Smoking Addiction among University Students and the Willingness and Self-Efficacy to Quit Smoking.
Smoking dependence is one of the preventable public health problems which is among the major causes of mortality and morbidity. World Health Organisation (WHO) reports that if regarding corrective actions are not taken, the current global mortality level of approximately 5 million people due to smoking is expected to raise into 8 million in 2030 (1). Tobacco smoking is among the main risk factors of mortality due to lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases. Smoking cessation reduces the risk of having these diseases. Furthermore, this effect is known to be much stronger for the individuals who quit smoking at younger ages (1, 2). Therefore, initiatives related to smoking cessation should begin in younger ages to decrease the prevalence of mentioned diseases.
Nicotine, which exists in tobacco is a substance which causes the dependence. Despite the fact that individuals who smoke aren't also satisfied about this situation; due to nicotine dependence, they maintain the smoking pattern (3, 4). One of the main causes of the failure of initiatives related to smoking cessation and maintaining smoking pattern is the lack of self-motivation as well as the existing dependence (5, 6). It is not possible to enforce an individual to quit smoking (6). Because of this, dependence level and willingness have huge importance for a successful cessation process for individuals who wants to quit smoking (7).
In literature, self-efficacy is defined as "self-perception of one's own capacity for achieving a certain performance" and emphasized to have an important role on smoking cessation. Hence, identifying the self-efficacy level of individuals is valuable for creating strategies to help them quit smoking (8).
Based on these arguments; this study was aimed at determining the level of smoking dependence among students, their willingness and self-efficacy to quit smoking and factors affecting.
This cross-sectional study was conducted at Bandirma Onyedi Eylul University/Turkey between October and December 2016.
Among 319 nursery students at the Faculty of Health Sciences, 301 students were voluntary participated to the study. The percentage of participation was calculated as 99.4%. Sample size was not considered and it was aimed to access all the participants that is possible.
The level of smoking dependence, willingness and self-efficacy level to quit smoking were considered as dependent variables. Age, gender, longest-lived location of residence, family type, educational level of parents, perceived economical status, existence of chronic disease(s), perceived health status, initial age of smoking, duration of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, attempt to quit smoking, smoking status of parents and alcohol consumption of father were considered as independent variables.
Data was obtained using a specifically designed Personal Information Form, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and Self-efficacy/Incentive Factors Scale.
Personal Information Form
Personal information form consisted of 24 questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics as well as smoking status of the participants (9, 10, 11, 12, 13).
Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)
level of individuals due to smoking by Fagerstrom in 1989. Localization of validity and reliability assessment of the 6-item scale was performed by Uysal et al. in 2006 and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was considered as 0.56. Each item on scale was graded as 0, 1, 2, 3 and total scores obtained were between 0 and 10. Higher scores were indicating higher levels of dependence. Depending on the total scores obtained from the scale, level of dependence was classified in 5 cat level of individuals due to smoking by Fagerstrom in 1989. Localization of validity and reliability assessment of the 6-item scale was performed by Uysal et al. in 2006 and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was considered as 0.56. Each item on scale was graded as 0, 1, 2, 3 and total scores obtained were between 0 and 10. Higher scores were indicating higher levels of dependence. Depending on the total scores obtained from the scale, level of dependence was classified in 5 categories as very low (0-2), low (3-4), moderate (5), high (6-7) and very high (8-10) (14, 15). However, in current research the level of smoking dependence was categorized as low, moderate, high and Cronbach's coefficient was considered as 0.78.
