Printer Friendly

Smoking Addiction among University Students and the Willingness and Self-Efficacy to Quit Smoking.

INTRODUCTION

Smoking dependence is one of the preventable public health problems which is among the major causes of mortality and morbidity. World Health Organisation (WHO) reports that if regarding corrective actions are not taken, the current global mortality level of approximately 5 million people due to smoking is expected to raise into 8 million in 2030 (1). Tobacco smoking is among the main risk factors of mortality due to lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases. Smoking cessation reduces the risk of having these diseases. Furthermore, this effect is known to be much stronger for the individuals who quit smoking at younger ages (1, 2). Therefore, initiatives related to smoking cessation should begin in younger ages to decrease the prevalence of mentioned diseases.

Nicotine, which exists in tobacco is a substance which causes the dependence. Despite the fact that individuals who smoke aren't also satisfied about this situation; due to nicotine dependence, they maintain the smoking pattern (3, 4). One of the main causes of the failure of initiatives related to smoking cessation and maintaining smoking pattern is the lack of self-motivation as well as the existing dependence (5, 6). It is not possible to enforce an individual to quit smoking (6). Because of this, dependence level and willingness have huge importance for a successful cessation process for individuals who wants to quit smoking (7).

In literature, self-efficacy is defined as "self-perception of one's own capacity for achieving a certain performance" and emphasized to have an important role on smoking cessation. Hence, identifying the self-efficacy level of individuals is valuable for creating strategies to help them quit smoking (8).

Based on these arguments; this study was aimed at determining the level of smoking dependence among students, their willingness and self-efficacy to quit smoking and factors affecting.

METHODS

Study Design

This cross-sectional study was conducted at Bandirma Onyedi Eylul University/Turkey between October and December 2016.

Participant

Among 319 nursery students at the Faculty of Health Sciences, 301 students were voluntary participated to the study. The percentage of participation was calculated as 99.4%. Sample size was not considered and it was aimed to access all the participants that is possible.

Variables

The level of smoking dependence, willingness and self-efficacy level to quit smoking were considered as dependent variables. Age, gender, longest-lived location of residence, family type, educational level of parents, perceived economical status, existence of chronic disease(s), perceived health status, initial age of smoking, duration of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, attempt to quit smoking, smoking status of parents and alcohol consumption of father were considered as independent variables.

Instrument

Data was obtained using a specifically designed Personal Information Form, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and Self-efficacy/Incentive Factors Scale.

Personal Information Form

Personal information form consisted of 24 questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics as well as smoking status of the participants (9, 10, 11, 12, 13).

Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)

level of individuals due to smoking by Fagerstrom in 1989. Localization of validity and reliability assessment of the 6-item scale was performed by Uysal et al. in 2006 and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was considered as 0.56. Each item on scale was graded as 0, 1, 2, 3 and total scores obtained were between 0 and 10. Higher scores were indicating higher levels of dependence. Depending on the total scores obtained from the scale, level of dependence was classified in 5 cat level of individuals due to smoking by Fagerstrom in 1989. Localization of validity and reliability assessment of the 6-item scale was performed by Uysal et al. in 2006 and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was considered as 0.56. Each item on scale was graded as 0, 1, 2, 3 and total scores obtained were between 0 and 10. Higher scores were indicating higher levels of dependence. Depending on the total scores obtained from the scale, level of dependence was classified in 5 categories as very low (0-2), low (3-4), moderate (5), high (6-7) and very high (8-10) (14, 15). However, in current research the level of smoking dependence was categorized as low, moderate, high and Cronbach's coefficient was considered as 0.78.

