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Smartphone Addiction and Its Relationship with Mental Health and Psychosocial Well-Being: The Role of Depression, Anxiety, and Personality Factors.

1. Introduction

Predictive determinants of smartphone addiction are ordinary smartphone and social media utilization timeline, and the cognizance of game overuse. (Cha and Seo, 2018) Resistance to smartphone addiction of time intervals, with significant recurrence, and the entire period of utilization is quite unreliably self-reported. (Khoury et al., 2017) Depression severity is invariably related to smartphone addiction. (Elhai et al., 2017) Anxious attachment styles unquestionably determine smartphone addiction. (Yuchang et al., 2017)

2. Conceptual Framework and Literature Review

Stress has a relevant impact on smartphone addiction, while self-control mediates the consequence of stress on excessive use of smartphones. (Cho et al., 2017) Anxiety mediates a positive link between excessive use of smart-phones and problematic family relations. (Hawi and Samaha, 2017) Smart-phone addiction tendency sub-components intrude upon daily life (Balica, 2017; Coavoux, 2018; Lazaroiu et al., 2017; Massey et al., 2018; Roberts and Marchais, 2018) and compulsory control via deliberate seclusion and personality distortion. (Cho and Lee, 2017) Both the straightforward impact of neuroticism on wellbeing and the chain-mediating consequence of smartphone addiction and depression are notable. (Gao et al., 2017) Isolation and depression continuously mediates between attachment anxiety and excessive use of smartphones. (Kim et al., 2017) Perceived contentment, mood regulation, leisure pursuit, and compliance positively impact smartphone addiction. (Chen et al., 2017a) Conceit to some extent mediates the association between relationships among students and teenagers' smartphone addiction. (Wang et al., 2017)

3. Methodology and Empirical Analysis

Using and replicating data from Pew Research Center, I performed analyses and made estimates regarding % of U.S. teens who say social media has had a mostly positive effect/neither positive, nor negative effect/a mostly negative effect on people their own age, % of adults who say people should be very concerned/somewhat concerned about children being exposed to harmful or immoral content when using their mobile phones, and % of adult mobile phone users who say their phone is something that ties them down/frees them/makes them waste time/helps them save time/they don't always need/they couldn't live without. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

4. Results and Discussion

Smartphone addiction may be neutralized by enhancing self-discipline and diminishing attachment anxiety. (Han et al., 2017) The gravity of smartphone addiction is considerably related to aggressive behavior and conceit. (Lee et al., 2018) Smartphone addiction tendency is possibly a risk factor for unsatisfactory sleep quality. (Min et al., 2017) Cerebration somewhat mediates, while mindfulness moderates, the link between smartphone addiction and sleep quality in adolescents. (Liu et al., 2017) Meticulosity and relationship virtues are likely protective factors for excessive use of smartphones, and vitality generate increased vulnerability. (Lian and You, 2017) (Tables 1-9)

5. Conclusions and Implications

Smartphone addiction is related to both mental health and addiction like issues. (Hussain et al., 2017) Predispositions concerning smartphone addiction and overt checking of such devices may bring about decreased work output. (Duke and Montag, 2017) Excessive use of smartphones may lead to psychological and behavioral problems (Bratu, 2018; Katz, 2018; Lazaroiu, 2017; Mircica, 2018), e.g. anxiety, depression, and unsatisfactory sleep quality. (Chen et al., 2017b) ADHD may be an important risk factor for developing excessive use of smartphones. (Kim et al., 2019)

Note

The interviews were conducted online and data were weighted by five variables (age, race/ethnicity, gender, education, and geographic region) using the Census Bureau's American Community Survey to reflect reliably and accurately the demographic composition of the United States. The precision of the online polls was measured using a Bayesian credibility interval.

Funding

This paper was supported by Grant GE-1428062 from the Internet-enabled Collective Intelligence Laboratory, Worcester, MA.

Author Contributions

The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and approved it for publication.