Self-efficacy/Incentive Factors Scale
The scale was developed by Velicer et al in 1990 and it reflects the self-esteem of an individual related with not returning back to an old and risky habitual pattern while encountering difficult situations in life. Turkish version of the scale was implemented by Erol in 2005 and Cronbach's alpha coefficiency was considered as 0.74 for Negative Affect and Positive Social Environments; 0.57 for the Pressure of Habit and 0.67 for Body Weight Management, respectively. High scores obtained from the scale demonstrate the strength to withstand old habit, despite the intense pressure of existing provoking conditions. 5 point Likert scale which consists of 8 items have a score range of 8-40. It also has 4 sub-dimensions representing: (1) the strength of not smoking despite the existence of negative emotions - Negative Affect (1th and 5th items); (2) the strength of not smoking despite the existence of tempting factors - Positive Social Environments (1th and 6th items); (3) despite the existence of smoking habit, the strength to maintain the change - The Pressure of Habit (3th and 7th items) and (4) despite the existence of excess body weight problem, the strength of not smoking - Body Weight Management (4th and 8th items) (16,17). In this research, results were evaluated through the total score obtained from the scale and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was considered as 0.79.
During the planning of research, official permission and ethics committee approval were taken from the institution. A pilot study was carried out by 12 students before the initiation and necessary changes were made on the questionnaire to obtain more accurate results. During data collection, each participant was informed about the content and aim of the research; a verbal approval was taken from each individual. Data was collected by a face-to-face interview, approximately about 15 minutes for each person.
Data obtained was evaluated by The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). In the analysis, descriptive statistics, the chi square test, Kolmogrow Smirnow, Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskall Wallis variance analysis Tests. The significance level was accepted as p<0.05
As the mean age of the students were found as 20.93[+ or -]2.46 (min:17, max:49); 71.8% of them were female and 20.3% were in their 1th year at the university. Most of them (40.9%) were living in the city center, 77.4% had a nuclear family structure, mothers of 53.5% and fathers of 36.2% were graduated from primary school. The students who perceived their economical status as moderate were 71.8%, 10.3% were using medication permanently at least for one chronic disease and more than half of them (58.1%) expressed their perception of health status as good (Table 1).
The percentage of students who were smoking was 18.3%; 62.9% of those began smoking at or before the age of 17, 40% of them were smoking since at least 5 years and most of them (56.4%) were smoking at least 11 cigarettes per day. The students who never attempted to quit smoking and those who want to quit smoking were 54.5% and 38.2%, respectively. Mothers of 13.6% and fathers of 51.8% were found to be also smokers. The students who do not consume alcohol were 60.0% (Table 2).
Mean FTND scores of the students were found as 3.29[+ or -]2.67 (min:0, max:9) and according to the cutting point of the scale, 56.4% of the students had low, 30.9% had moderate, 12.7% had high-level dependence of smoking.
Self-efficacy/Incentive Factors Scale's sub-dimension mean scores were 4.46[+ or -]1.85 (min:2.00, max:10.00) for Negative Affect, 5.54[+ or -]1.98 (min:2.00, max:10.00) for Positive Social Environments, 6.19[+ or -]1.89 (min:2.00, max:10.00) for the Pressure of Habit and 7.75[+ or -]2.62 (min:2.00, max:10.00) for Body Weight Management. Furthermore, mean total score obtained from the scale by the students was found as 23.71[+ or -]5.89 (min:11.00, max:39.00).
Among the students who had high level of dependence the percentage of male students were significantly higher than female (p<0.05). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) regarding with the level of dependence between the categories of age, longest-lived location of residence, family type, education level of the parents, self-perception of the economical level, existence of chronic disease(s) and self-perception of health status. There wasn't also found a significant difference related to the willingness to quit between the categories of age, gender, longest-lived location of residence, family type, education level of the parents, self-perception of the economical level, existence of chronic disease(s) and self-perception of health status (p>0.05, Table 3).
The students who were smoking at least since 5 years were significantly more likely to have high level of dependence comparing with those who were smoking less than 5 years (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences related with the dependence level between the categories of initial age of smoking, attempt to quit smoking, smoking status of parents and alcohol consumption (p>0.05). There also wasn't found any statistically significant differences related to willingness to quit between the categories of initial age of smoking, duration of smoking, attempt to quit smoking, smoking status of the parents and alcohol consumption (p>0.05, Table 4).