Self-efficacy/Incentive Factors Scale

The scale was developed by Velicer et al in 1990 and it reflects the self-esteem of an individual related with not returning back to an old and risky habitual pattern while encountering difficult situations in life. Turkish version of the scale was implemented by Erol in 2005 and Cronbach's alpha coefficiency was considered as 0.74 for Negative Affect and Positive Social Environments; 0.57 for the Pressure of Habit and 0.67 for Body Weight Management, respectively. High scores obtained from the scale demonstrate the strength to withstand old habit, despite the intense pressure of existing provoking conditions. 5 point Likert scale which consists of 8 items have a score range of 8-40. It also has 4 sub-dimensions representing: (1) the strength of not smoking despite the existence of negative emotions - Negative Affect (1th and 5th items); (2) the strength of not smoking despite the existence of tempting factors - Positive Social Environments (1th and 6th items); (3) despite the existence of smoking habit, the strength to maintain the change - The Pressure of Habit (3th and 7th items) and (4) despite the existence of excess body weight problem, the strength of not smoking - Body Weight Management (4th and 8th items) (16,17). In this research, results were evaluated through the total score obtained from the scale and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was considered as 0.79.

Procedure

During the planning of research, official permission and ethics committee approval were taken from the institution. A pilot study was carried out by 12 students before the initiation and necessary changes were made on the questionnaire to obtain more accurate results. During data collection, each participant was informed about the content and aim of the research; a verbal approval was taken from each individual. Data was collected by a face-to-face interview, approximately about 15 minutes for each person.

Data Analysis

Data obtained was evaluated by The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). In the analysis, descriptive statistics, the chi square test, Kolmogrow Smirnow, Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskall Wallis variance analysis Tests. The significance level was accepted as p<0.05

Results

As the mean age of the students were found as 20.93[+ or -]2.46 (min:17, max:49); 71.8% of them were female and 20.3% were in their 1th year at the university. Most of them (40.9%) were living in the city center, 77.4% had a nuclear family structure, mothers of 53.5% and fathers of 36.2% were graduated from primary school. The students who perceived their economical status as moderate were 71.8%, 10.3% were using medication permanently at least for one chronic disease and more than half of them (58.1%) expressed their perception of health status as good (Table 1).

The percentage of students who were smoking was 18.3%; 62.9% of those began smoking at or before the age of 17, 40% of them were smoking since at least 5 years and most of them (56.4%) were smoking at least 11 cigarettes per day. The students who never attempted to quit smoking and those who want to quit smoking were 54.5% and 38.2%, respectively. Mothers of 13.6% and fathers of 51.8% were found to be also smokers. The students who do not consume alcohol were 60.0% (Table 2).

Mean FTND scores of the students were found as 3.29[+ or -]2.67 (min:0, max:9) and according to the cutting point of the scale, 56.4% of the students had low, 30.9% had moderate, 12.7% had high-level dependence of smoking.

Self-efficacy/Incentive Factors Scale's sub-dimension mean scores were 4.46[+ or -]1.85 (min:2.00, max:10.00) for Negative Affect, 5.54[+ or -]1.98 (min:2.00, max:10.00) for Positive Social Environments, 6.19[+ or -]1.89 (min:2.00, max:10.00) for the Pressure of Habit and 7.75[+ or -]2.62 (min:2.00, max:10.00) for Body Weight Management. Furthermore, mean total score obtained from the scale by the students was found as 23.71[+ or -]5.89 (min:11.00, max:39.00).

Among the students who had high level of dependence the percentage of male students were significantly higher than female (p<0.05). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) regarding with the level of dependence between the categories of age, longest-lived location of residence, family type, education level of the parents, self-perception of the economical level, existence of chronic disease(s) and self-perception of health status. There wasn't also found a significant difference related to the willingness to quit between the categories of age, gender, longest-lived location of residence, family type, education level of the parents, self-perception of the economical level, existence of chronic disease(s) and self-perception of health status (p>0.05, Table 3).

The students who were smoking at least since 5 years were significantly more likely to have high level of dependence comparing with those who were smoking less than 5 years (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences related with the dependence level between the categories of initial age of smoking, attempt to quit smoking, smoking status of parents and alcohol consumption (p>0.05). There also wasn't found any statistically significant differences related to willingness to quit between the categories of initial age of smoking, duration of smoking, attempt to quit smoking, smoking status of the parents and alcohol consumption (p>0.05, Table 4).

Students whose mothers were primary school graduates and less, had significantly lower mean total scores from the Self-efficacy/Incentive Factors Scale comparing with those whose mothers were at least secondary school graduates (p<0.05). Mean total scores obtained from the Self-efficacy/Incentive Factors Scale weren't significantly different among the categories of age, gender, longest-lived location of residence, family type, educational level of father, self-perception of the economical level, existence of chronic disease(s) and self-perception of health status (p>0.05, Table 5).