Conflict of Interest Statement

The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

REFERENCES

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Darren Chessell

darren.chessell@aa-er.org

The Center for Cognitive Technology-driven Automation, Ottawa, Canada

Received 9 May 2019 * Received in revised form 11 November 2019

Accepted 16 November 2019 * Available online 5 December 2019

doi:10.22381/AM1820198
Table 1 % of U.S. teens who...

                   Say they use...  Say they use... most often

YouTube            94               22
Instagram          78               22
Snapchat           73               27
Facebook           87               21
Twitter            66                5
Tumblr             14                1
Reddit             10                1
None of the above   1                1

Sources: Pew Research Center; my survey among 4,200 individuals
conducted April 2019.

Table 2 % of U.S. teens who say social media has had... on people
their own age

50                                  A mostly positive effect
34                                  Neither positive, nor negative
                                    effect
16                                  A mostly negative effect

Among those who said mostly positive, % who give these as the
main reasons

Connecting with friends/family      43
Easier to find news/info            22
Meeting others with same interests  17
Keeps you entertained/upbeat        12
Self-expression                      9
Getting support from others          6
Learning new things                  5
Other                                3

Among those who said mostly
negative, % who give these as the
main reasons

Bullying/Rumor spreading            25
Harms relationships/Lack of         21
in-person contact
Unrealistic views of others' lives  19
Causes distractions/addiction       17
Peer pressure                       10
Causes mental health issues          6
Drama, in general                    5
Other                                4

Sources: Pew Research Center; my survey among 4,200 individuals
conducted April 2019.

Table 3 % of U.S. teens who say they use the internet, either on a
computer or a cellphone...

Almost constantly    66
Several times a day  31
Less often            3

Sources: Pew Research Center; my survey among 4,200 individuals
conducted April 2019.

Table 4 % of U.S. adults who say they own or use this technology

                         Ages 18-49  College grad+  Household income
                                                    $75K+

Cellphone                99          98             99
Internet                 97          97             98
Smartphone               93          93             95
Social media             85          82             81
Desktop/Laptop computer  80          93             93
Tablet                   61          68             75

Sources: Pew Research Center; my survey among 4,200 individuals
conducted April 2019.

Table 5 % of adults who say... have mostly been a good/bad thing... For
me personally

               Bad thing  Good thing

Mobile phones   3         97
Social media   12         88

For society

               Bad thing  Good thing

Mobile phones  11         89
Social media   19         81

Sources: Pew Research Center; my survey among 4,200 individuals
conducted April 2019.

Table 6 % of adults who say people should be... about children being
exposed to harmful or immoral content when using their mobile phones

Very concerned                                                   82
Somewhat concerned                                               18

% of adults who say the increasing use of... has had a bad
influence on children

Mobile phones                                                    67
The Internet                                                     62

% of parents whose children have a mobile phone who say they ever...

Limit how much time their child spends on their phone            64
Monitor what their child is looking at or doing on their mobile  53
phone

Sources: Pew Research Center; my survey among 4,200 individuals
conducted April 2019.

Table 7 % of adult mobile phone users who say their phone is
something that...

Ties them down              37
Frees them                  63
Makes them waste time       35
Helps them save time        65
They don't always need      44
They couldn't live without  56

Sources: Pew Research Center; my survey among 4,200 individuals
conducted April 2019.

Table 8 % of adult mobile phone users who say their phone has
mostly... their ability to...

                                                 Hurt  Helped

Stay in touch with those who live far away        2    98
Get information and news about important issues   5    95
Earn a living                                     6    94
Concentrate and get things done                  15    85
Communicate face-to-face                         18    82

Sources: Pew Research Center; my survey among 4,200 individuals
conducted April 2019.

Table 9 % of adults who say that people using cellphones during social
gatherings hurts/helps the conversation...

       Frequently  Occasionally  Rarely  Never

Hurts  31          49            17       3
Helps   6          21            47      26

Sources: Pew Research Center; my survey among 4,200 individuals
conducted April 2019.
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Publication:Analysis and Metaphysics
Date:Jan 1, 2019
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