Students whose mothers were primary school graduates and less, had significantly lower mean total scores from the Self-efficacy/Incentive Factors Scale comparing with those whose mothers were at least secondary school graduates (p<0.05). Mean total scores obtained from the Self-efficacy/Incentive Factors Scale weren't significantly different among the categories of age, gender, longest-lived location of residence, family type, educational level of father, self-perception of the economical level, existence of chronic disease(s) and self-perception of health status (p>0.05, Table 5).
Mean total scores obtained from the Self-efficacy/Incentive Factors Scale were significantly higher for students who were smoking 10 or less cigarettes per day comparing with those who were smoking at least 11 cigarettes per day (p<0.05). There were no significant differences found in Self-efficacy/Incentive Factors Scale mean total scores between the categories initial age of smoking, duration of smoking, attempt to quit smoking, smoking status of the parents and alcohol consumption (p>0.05, Table 6).
Health professionals who have the responsibility of being a role model for the public, are extremely important for struggling with smoking. According to the results of this research which aims determining the level of dependence, willingness to quit smoking and self-efficacy level of the nursery students - who are considered as future health professionals; approximately 18% of the participants were found to be smokers. According to a research conducted by WHO and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), by the participation of Dentistry, Medicine, Pharmacy and nursery students from 20 European countries during the years of 2005-2008; the prevalence of tobacco smoking was found as 7-21% (18). However, related studies performed in Turkey with nursery students demonstrate a prevalence of 13-21%. Accordingly, our findings are compatible with existing literature which was carried out on similar populations (9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 19).
Psychopharmacological effects of nicotine was specified as one of the main reasons for the failure of attempt to quit smoking in the literature and it was mentioned that almost 2/3 of the smokers were not able to quit smoking because of nicotine dependence (5, 7). In our research, the students who had low, moderate and high level of smoking dependence were found as 56%, 31% and 13%, respectively. For smoking individuals, the level of dependence has a huge importance for smoking cessation. Considering the fact that more than half of the students had low and moderate level of dependence in this research; if necessary initiatives are taken, estimated success of smoking cessation is assumed to be significantly high. Most of the researches related with smoking dependence in literature consists of only adult participants. In these studies, it can be observed that more than half of the adults have high level of dependence and this case is higher in men than women (5, 20, 21). The reason why high level dependence values are lesser in our research, may be due to the majority of female participants. The studies which evaluate the smoking dependence of nursery students in Turkey are very restricted. Due to a research performed by the university students from different disciplines at Istanbul, mean FTND scores of smoking students were reported as 4.1[+ or -]1.9 (11). Considering the cutting point of the scale, findings of this research related with the dependence level of students is similar to our mean FNBT scores (3.29[+ or -]2.67). Other studies from Izmir (2007) and Kars (2013) in Turkey emphasized that respectively 14% and 15% of the nursery students had high levels of tobacco dependence (9, 13). All these findings are compatible with our data. In another research with the participation of Medicine and nursery students at Izmir in 2015, nursery students who had high level of dependence was found as approximately 21%. Reported values of high level dependence might be greater, comparing with our study due to the majority of male students. This finding also supports the previous data which shows a bigger percentage of males with high dependence levels compared with females (19, 20, 22). In same research, it was also shown that as the duration of smoking increases, dependence level increases. By another study which support this finding also showed a positive correlation between the tobacco dependence and duration of smoking, Furthermore, it's shown that as the duration of smoking increases, it gets harder to quit smoking (23).
Smoking cessation and maintaining this habit is related primarily with one's own motivation and determination as it's the same for any other types of dependence (6). It is detected that more than approximately 1/3 of the smokers were willing to quit smoking. This is hopeful in terms of the success of initiatives which can be organized for the primary prevention of the students before graduation. On the other hand, considering that the cumulative risk of diseases due to smoking increases correspondingly with the duration of smoking; initiatives related to smoking cessation should urgently be introduced, marking the existence of more than 2/3 of students who are willing to quit smoking.