Mean total scores obtained from the Self-efficacy/Incentive Factors Scale were significantly higher for students who were smoking 10 or less cigarettes per day comparing with those who were smoking at least 11 cigarettes per day (p<0.05). There were no significant differences found in Self-efficacy/Incentive Factors Scale mean total scores between the categories initial age of smoking, duration of smoking, attempt to quit smoking, smoking status of the parents and alcohol consumption (p>0.05, Table 6).

DISCUSSION

Health professionals who have the responsibility of being a role model for the public, are extremely important for struggling with smoking. According to the results of this research which aims determining the level of dependence, willingness to quit smoking and self-efficacy level of the nursery students - who are considered as future health professionals; approximately 18% of the participants were found to be smokers. According to a research conducted by WHO and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), by the participation of Dentistry, Medicine, Pharmacy and nursery students from 20 European countries during the years of 2005-2008; the prevalence of tobacco smoking was found as 7-21% (18). However, related studies performed in Turkey with nursery students demonstrate a prevalence of 13-21%. Accordingly, our findings are compatible with existing literature which was carried out on similar populations (9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 19).

Psychopharmacological effects of nicotine was specified as one of the main reasons for the failure of attempt to quit smoking in the literature and it was mentioned that almost 2/3 of the smokers were not able to quit smoking because of nicotine dependence (5, 7). In our research, the students who had low, moderate and high level of smoking dependence were found as 56%, 31% and 13%, respectively. For smoking individuals, the level of dependence has a huge importance for smoking cessation. Considering the fact that more than half of the students had low and moderate level of dependence in this research; if necessary initiatives are taken, estimated success of smoking cessation is assumed to be significantly high. Most of the researches related with smoking dependence in literature consists of only adult participants. In these studies, it can be observed that more than half of the adults have high level of dependence and this case is higher in men than women (5, 20, 21). The reason why high level dependence values are lesser in our research, may be due to the majority of female participants. The studies which evaluate the smoking dependence of nursery students in Turkey are very restricted. Due to a research performed by the university students from different disciplines at Istanbul, mean FTND scores of smoking students were reported as 4.1[+ or -]1.9 (11). Considering the cutting point of the scale, findings of this research related with the dependence level of students is similar to our mean FNBT scores (3.29[+ or -]2.67). Other studies from Izmir (2007) and Kars (2013) in Turkey emphasized that respectively 14% and 15% of the nursery students had high levels of tobacco dependence (9, 13). All these findings are compatible with our data. In another research with the participation of Medicine and nursery students at Izmir in 2015, nursery students who had high level of dependence was found as approximately 21%. Reported values of high level dependence might be greater, comparing with our study due to the majority of male students. This finding also supports the previous data which shows a bigger percentage of males with high dependence levels compared with females (19, 20, 22). In same research, it was also shown that as the duration of smoking increases, dependence level increases. By another study which support this finding also showed a positive correlation between the tobacco dependence and duration of smoking, Furthermore, it's shown that as the duration of smoking increases, it gets harder to quit smoking (23).

Smoking cessation and maintaining this habit is related primarily with one's own motivation and determination as it's the same for any other types of dependence (6). It is detected that more than approximately 1/3 of the smokers were willing to quit smoking. This is hopeful in terms of the success of initiatives which can be organized for the primary prevention of the students before graduation. On the other hand, considering that the cumulative risk of diseases due to smoking increases correspondingly with the duration of smoking; initiatives related to smoking cessation should urgently be introduced, marking the existence of more than 2/3 of students who are willing to quit smoking.

