective and has a strong hold. HEC has introduced cultural exchange programs so that students of Pakistan could learn culture and polices of different countries and evolve their brains accordingly.
Student politics is almost replaced by different university level societies and communities within university, these societies are working for awareness of students and different healthy competitions are conducted to increase knowledge and confidence of students. Trends are changing and inter and intra university debating, science fares and quiz competitions are healthy activities which certainly has replaced student politics. Social media has played an important role, now every news and trend spread quickly. Students are against violence and they want to solve problems through debate and consensus and social media is one of the best sources to do it. But still few universities like Islamia University Peshawar and Punjab University Lahore is under the great influence of student politics although societies are also working efficiently to promote the extracurricular environment in university.
One cannot say that education here in Pakistan is still free of politics for appointments and selection of authorities in different universities and educational organizations are in the control of ruling government. In accord with HEC Ordinance, the PM is the authority that can appoint anyone in HEC and the shortlisted names should be forwarded to PM for final decision. Every influential seat in educational institute is occupied by ruling power's favorite person. Merit has not given its due significance but still education is improving and universities are producing competitive students. Students are involved in politics but outside the campuses. Educational Institutes are not involved in the political activities of students. Students are involved in the Liberal democratic and politically unaligned groups.
Followings are few working political groups of students few are registered few are Pakistani Youth Movement was started in 2010 they have stated aim to increase the vision of educated youth of Pakistan to m ake Pakistan a better place to live. The group assures not have any alliance to political or religious parties, and does not have any structured leadership normally occurred within a political party. The group use to post videos about their activity and role in providing relief to flood victim and their support and effort to Teach for Pakistan Movement in 2011.Pakistan Youth Alliance (PYA) is a non-political youth driven aid and relief group. It was started in November 2007, the PYA has aims to, "create social and political awareness among the youth of Pakistan," and, "provide a stage to the youth by which, they can increase their struggles against inequality, human exploitation and other social evils of our society." Mian Muhammad Arfat started Pakistan Youth Council (PYC) in 2012.
It is a membership based democratically aligned youth organization. The group's focus is to, "create economic, political and social awareness among youth and enable them to protect and to ask their rights e.g. employment, sports education and health". PYC has helped to promote the role of youth in politics by educational seminars and to try to affect the actions to reduce age factor for parliamentary candidacy.
Youth Parliament of Pakistan (YPP) is a democratically oriented activated group started in 2006. The group does not have any political and religious affiliation, and works on educating and enlightening the youth of Pakistan about the trends and ideas of democracy. In 2009, YPP started the youth activities for democracy in cooperation with the United Nations Democracy Fund. This project focused at an increasing democratic education and youth active participation in politics in the districts of Baluchistan, Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Azad Jammu Kashmir.All these and few other youth groups are working for awareness of students but there is relatively less violence compared to the past. Fortunately, most of the campuses are free from politics and student grouping and college elections.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Education is considered an imperative for development of any society. People in Pakistan cannot afford quality education in private institutions therefore government should equalize the standard of education in both private and public institutions. In the first world countries ethics and moral values of a student are built at the beginning of the education. Our institutes are not shaping individuals properly, we lack in polices, system and administration. Social and political training must be the part of our education system. Special courses must be part of the curriculum to create awareness about the changing and update scenario of politics. Every student need to be aware of politics; institutes should organize political sessions for them so that student is enlightened with the current affairs in the country and around the globe.
People with higher education have a mass appeal and also helps in attracting others to get education as they somewhat become their role models mainly because of the distinctive status they enjoy in the social and political arena of the society on the basis of their educational qualifications.
Higher education in our country is limited to a specific class and to those who can afford higher studies and lives in urban areas. Education network and news must reach every corner of the country as they have equal rights to avail all the facilities granted by government for students. Every sect, region and creed should enjoy equal facilities of education Moreover,student unrest among institutions of higher education is a serious problem as the political parties of country have student wings which are often politicized by politicians for their own purposes. This way student attention is diverted to political activities which results low performance in academics by that students. To make higher education a triumph, education at low level must be improved and specialized so that student may get some incentive to go further for their respective subjects.
Quality researches should be conducted at university level and latest academic text and research articles need to be available to the students. Investment and proper administration of their institutes is also required, accountability of these institutions should be done impartially by government. Students should be provided with effective counseling so that they will be able to discuss their problems and aptitude these way students can take himself away from any immoral social or political activity. Their understanding about their norms, culture, and values social and political environment can be increased. Human are the biggest resource and youth is an asset for any country. Pakistan is sufficient in both these aspects. Government and institutes should properly direct their students so they may make them socially responsible citizens.
Politics in the appointment of officials must be eradicated. A delegate must be formulated to select any deserving one. Opinion of staff and students has to be the priority of this delegate. Selection of favorites has to be nullified fair and square selection without any politics can change the fate of students, institutes and country. At the end, every student should have to be politically and socially aware but must not become the part of politics. Other than academics, students should focus on curricular and extra-curricular activities rather than political activities. On the other hand, institutions need to equip students with political, social and ethical values.
Notes and References
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Akbari, Syed Ather Hussain and Naqvi, Syed Nawab Haider (2008). "Why higher education in Pakistan?" Dawn.
Hosni, D. (2000)"Higher Education in Developing Countries: Peril and Promise The Task Force On Higher Education And Society. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank," Economics of Education Review: 547-548.
Lim, D. (1999). "Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Developing Countries." Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education: 379-390.
Puryear, Jeffrey M. (1995).International Education Statistics and Research: Status and Problems. International Journal of Educational Development, 15(1):79-91.
David Bloom and Francisco Rivera-Batiz (1999). Global Trends in the Financing of Higher Education: Prospects and Challenges for the Next Decade, Statistical Appendix
Akhtar, MahrMuhammad Saeed, Kalsoom,Tahira (2012) Issues of Universities' Governance in Pakistan Journal of Elementary Education Vol.22, No. 2 :pp. 81-94.
Meyer, John W. and Rubinson, Richard (1975). Review of Research in Education, American Educational Research Association Stable. Vol. 3, pp. 134-162.http://www.jstor.org/stable/1167257 11/03/2014 12:19
M.K.Moore and P. Farris (1991). Combining a school university partnership with a career incentive program.Catalyst for Change 21. No 1: 34-43.
John W.Best (1970).Research in Education. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
M. Allen (1998). The goal of universities. Philadelphia, USA." The Society for Research into Higher Education.
Merriam-Webster. "social dynamics." Merriam-Webster. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/social%20dynamics.
Paracha, Nadeem. F. (May 06, 2019). Student politics in Pakistan: A celebration, lament and history, http://www.dawn.com/news/1116782/student-politics-in-pakistan-a-celebration-lament-history.
Barnet, R. (1990). The idea of higher education. Philadelphia, USA.The Society for Research into Higher Education.
Mughal, A.N.and Manzoor (1999). Issues in higher education: Problems and prospects of the Pakistani university.Jamhsoro, Pakistan: University of Sindh.
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|Author:||Abdul Rehman and Ayesha Farooq|
|Publication:||Journal of Pakistan Vision|
|Date:||Jan 31, 2020|
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