Self-efficacy can be described as one's self-esteem of not returning back into an old risky behavior while encountering difficult situations (17, 23). A low self-efficacy level related to smoking means that an individual's strength to resist smoking is apparently weak (8). In this re-search, self-efficacy level of the nursery students related with smoking cessation was found moderate, especially those whose mothers were primary school graduates and less, and who smokes at least 11 cigarettes per day were found to have significantly lower mean total scores in the Self-Efficacy/ Incentive Factors Scale. Kilic et al. similarly reported that as the education level of mothers lessen, self-efficacy level of the smoking students were also decreasing (8). Oppositely, as the self-efficacy level of an individual increases, the amount of cigarettes smoked per day is expected to decrease due the avoidance of smoking behavior. Concordantly, related studies show a negatively correlated relationship between the amount of cigarettes smoked per day and self-efficacy level. In our research, it's also demonstrated that individuals smoking at least 11 cigarettes per day had lower self-efficacy levels comparing with those who smoke 10 cigarettes and less per day. This finding promotes other related evidences in the literature (24, 25).
This research was restricted only to nursery students and the results can just be generalized into its own universe. Moreover, because of performing the research with a relatively small group; the size of data might be insufficient to detect significant differences between the categories of sociodemographic characteristics, factors related to smoking and dependent variables of the level of dependence, self-motivation for smoking willingness and self-efficacy level to quit smoking.
In this research, it is determined that approximately 1/5 of the students were smoking, almost half of them had moderate and high levels of smoking dependence. Considering that these students will be the health professionals of the future, the rates of smoking and levels of dependence can be stated as high. According to data, more than approximately 1/3 of students were willing to quit smoking and also had an moderate level of self-efficacy. This evidence gives an impression that if initiatives to help them quit smoking can be managed, the rates of success is expected to be high. In this direction, students should be regularly monitored related to smoking and counselling services must be provided to facilitate smoking cessation. In addition to occupational lessons, seminars related to this subject must be performed and they should be canalized into the activities such as music, sport etc. according to their own personal interests. To help students quit smoking, cognitive behavioral techniques based preventional programmes should be organized; students who have high level of dependence should be guided to apply to specialized clinics in this area. Furthermore, studies with larger populations are needed to obtain and express better results about nursery students' smoking dependence, willingness and self-efficacy to quit smoking.
Ethics Committee Approval: The ethics committee approval was received from Balikesir University Clinical Research Ethics Committee (2017/46).
Informed Consent: Verbal consent was obtained from students who participated in this study.
Peer-review: Externally peer-reviewed.
Author contributions: Concept - K.T.S.; Design - K.T.S.; Supervision - K.T.S.; Resource - K.T.S., D.A., Y.M; Materials - K.T.S., D.A., Y.M; Data Collection and/or Processing - K.T.S., D.A.; Analysis and/or Interpretation - K.T.S.; Literature Search - K.T.S., D.A., Y.M; Writing - K.T.S., D.A., Y.M; Critical Reviews - K.T.S., D.A., Y.M.
Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank all the students and university administrators for helping the data collection phase of this study.
Conflict of Interest: No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.
Financial Disclosure: The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.
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Kevser Tari Selcuk (1), Dilek Avci (1), Yeliz Mercan (2)
(1,2) Department of Nursing, Bandirma Onyedi Eylul University School of Health Sciences, Balikesir, Turkey
(3) Department of Midwifery, Kirklareli University School of Health Sciences, Kirklareli, Turkey
Cite this article as: Tari Selcuk K, Avci D, Mercan Y. Smoking Addiction among University Students and the Willingness and Self-Efficacy to Quit Smoking. Clin Exp Health Sci 2018; 8: 36-43.
This study was presented as a oral presentation at the 1th International Health Science Congress, 29 June-01 July 2017, Aydin, Turkey.