Self-efficacy can be described as one's self-esteem of not returning back into an old risky behavior while encountering difficult situations (17, 23). A low self-efficacy level related to smoking means that an individual's strength to resist smoking is apparently weak (8). In this re-search, self-efficacy level of the nursery students related with smoking cessation was found moderate, especially those whose mothers were primary school graduates and less, and who smokes at least 11 cigarettes per day were found to have significantly lower mean total scores in the Self-Efficacy/ Incentive Factors Scale. Kilic et al. similarly reported that as the education level of mothers lessen, self-efficacy level of the smoking students were also decreasing (8). Oppositely, as the self-efficacy level of an individual increases, the amount of cigarettes smoked per day is expected to decrease due the avoidance of smoking behavior. Concordantly, related studies show a negatively correlated relationship between the amount of cigarettes smoked per day and self-efficacy level. In our research, it's also demonstrated that individuals smoking at least 11 cigarettes per day had lower self-efficacy levels comparing with those who smoke 10 cigarettes and less per day. This finding promotes other related evidences in the literature (24, 25).

Limitations

This research was restricted only to nursery students and the results can just be generalized into its own universe. Moreover, because of performing the research with a relatively small group; the size of data might be insufficient to detect significant differences between the categories of sociodemographic characteristics, factors related to smoking and dependent variables of the level of dependence, self-motivation for smoking willingness and self-efficacy level to quit smoking.

CONCLUSION

In this research, it is determined that approximately 1/5 of the students were smoking, almost half of them had moderate and high levels of smoking dependence. Considering that these students will be the health professionals of the future, the rates of smoking and levels of dependence can be stated as high. According to data, more than approximately 1/3 of students were willing to quit smoking and also had an moderate level of self-efficacy. This evidence gives an impression that if initiatives to help them quit smoking can be managed, the rates of success is expected to be high. In this direction, students should be regularly monitored related to smoking and counselling services must be provided to facilitate smoking cessation. In addition to occupational lessons, seminars related to this subject must be performed and they should be canalized into the activities such as music, sport etc. according to their own personal interests. To help students quit smoking, cognitive behavioral techniques based preventional programmes should be organized; students who have high level of dependence should be guided to apply to specialized clinics in this area. Furthermore, studies with larger populations are needed to obtain and express better results about nursery students' smoking dependence, willingness and self-efficacy to quit smoking.

Ethics Committee Approval: The ethics committee approval was received from Balikesir University Clinical Research Ethics Committee (2017/46).

Informed Consent: Verbal consent was obtained from students who participated in this study.

Peer-review: Externally peer-reviewed.

Author contributions: Concept - K.T.S.; Design - K.T.S.; Supervision - K.T.S.; Resource - K.T.S., D.A., Y.M; Materials - K.T.S., D.A., Y.M; Data Collection and/or Processing - K.T.S., D.A.; Analysis and/or Interpretation - K.T.S.; Literature Search - K.T.S., D.A., Y.M; Writing - K.T.S., D.A., Y.M; Critical Reviews - K.T.S., D.A., Y.M.

Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank all the students and university administrators for helping the data collection phase of this study.

Conflict of Interest: No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.

Financial Disclosure: The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.

REFERENCES

(1.) World Health Organization. Fresh and Alive MPOWER, Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008. The MPOWER Package. Geneva: WHO press; 2008.

(2.) Bilir N, Telatar G. Tutun Kontrolunde Saglik Profesyonellerinin Rolu. Ankara: World Health Organization; 2005.

(3.) Kanit L, Keser A. Tutun Bagimliliginin Biyofizyolojisi. Aytemur ZA, Akcay S, Elbek O, editors. Tutun ve Tutun Kontrolu. Ankara: Turk Toraks Dernegi Yayini; 2010; 10: 141-56.

(4.) Benowitz NL, Hukkanen J, Jacob P 3rd. Nicotine chemistry, metabolism, kinetics and biomarkers. Handb Exp Pharmacol 2009; 192: 29-60. [CrossRef]

(5.) Celepkolu T, Atli A, Palanci Y, Yilmaz A, Demir S, Ibiloglu AO et al. Sigara kullanicilarda nikotin bagimlilik duzeyinin yas ve cinsiyetle iliskisi: Diyarbakir Orneklemi. Dicle Med J 2014; 41: 712-6. [CrossRef]

(6.) Bilir N. Sigarayi Birakma Yollari (Sigaranin Zararli Etkilerinden Korunma). Ankara: T.C Saglik Bakanligi Yayini; 2008.

