Smartphone Addiction and Its Relationship with Mental Health and Psychosocial Well-Being: The Role of Depression, Anxiety, and Personality Factors.
Predictive determinants of smartphone addiction are ordinary smartphone and social media utilization timeline, and the cognizance of game overuse. (Cha and Seo, 2018) Resistance to smartphone addiction of time intervals, with significant recurrence, and the entire period of utilization is quite unreliably self-reported. (Khoury et al., 2017) Depression severity is invariably related to smartphone addiction. (Elhai et al., 2017) Anxious attachment styles unquestionably determine smartphone addiction. (Yuchang et al., 2017)
2. Conceptual Framework and Literature Review
Stress has a relevant impact on smartphone addiction, while self-control mediates the consequence of stress on excessive use of smartphones. (Cho et al., 2017) Anxiety mediates a positive link between excessive use of smart-phones and problematic family relations. (Hawi and Samaha, 2017) Smart-phone addiction tendency sub-components intrude upon daily life (Balica, 2017; Coavoux, 2018; Lazaroiu et al., 2017; Massey et al., 2018; Roberts and Marchais, 2018) and compulsory control via deliberate seclusion and personality distortion. (Cho and Lee, 2017) Both the straightforward impact of neuroticism on wellbeing and the chain-mediating consequence of smartphone addiction and depression are notable. (Gao et al., 2017) Isolation and depression continuously mediates between attachment anxiety and excessive use of smartphones. (Kim et al., 2017) Perceived contentment, mood regulation, leisure pursuit, and compliance positively impact smartphone addiction. (Chen et al., 2017a) Conceit to some extent mediates the association between relationships among students and teenagers' smartphone addiction. (Wang et al., 2017)
3. Methodology and Empirical Analysis
Using and replicating data from Pew Research Center, I performed analyses and made estimates regarding % of U.S. teens who say social media has had a mostly positive effect/neither positive, nor negative effect/a mostly negative effect on people their own age, % of adults who say people should be very concerned/somewhat concerned about children being exposed to harmful or immoral content when using their mobile phones, and % of adult mobile phone users who say their phone is something that ties them down/frees them/makes them waste time/helps them save time/they don't always need/they couldn't live without. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling.
4. Results and Discussion
Smartphone addiction may be neutralized by enhancing self-discipline and diminishing attachment anxiety. (Han et al., 2017) The gravity of smartphone addiction is considerably related to aggressive behavior and conceit. (Lee et al., 2018) Smartphone addiction tendency is possibly a risk factor for unsatisfactory sleep quality. (Min et al., 2017) Cerebration somewhat mediates, while mindfulness moderates, the link between smartphone addiction and sleep quality in adolescents. (Liu et al., 2017) Meticulosity and relationship virtues are likely protective factors for excessive use of smartphones, and vitality generate increased vulnerability. (Lian and You, 2017) (Tables 1-9)
5. Conclusions and Implications
Smartphone addiction is related to both mental health and addiction like issues. (Hussain et al., 2017) Predispositions concerning smartphone addiction and overt checking of such devices may bring about decreased work output. (Duke and Montag, 2017) Excessive use of smartphones may lead to psychological and behavioral problems (Bratu, 2018; Katz, 2018; Lazaroiu, 2017; Mircica, 2018), e.g. anxiety, depression, and unsatisfactory sleep quality. (Chen et al., 2017b) ADHD may be an important risk factor for developing excessive use of smartphones. (Kim et al., 2019)
The interviews were conducted online and data were weighted by five variables (age, race/ethnicity, gender, education, and geographic region) using the Census Bureau's American Community Survey to reflect reliably and accurately the demographic composition of the United States. The precision of the online polls was measured using a Bayesian credibility interval.
This paper was supported by Grant GE-1428062 from the Internet-enabled Collective Intelligence Laboratory, Worcester, MA.
The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and approved it for publication.
Conflict of Interest Statement
The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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The Center for Cognitive Technology-driven Automation, Ottawa, Canada
Received 9 May 2019 * Received in revised form 11 November 2019
Accepted 16 November 2019 * Available online 5 December 2019
Table 1 % of U.S. teens who... Say they use... Say they use... most often YouTube 94 22 Instagram 78 22 Snapchat 73 27 Facebook 87 21 Twitter 66 5 Tumblr 14 1 Reddit 10 1 None of the above 1 1 Sources: Pew Research Center; my survey among 4,200 individuals conducted April 2019. Table 2 % of U.S. teens who say social media has had... on people their own age 50 A mostly positive effect 34 Neither positive, nor negative effect 16 A mostly negative effect Among those who said mostly positive, % who give these as the main reasons Connecting with friends/family 43 Easier to find news/info 22 Meeting others with same interests 17 Keeps you entertained/upbeat 12 Self-expression 9 Getting support from others 6 Learning new things 5 Other 3 Among those who said mostly negative, % who give these as the main reasons Bullying/Rumor spreading 25 Harms relationships/Lack of 21 in-person contact Unrealistic views of others' lives 19 Causes distractions/addiction 17 Peer pressure 10 Causes mental health issues 6 Drama, in general 5 Other 4 Sources: Pew Research Center; my survey among 4,200 individuals conducted April 2019. Table 3 % of U.S. teens who say they use the internet, either on a computer or a cellphone... Almost constantly 66 Several times a day 31 Less often 3 Sources: Pew Research Center; my survey among 4,200 individuals conducted April 2019. Table 4 % of U.S. adults who say they own or use this technology Ages 18-49 College grad+ Household income $75K+ Cellphone 99 98 99 Internet 97 97 98 Smartphone 93 93 95 Social media 85 82 81 Desktop/Laptop computer 80 93 93 Tablet 61 68 75 Sources: Pew Research Center; my survey among 4,200 individuals conducted April 2019. Table 5 % of adults who say... have mostly been a good/bad thing... For me personally Bad thing Good thing Mobile phones 3 97 Social media 12 88 For society Bad thing Good thing Mobile phones 11 89 Social media 19 81 Sources: Pew Research Center; my survey among 4,200 individuals conducted April 2019. Table 6 % of adults who say people should be... about children being exposed to harmful or immoral content when using their mobile phones Very concerned 82 Somewhat concerned 18 % of adults who say the increasing use of... has had a bad influence on children Mobile phones 67 The Internet 62 % of parents whose children have a mobile phone who say they ever... Limit how much time their child spends on their phone 64 Monitor what their child is looking at or doing on their mobile 53 phone Sources: Pew Research Center; my survey among 4,200 individuals conducted April 2019. Table 7 % of adult mobile phone users who say their phone is something that... Ties them down 37 Frees them 63 Makes them waste time 35 Helps them save time 65 They don't always need 44 They couldn't live without 56 Sources: Pew Research Center; my survey among 4,200 individuals conducted April 2019. Table 8 % of adult mobile phone users who say their phone has mostly... their ability to... Hurt Helped Stay in touch with those who live far away 2 98 Get information and news about important issues 5 95 Earn a living 6 94 Concentrate and get things done 15 85 Communicate face-to-face 18 82 Sources: Pew Research Center; my survey among 4,200 individuals conducted April 2019. Table 9 % of adults who say that people using cellphones during social gatherings hurts/helps the conversation... Frequently Occasionally Rarely Never Hurts 31 49 17 3 Helps 6 21 47 26 Sources: Pew Research Center; my survey among 4,200 individuals conducted April 2019.
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|Publication:||Analysis and Metaphysics|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2019|
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