Correspondence Author: Kevser Tari Selcuk E-mail: email@example.com
Received: 01.04.2017 Accepted: 25.04.2017 Available Online Date: 30.11.2017
Table 1. Sociodemographic characteristics of the students Sociodemographic characteristics (n=301) Age (Mean[+ or -]SD: 20.93[+ or -]2.46 >20 min:17, max:49) 21[greater than or equal to] Gender Female Male 1th University grade 2nd 3th 4th City The longest-lived location of District residence Town Overseas Nuclear Family type Extended Separated Non-literate Literate Educational level of mother Primary school Secondary school High School College and above Non-literate Literate Educational level of father Primary school Secondary school High School College and above Self-perception of the economical Bad status Moderate Good Existence of chronic disease(s) Yes No Very good Good Self-perception of the health Acceptable status Poor Very poor Sociodemographic characteristics (n=301) n % Age (Mean[+ or -]SD: 20.93[+ or -]2.46 128 42.5 min:17, max:49) 173 57.5 Gender 216 71.8 85 28.2 61 20.3 University grade 78 25.9 81 26.9 81 26.9 123 40.9 The longest-lived location of 119 39.5 residence 58 19.3 1 0.3 233 77.4 Family type 61 20.3 7 2.3 31 10.3 19 6.3 Educational level of mother 161 53.5 36 12.0 41 13.6 13 4.3 5 1.7 8 2.7 Educational level of father 109 36.2 53 17.6 90 29.9 36 12.0 Self-perception of the economical 36 12.0 status 216 71.8 49 1.3 Existence of chronic disease(s) 31 10.3 270 89.7 34 11.3 175 58.1 Self-perception of the health 84 27.9 status 7 2.3 1 0.3 Table 2[+ or -] Distribution of the factors related to smoking Factors related to smoking (n=301) n % Smoking 55 18.3 Smoking status Quitted smoking 15 5.0 Non-smoking 231 76.7 Initial age of smoking [+ or -]17 years 44 62.9 18 years[+ or -] 26 37.1 Duration of smoking <5 years 33 60.0 [+ or -]5 years 22 40.0 Number of cigarettes smoked [+ or -]10 24 43.6 per day 11[+ or -] 31 56.4 Attempt to quit smoking Yes 25 45.5 No 30 54.5 Willingness to quit smoking Yes 21 38.2 No 34 61.8 Smoking status of the mother Yes 41 13.6 No 260 86.4 Smoking status of the father Yes 156 51.8 No 145 48.2 Non-consumer 180 60.0 Alcohol consumption Quitted 61 20.3 Consumer 59 19.7 Tablo 3. Level of dependence and willingness to quit smoking according to the sociodemographic characteristics (n=55) Level of dependence Sociodemographic Low characteristics % (n) Age [greater than or equal to]20 42.1 (8) 21[less than or equal to] 63.9 (23) Gender Female 74.1 (20) Male 39.3 (11) Longest lived City 64.0 (16) location of residence District 42.9 (9) Town 66.7 (6) Family type Nuclear 55.6 (25) Extended 60.0 (6) Primary 64.5 (20) school and below Educational level of Secondary 45.5 (5) mother school High school 46.2 (6) and above Primary 75.0 (12) school and below Educational level of Secondary 50.0 (4) father school High school 48.4 (15) and above Self-perception of Bad 20.0 (1) the economical status Moderate 64.1 (25) Good 45.5 (5) Existence of chronic Yes 60.0 (3) disease(s) No 56.0 (28) Self-perception of Good 63.2 (24) the health status Acceptable 41.7 (5) Poor 40.0 (2) Level of dependence Sociodemographic Moderate High% characteristics % (n) (n) Age [greater than or equal to]20 42.1 (8) 15.8 (3) 21[less than or equal to] 25.0 (9) 11.1 (4) Gender Female 22.2 (6) 3.7 (1) Male 39.3 (11) 21.4 (6) Longest lived City 24.0 (6) 12.0 (3) location of residence District 42.9 (9) 14.3 (3) Town 22.2 (2) 11.1 (1) Family type Nuclear 33.3 (15) 11.1 (5) Extended 20.0 (2) 20.0 (2) Primary 29.0 (9) 6.5 (2) school and below Educational level of Secondary 45.5 (5) 9.1 (1) mother school High school 23.1 (3) 30.8 (4) and above Primary 18.8 (3) 6.3 (1) school and below Educational level of Secondary 50.0 (4) 0.0 (0) father school High school 32.3 (10) 19.4 (6) and above Self-perception of Bad 80.0 (4) 0.0 (0) the economical status Moderate 25.6 (10) 10.3 (4) Good 