(7.) Bozkurt N, Bozkurt AI. Nikotin bagimliligini belirlemede Fagerstrom Nikotin Bagimlilik Testinin (FBNT) degerlendirilmesi ve nikotin bagimliligi icin yeni bir test olusturulmasi. Pamukkale Medical Journal 2016; 9: 45-51. [CrossRef]

(8.) Kilinc NO, Tezel A. Universite ogrencilerinin sigara icme durumlarina gore oz-etkililik duzeylerinin degerlendirilmesi. TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11: 255-64.

(9.) Capik C, Cingil D. Hemsirelik ogrencilerinde sigara kullanimi, nikotin bagimlilik duzeyi ve ili.kili etmenler. Kafkas J Med Sci 2013; 3: 55-61.

(10.) Cilingir D, Hintistan S, Ozturk H. Saglik yuksekokulu ogrencilerinin sigara kullanma aliskanliklari ve etkileyen faktorler. Gumushane Universitesi Saglik Bilimleri Dergisi 2012; 1: 69-85.

(11.) Kaptanoglu A, Polat G, Soyer M. Marmara universitesi ogrencilerinde ve ogretim uyelerinde sigara aliskanligi ve duragan maliyet iliskisi. Journal of Higher Education and Science 2012; 2: 119-25.

(12.) Oguz S, Cesur K, Koc S. Hemsirelik ogrencilerinde koroner kalp hastaligi risk faktorlerinin belirlenmesi. Turk J Card Nur 2011; 2: 18-21.

(13.) Capik C, Ozbicakci S. Hemsirelik yuksekokulu ogrencilerinin sigara bagimlilik duzeyleri ve etkileyen etmenler. Journal of Human Sciences 2007; 4: 1-12.

(14.) Fagerstrom KO, Schneider NG. Measuring nicotine dependence a review of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. J Behav Med 1989; 12: 159-82. [CrossRef]

(15.) Uysal MA, Kadakal F, Karsidag C, Bayram NG, Uysal O, Yilmaz V. Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence: reliability in a Turkish sample and factor analysis. Tuberk Toraks 2004; 52: 115-21.

(16.) Velicer WF, Diclemente CC, Rossi SJ, Prochaska JO. Relapse situations and self-efficacy: an integrative model. Addict Behav 1990; 15: 271-83. [CrossRef]

(17.) Erol S. Adolesanlarda Sigara Icme Davranisinin Degistirmede Motivasyon Gorusmelerinin Etkisi. M.U. Saglik Bilimleri Enstitusu, Doktora Tezi. 2005.

(18.) Yang T, Yu L, Bottorff JL, Wu D, Jiang S, Peng S, et al. Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS) in tobacco control in China. Am J Health Behav 2015; 39: 732-41. [CrossRef]

(19.) Tas Arslan F, Aksit S, Basbakkal Z. Medical and nursing students' smoking habits, nicotine dependence levels, and contributing factors. J Family Med Community Health 2015; 2: 1043-9.

(20.) Sengezer T, Sivri F, Dilbaz N, Sunay D. Ankara ili Yenimahalle Ilcesinde birinci basamak saglik kurulusuna basvuran bireylerde tutun bagimliligi ve iliskili risk faktorleri. Turkiye Aile Hekimligi Dergisi 2014; 18: 42-8.

(20.) Sengezer T, Sivri F, Dilbaz N, Sunay D. Ankara ili Yenimahalle Ilcesinde birinci basamak saglik kurulusuna basvuran bireylerde tutun bagimliligi ve iliskili risk faktorleri. Turkiye Aile Hekimligi Dergisi 2014; 18: 42-8.

(22.) Kaya N, Cilli AS. Universite ogrencilerinde nikotin, alkol ve madde bagimliliginin 12 aylik yayginligi. Bagimlilik Dergisi 2002; 3: 91-7.

(23.) Gungormus Z. Lise ogrencilerinde sigara icme davranisinin transteoretik model cercevesinde degerlendirilmesi. STED 2010; 19: 12-8.

(24.) Fagan P, Eisenberg M, Frazier L, Stoddard AM, Avrunin JS, Sorensen G. Employed adolescents and beliefs about self-efficacy to avoid smoking. Addict Behav 2003; 28: 613-26. [CrossRef]

(25.) Ergul S. Sigara Icme Aliskanligi Olan Adolesanlarda Karsit Olumlu Davranis Gelistirmeye Yonelik Hemsirelik Girisimlerinin Etkililiginin Degerlendirilmesi. E.U. Saglik Bilimleri Enstitusu, Doktora Tezi. 2005.

Kevser Tari Selcuk (1), Dilek Avci (1), Yeliz Mercan (2)

(1,2) Department of Nursing, Bandirma Onyedi Eylul University School of Health Sciences, Balikesir, Turkey

(3) Department of Midwifery, Kirklareli University School of Health Sciences, Kirklareli, Turkey

Cite this article as: Tari Selcuk K, Avci D, Mercan Y. Smoking Addiction among University Students and the Willingness and Self-Efficacy to Quit Smoking. Clin Exp Health Sci 2018; 8: 36-43.

This study was presented as a oral presentation at the 1th International Health Science Congress, 29 June-01 July 2017, Aydin, Turkey.

Correspondence Author: Kevser Tari Selcuk E-mail: kevser_tari@hotmail.com

Received: 01.04.2017 Accepted: 25.04.2017 Available Online Date: 30.11.2017

DOI: 10.5152/clinexphealthsci.2017.420
Table 1. Sociodemographic characteristics of the students

Sociodemographic characteristics (n=301)

Age (Mean[+ or -]SD: 20.93[+ or -]2.46     >20
min:17, max:49)                            21[greater than or equal to]
Gender                                     Female
                                           Male
                                           1th
University grade                           2nd
                                           3th
                                           4th
                                           City
The longest-lived location of              District
residence                                  Town
                                           Overseas
                                           Nuclear
Family type                                Extended
                                           Separated
                                           Non-literate
                                           Literate
Educational level of mother                Primary school
                                           Secondary school
                                           High School
                                           College and above
                                           Non-literate
                                           Literate
Educational level of father                Primary school
                                           Secondary school
                                           High School
                                           College and above
Self-perception of the economical          Bad
status                                     Moderate
                                           Good
Existence of chronic disease(s)            Yes
                                           No
                                           Very good
                                           Good
Self-perception of the health              Acceptable
status                                     Poor
                                           Very poor

Sociodemographic characteristics (n=301)    n         %

Age (Mean[+ or -]SD: 20.93[+ or -]2.46     128       42.5
min:17, max:49)                            173       57.5
Gender                                     216       71.8
                                            85       28.2
                                            61       20.3
University grade                            78       25.9
                                            81       26.9
                                            81       26.9
                                           123       40.9
The longest-lived location of              119       39.5
residence                                   58       19.3
                                             1        0.3
                                           233       77.4
Family type                                 61       20.3
                                             7        2.3
                                            31       10.3
                                            19        6.3
Educational level of mother                161       53.5
                                            36       12.0
                                            41       13.6
                                            13        4.3
                                             5        1.7
                                             8        2.7
Educational level of father                109       36.2
                                            53       17.6
                                            90       29.9
                                            36       12.0
Self-perception of the economical           36       12.0
status                                     216       71.8
                                            49        1.3
Existence of chronic disease(s)             31       10.3
                                           270       89.7
                                            34       11.3
                                           175       58.1
Self-perception of the health               84       27.9
status                                       7        2.3
                                             1        0.3

Table 2[+ or -] Distribution of the factors related to smoking

Factors related to smoking (n=301)                     n    %

                                    Smoking            55  18.3
Smoking status                      Quitted smoking    15   5.0
                                    Non-smoking       231  76.7
Initial age of smoking              [+ or -]17 years   44  62.9
                                    18 years[+ or -]   26  37.1
Duration of smoking                 <5 years           33  60.0
                                    [+ or -]5 years    22  40.0
Number of cigarettes smoked         [+ or -]10         24  43.6
per day                             11[+ or -]         31  56.4
Attempt to quit smoking             Yes                25  45.5
                                    No                 30  54.5
Willingness to quit smoking         Yes                21  38.2
                                    No                 34  61.8
Smoking status of the mother        Yes                41  13.6
                                    No                260  86.4
Smoking status of the father        Yes               156  51.8
                                    No                145  48.2
                                    Non-consumer      180  60.0
Alcohol consumption                 Quitted            61  20.3
                                    Consumer           59  19.7