27.3 (3) 27.3 (3) Existence of chronic Yes 40.0 (2) 0.0 (0) disease(s) No 30.0 (15) 14.0 (7) Self-perception of Good 31.6 (12) 5.3 (2) the health status Acceptable 33.3 (4) 25.0 (3) Poor 20.0 (1) 40.0 (2) Sociodemographic characteristics [chi square] Age [greater than or equal to]20 2.438 21[less than or equal to] Gender Female 7.639 Male Longest lived City 2.752 location of residence District Town 1.007 Family type Nuclear Extended Primary school and below Educational level of Secondary 6.283 mother school High school and above Primary school and below Educational level of Secondary 5.736 father school High school and above Self-perception of Bad the economical status Moderate 8.767 Good Existence of chronic Yes 0.860 disease(s) No Self-perception of Good the health status Acceptable 7.235 Poor Sociodemographic characteristics p Age [greater than or equal to]20 0.296 21[less than or equal to] Gender Female 0.022 (*) Male Longest lived City 0.600 location of residence District Town 0.604 Family type Nuclear Extended Primary school and below Educational level of Secondary 0.179 mother school High school and above Primary school and below Educational level of Secondary 0.220 father school High school and above Self-perception of Bad the economical status Moderate 0.067 Good Existence of chronic Yes 0.651 disease(s) No Self-perception of Good the health status Acceptable 0.124 Poor Willingness to quit smoking Sociodemographic Yes characteristics % (n) Age [greater than or equal to]20 21.1 (4) 21[less than or equal to] 47.2 (17) Gender Female 40.7 (11) Male 35.7 (10) Longest lived City 36.0 (9) location of residence District 33.3 (7) Town 55.6 (5) Family type Nuclear 40.0 (18) Extended 30.0 (3) Primary 38.7 (12) school and below Educational level of Secondary 54.5 (6) mother school High school 23.1 (3) and above Primary 43.8 (7) school and below Educational level of Secondary 50.0 (4) father school High school 32.3 (10) and above Self-perception of Bad 40.0 (2) the economical status Moderate 41.0 (16) Good 27.3 (3) Existence of chronic Yes 60.0 (3) disease(s) No 36.0 (18) Self-perception of Good 39.5 (15) the health status Acceptable 41.7 (5) Poor 20.0 (1) Willingness to quit smoking Sociodemographic characteristics No % (n) Age [greater than or equal to]20 21[less than or equal to] 78.9 (15) Gender Female 52.8 (19) Male 59.3 (16) Longest lived City 64.3 (18) location of residence District 64.0 (16) Town 66.7 (14) Family type Nuclear 44.4 (4) Extended 60.0 (27) Primary 70.0 (7) school and 61.3 (19) below Educational level of Secondary mother school 45.5 (5) High school and above 76.9 (10) Primary school and 56.3 (9) below Educational level of Secondary father school 50.0 (4) High school and above 67.7 (21) Self-perception of Bad the economical status Moderate 60.0 (3) Good 59.0 (23) Existence of chronic Yes 72.7 (8) disease(s) No 40.0 (2) Self-perception of Good 64.0 (32) the health status Acceptable 60.5 (23) Poor 58.3 (7) 80.0 (4) Sociodemographic characteristics Age [greater than or equal to]20 [chi square] p 21[less than or equal to] Gender Female 3.608 0.057 Male Longest lived City 0.147 0.701 location of residence District Town 1.411 0.494 Family type Nuclear Extended 0.347 0.556 Primary school and below Educational level of Secondary mother school High school 2.508 0.285 and above Primary school and below Educational level of Secondary father school High school 1.144 0.564 and above Self-perception of Bad the economical status Moderate Good Existence of chronic Yes 0.695 0.706 disease(s) No Self-perception of Good 1.109 0.292 the health status Acceptable Poor 0.789 0.674 (*) p<0,05
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Selcuk, Kevser Tari; Avci, Dilek; Mercan, Yeliz|
|Publication:||Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2018|
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