Tablo 3. Level of dependence and willingness to quit smoking according
to the sociodemographic characteristics (n=55)

                                                     Level of dependence
Sociodemographic                                     Low
characteristics                                      % (n)

Age                    [greater than or equal to]20  42.1 (8)
                       21[less than or equal to]     63.9 (23)
Gender                 Female                        74.1 (20)
                       Male                          39.3 (11)
Longest lived          City                          64.0 (16)
location of residence  District                      42.9 (9)
                       Town                          66.7 (6)
Family type            Nuclear                       55.6 (25)
                       Extended                      60.0 (6)
                       Primary                       64.5 (20)
                       school and
                       below
Educational level of   Secondary                     45.5 (5)
mother                 school
                       High school                   46.2 (6)
                       and above
                       Primary                       75.0 (12)
                       school and
                       below
Educational level of   Secondary                     50.0 (4)
father                 school
                       High school                   48.4 (15)
                       and above
Self-perception of     Bad                           20.0 (1)
the economical status  Moderate                      64.1 (25)
                       Good                          45.5 (5)
Existence of chronic   Yes                           60.0 (3)
disease(s)             No                            56.0 (28)
Self-perception of     Good                          63.2 (24)
the health status      Acceptable                    41.7 (5)
                       Poor                          40.0 (2)

                                                     Level of dependence
Sociodemographic                                     Moderate  High%
characteristics                                      % (n)     (n)

Age                    [greater than or equal to]20  42.1 (8)   15.8 (3)
                       21[less than or equal to]     25.0 (9)   11.1 (4)
Gender                 Female                        22.2 (6)    3.7 (1)
                       Male                          39.3 (11)  21.4 (6)
Longest lived          City                          24.0 (6)   12.0 (3)
location of residence  District                      42.9 (9)   14.3 (3)
                       Town                          22.2 (2)   11.1 (1)
Family type            Nuclear                       33.3 (15)  11.1 (5)
                       Extended                      20.0 (2)   20.0 (2)
                       Primary                       29.0 (9)    6.5 (2)
                       school and
                       below
Educational level of   Secondary                     45.5 (5)    9.1 (1)
mother                 school
                       High school                   23.1 (3)   30.8 (4)
                       and above
                       Primary                       18.8 (3)    6.3 (1)
                       school and
                       below
Educational level of   Secondary                     50.0 (4)    0.0 (0)
father                 school
                       High school                   32.3 (10)  19.4 (6)
                       and above
Self-perception of     Bad                           80.0 (4)    0.0 (0)
the economical status  Moderate                      25.6 (10)  10.3 (4)
                       Good                          27.3 (3)   27.3 (3)
Existence of chronic   Yes                           40.0 (2)    0.0 (0)
disease(s)             No                            30.0 (15)  14.0 (7)
Self-perception of     Good                          31.6 (12)   5.3 (2)
the health status      Acceptable                    33.3 (4)   25.0 (3)
                       Poor                          20.0 (1)   40.0 (2)



Sociodemographic
characteristics                                      [chi square]

Age                    [greater than or equal to]20  2.438
                       21[less than or equal to]
Gender                 Female                        7.639
                       Male
Longest lived          City                          2.752
location of residence  District
                       Town                          1.007
Family type            Nuclear
                       Extended
                       Primary
                       school and
                       below
Educational level of   Secondary                     6.283
mother                 school
                       High school
                       and above
                       Primary
                       school and
                       below
Educational level of   Secondary                     5.736
father                 school
                       High school
                       and above
Self-perception of     Bad
the economical status  Moderate                      8.767
                       Good
Existence of chronic   Yes                           0.860
disease(s)             No
Self-perception of     Good
the health status      Acceptable                    7.235
                       Poor



Sociodemographic
characteristics                                      p

Age                    [greater than or equal to]20  0.296
                       21[less than or equal to]
Gender                 Female                        0.022 (*)
                       Male
Longest lived          City                          0.600
location of residence  District
                       Town                          0.604
Family type            Nuclear
                       Extended
                       Primary
                       school and
                       below
Educational level of   Secondary                     0.179
mother                 school
                       High school
                       and above
                       Primary
                       school and
                       below
Educational level of   Secondary                     0.220
father                 school
                       High school
                       and above
Self-perception of     Bad
the economical status  Moderate                      0.067
                       Good
Existence of chronic   Yes                           0.651
disease(s)             No
Self-perception of     Good
the health status      Acceptable                    0.124
                       Poor

                                                     Willingness to quit
                                                     smoking
Sociodemographic                                     Yes
characteristics                                      % (n)

Age                    [greater than or equal to]20  21.1 (4)
                       21[less than or equal to]     47.2 (17)
Gender                 Female                        40.7 (11)
                       Male                          35.7 (10)
Longest lived          City                          36.0 (9)
location of residence  District                      33.3 (7)
                       Town                          55.6 (5)
Family type            Nuclear                       40.0 (18)
                       Extended                      30.0 (3)
                       Primary                       38.7 (12)
                       school and
                       below
Educational level of   Secondary                     54.5 (6)
mother                 school
                       High school                   23.1 (3)
                       and above
                       Primary                       43.8 (7)
                       school and
                       below
Educational level of   Secondary                     50.0 (4)
father                 school
                       High school                   32.3 (10)
                       and above
Self-perception of     Bad                           40.0 (2)
the economical status  Moderate                      41.0 (16)
                       Good                          27.3 (3)
Existence of chronic   Yes                           60.0 (3)
disease(s)             No                            36.0 (18)
Self-perception of     Good                          39.5 (15)
the health status      Acceptable                    41.7 (5)
                       Poor                          20.0 (1)

                                                     Willingness to quit
                                                     smoking
Sociodemographic
characteristics                                      No
                                                     % (n)
Age                    [greater than or equal to]20
                       21[less than or equal to]     78.9 (15)
Gender                 Female                        52.8 (19)
                       Male                          59.3 (16)
Longest lived          City                          64.3 (18)
location of residence  District                      64.0 (16)
                       Town                          66.7 (14)
Family type            Nuclear                       44.4 (4)
                       Extended                      60.0 (27)
                       Primary                       70.0 (7)
                       school and                    61.3 (19)
                       below
Educational level of   Secondary
mother                 school                        45.5 (5)
                       High school
                       and above                     76.9 (10)
                       Primary
                       school and                    56.3 (9)
                       below
Educational level of   Secondary
father                 school                        50.0 (4)
                       High school
                       and above                     67.7 (21)
Self-perception of     Bad
the economical status  Moderate                      60.0 (3)
                       Good                          59.0 (23)
Existence of chronic   Yes                           72.7 (8)
disease(s)             No                            40.0 (2)
Self-perception of     Good                          64.0 (32)
the health status      Acceptable                    60.5 (23)
                       Poor                          58.3 (7)
                                                     80.0 (4)


Sociodemographic
characteristics

Age                    [greater than or equal to]20  [chi square]  p
                       21[less than or equal to]
Gender                 Female                        3.608         0.057
                       Male
Longest lived          City                          0.147         0.701
location of residence  District
                       Town                          1.411         0.494
Family type            Nuclear
                       Extended                      0.347         0.556
                       Primary
                       school and
                       below
Educational level of   Secondary
mother                 school
                       High school                   2.508         0.285
                       and above
                       Primary
                       school and
                       below
Educational level of   Secondary
father                 school
                       High school                   1.144         0.564
                       and above
Self-perception of     Bad
the economical status  Moderate
                       Good
Existence of chronic   Yes                           0.695         0.706
disease(s)             No
Self-perception of     Good                          1.109         0.292
the health status      Acceptable
                       Poor
                                                     0.789         0.674

(*) p<0,05
COPYRIGHT 2018 AVES
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2018 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Selcuk, Kevser Tari; Avci, Dilek; Mercan, Yeliz
Publication:Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences
Date:Mar 1, 2018
Words:5280
Previous Article:Quality of Life and Influencing Factors in Caregivers of Patients with Cancer.
Next Article:Serum Amylase Levels Can Predict Hospitalization and Operation Rates/Serum Amilaz Aktivitesi, Hastaneye Yatis ve Operasyon Oranlarini Ongorebilir.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters