# Smarandache stepped functions.

Abstract The discovery of mathematical complements, assembled under the name of the eccentric mathematics, gave the opportunity for a series of applications, amongst which, in this article, are presented the impulse, step, and unitary ramp functions. The difference, in comparison with the same classic functions, from the distributions theory, is that those eccentric are periodical with a 2[pi] period. By combining these between them, new mathematical functions have been defined; united under the name Smarandache stepped functions.

[section] 1. Introduction

Romanian mathematician Octavian Stanasila? sustains that the physics became a science when the calculus (mathematical analysis) has been discovered. In turn, the physics' development imposed the calculus' development.

The theoretical physics, and especially, the quantum mechanics, optics, wave propagation, different electromagnetism phenomena, and the solving of certain limit problems, imposed the introduction of new notions, which are not confined anymore to classical calculus (mathematical analysis), and whose justification could not be made within this frame [6]. This does not mean that it will not come a moment, in mathematics, when this thing can be done. It consists in the discovery of some mathematical complements, included in eccentric mathematics EM[8], [9], [10], [11], [12] etc., which extend at infinitum all current mathematical forms and objects, ensuring a vast extension of classical/ordinary mathematics, which will be named centric mathematics CM. The reunion of this two mathematics forms what is called the supermathematics SM.

[section] 2. The representation of derivatives of some functions

The fact that not every continue function is derivable, having as consequence the inexistence of velocity of a material point, in every moment of its movement, which, evidently, does not correspond to the reality, constitutes a sever difficulty in the CM which affects the unity and the generalization of the results, which is not the case in the SM.

For example, let's consider the first nowhere-derivable function, presented by Weierstrass [7, p. 105]:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (1)

that

a, b > 1 + 3[pi]/2 = 5, 712.

A modification of Weierstrass' example will be obtained by the substitution in equation (1) of cos [pi] t with linear Euler spline E(t), which interpolates the argument cos [pi] t in all integer values of t, and we obtain the graph [7] from figure 1. Next to it, it was presented the eccentric supermathematics functions family, of eccentric variable [theta] [equivalent to] t, named bex t, and which is a component/term of the eccentric amplitude function (aex[theta]), defined by the relation

[alpha]([theta]) = aex[theta] = [theta], [beta]([theta]) = [theta], bex[theta] = 0, arcsin[s x sin([theta] - [epsilon])], (2)

where [theta] is the eccentric variable or the angle that a positive semi straight line, revolving around the excenter S(s, [epsilon]) - or solar point, (Kepler affirmed that planets rotate around the Sun on circular orbits, but the Sun is not in the center of the orbits)--it makes it with Ox axis [8], [9], [10], and [alpha] is the centric variable or the circular arc, of the unity circle, from the origin of the arc A(1, 0) to a current point on circle W(1, [alpha]) [equivalent to] W(r = rex[theta], [theta]) the unitary eccentricity is s = e/R, or the distance between S and O, and excenter S or E are ejected from the center O on the [epsilon]direction.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

For [theta] [??] [pi] t and a phase difference [epsilon] = -[pi]/2 will obtain the function or, more precisely, the functions family.

bex t = arcsin [s sin ([pi] x t + [pi]/2)], (3)

whose graphs, of the numeric eccentricity s [member of] [0, 1], with the step 0.1, are presented in figure 2.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

It can be observed, without difficulty, that for s = 0 [right arrow] aex t = 0 and for s = 1, the maximum limit (in graphs) of s, we obtain the graph of a function in "symmetric triangle teeth" (Fig. 1).

Because, the derivative of the function aex t is the eccentric derivative function dex[theta]:

d(aex t)/dt = d[alpha]/d[theta] = dex [theta] = 1 - s x cos([theta] - [epsilon]) / square root of 1-[s.sup.2] [sin.sup.2]([theta]-[epsilon])], (4)

it results that the second term from the relation (4) is exactly the derivative of the function bex [theta], that is:

d(bex [theta])/d[theta] = s x cos([theta]-[epsilon]) / [square root of 1-[s.sup.2] [sin.sup.2]([theta]-[epsilon])] = s x coq ([pi] x t + [pi]/2) = -s (sin [pi] x t), (5)

which is the product between the numerical eccentricity s and the quadrilob cosine function coq[theta] [12], with a phase difference [epsilon] = [pi]/2, therefore it results -s x siq[theta], whose graphs family are presented in the figure 4, for s [member of] [0, 1], with the step 0.1 and in the figure 3, for s = 1.

[FIGURES 3-4 OMITTED]

The quadrilob sinus function (siq[theta]), for the numerical eccentricity s = 1, represents, in the signals theory, the response of a relay to a sinusoidal signal; this function is also called square sinus [13, p. 31], which is exactly the eccentric sinus trigonometric function, with the numerical eccentricity s = 1, defined on a square, non-rotated with [pi]/4, as in the case of Alaci quadratic functions [12].

Corroborating the functions and their derivatives, it can be observed that they correspond between them. Thus, modified Weierstrass function, from figure 1, viewed as a bex t function of numerical eccentricity s = 1, becomes complete derivable.

In 1926 P. A. M. Dirac introduced, in the quantum mechanics, the delta "function" ([delta]), which is over all null, with the exception of a point (in origin taking1 value), defined as follows:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], (6)

and whose integral is:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]. (7)

The same value of the integral is also for the unitary impulse function [DELTA](x, [lambda]) defined by

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]. (8)

It can be observed that for [lambda] [right arrow] 0 we obtain the Dirac function [delta](x). It must be mentioned that a rigorous definition of Dirac's impulse can be given within distributions theory [6] or of generalized functions, a chapter of functional analysis.

The unitary impulse can be viewed also as the derivative of the (ideal) unitary step function, or as of Heaviside function [GAMMA](x), defined as:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], (9)

admitting, in this way, the derivability of any continue function on sections.

The unitary ramp function is defined as:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], (10)

and its derivative is the ideal unitary step function (Heaviside).

[section] 4. Periodical unitary step, impulse and ramp functions expressed as eccentric circular supermathematics functions (EC-SMF) and with eccentric quadrilob supermathematics functions (QL-SMF)

In figures 5 and 6 are presented the graphs of the eccentric cosine functions (cex t) and eccentric quadrilob cosine (coq t) respectively [12] for super-unitary numerical eccentricities s.

[FIGURES 5-6 OMITTED]

It can be observed, in the same time with the increase of the numerical eccentricity value s, the functions existence domain becomes restricted to the interval where a line, revolving from the excenter S(s; [epsilon]), external to unity circle, intersects the unity circle. This interval I is periodical, with the period of 2[pi] and it is defined by relation (9).

I = [t.sub.final] - [t.sub.initial] = 2[gamma] = 2 arcsin (1/s), (11)

for which the function

del[theta] = [square root of 1 - [s.sup.2] [sin.sup.2]([theta] - [epsilon]) = 0, (12)

where,

[t.sub.initial] = [pi] + [epsilon] - [gamma] = [pi] and [t.sub.final] = [pi] + [epsilon] + [gamma] = [pi], (13)

the eccentrical variable: t [equivalent to] [theta](mod2[pi]) such that, for the excenter S going, on the x axis ([epsilon] = 0), to infinite (s [right arrow] [infinity]), the domainI goes to zero (I [right arrow] 0). From (12) it results that at t = [pi] and s [right arrow] [infinity], the function [cex.sub.1]t is an impulse signal of amplitude -1, that periodically repeats with a 2[pi] period, and the second determination--with index 2--of the function, [cex.sub.2]t = 1 for t = 0 + 2k[pi], (k = 0, 1, 2,...), therefore also at t = 2[pi], for s [right arrow] [infinity], as it results also from the figures 5, A and 5, B.

We will call, these functions "periodical impulse functions cext of unity amplitude with s [right arrow] [infinity]". For [epsilon] = [pi]/2, analogously, for s [right arrow] [infinity], we obtain "periodical impulse functions sext of unity amplitude".

Because

[cex.sup.2.sub.1,2][theta] + [sex.sup.2.sub.1,2][theta] = 1, where [cex.sub.1,2]t = [+ or -]1 [right arrow] [sex.sub.1,2]t = 0 and vice versa. (14)

Therefore, at t = [pi], the function [sex.sub.1]t = 0 with the period 2[pi] and the function

I(t; s) = 1/[sex.sub.1]t) [??] [infinity], obtaining periodical unitary impulse functions, of an infinite amplitude, similar to Dirac's function, the difference being that it is periodic with a 2[pi] period.

Also the quadrilob cosine function [12]

[coq.sub.1]t = cos [theta] /[square root of 1-[s.sup.2] [sin.sup.2]([theta]-[epsilon])] ([theta] [equivalent to] t), for s [right arrow] [infinity] has at t = [pi] [+ or -] 2k[pi], (k = 0, 1, 2,...) the denominator del t = 0 and cos 0 = 1, such that the amplitude goes to infinite and, this way, will obtain, again, a periodical unitary impulse function (Figure 6). (15)

A periodical rectangular function of unity amplitude (Figure 6a) is given by the supermathematics eccentric quadrilob function:

0, 5(1 - siq t); with a phase difference [pi]

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], (16)

which can be named periodical unitary step function, if the numerical eccentricity s = 1.

If t [right arrow] t/10, (Figure 6b), the first step extends from [pi] to 10[pi]. It results that for t [right arrow] t/[infinity] [right arrow] 0 it will be obtained a unitary step function on all axis t > 0.

An analogous function can be obtained also with the eccentric derivative function dex t of s = 1 (Figure 7a) and with t [right arrow] t/10 and [epsilon] = -[pi] (Figure 7b).

[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]

An ideal unitary ramp function can be obtained as a straight line passing through origin, of an angular coefficient m equal with unity (m = 1).

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]. (17)

A real unitary ramp function, that will admit certain aberrations from linearity, can also be obtained as a twisted [13] which passes through the origin O(0; 0).

A twisted family, obtained for s [not equal to] 0 in the interval s [member of] [-1, 1], are presented in figure 8a, where, for s = 0, will obtain a ramp for t [member of] [0, 1].

[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]

Unitary ramp functions can be obtained by the substitution of the constant m = tan [alpha] with the variable m = tex[theta] for a unitary eccentricity s = 0, 1.

[section] 5. Smarandache stepped functions

Combining the eccentric ramp functions, of numerical eccentricity s = 1, with eccentrically rectangular functions will result the stepped functions, called Smarandache stepped functions, in honor of the Romanian mathematician Florentin Smarandache. Some of these functions, along with their relations of definition, are presented in the following graphs.

References

[1] Smarandache, Florentin, A Function in Number Theory, <Analele Univ., Timisoara>, University of Timisoara, fascicle 1, XVIII(1980), 79-88.

[2] Smarandache, Florentin, Sequences of Numbers Involved in Unsolved Problems, Hexis, 2006, 139.

[3] Smarandache, Florentin, An Infinity of Unsolved Problems Concerning a Function in the Number Theory, <The book of the abstracts of the short communications>, Section 03 (Number Theory), International Congress of Mathematicians, University of Berkeley, CA, USA, 92 Mircea Eugen Selariu No. 1 1986, 77.

[4] Smarandache, Florentin, A Numerical Function in the Congruence Theory, <Libertas Mathematica>, University of Texas at Arlington, XII(1992), 181-5.

[5] Smarandache, Florentin, Definitions, solved and unsolved problems, conjectures, and theorems in number theory and elementary geometry, Xiquan Publ. Hse., Phoenix, 2000, 84.

[6] Kecs, W. Teodorescu, P.P., Applicaii ale teoriei distribuiilor 1n mecanic? The Romanian Academy printing house, Bucharest, 1970.

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[9] Selariu, Mircea Eugen, Functii circulare excentrice i extensia lor, Scientific & Technical Bulletin of the Polytechnic Institute TV, Timisoara, Series Mec., Tom. 25(39), Fasc. 1, 1981, 189-196.

[10] Selariu, Mircea Eugen, Supermatematica- Communication at the VII International Conference of Eng., Mech. and Tech. TEHNO'95, Timisoara, Math. Appl., 9, 41-64.

[11] Selariu, Mircea Eugen, Funcii supermatematice circulare excentrice de variabil? centric? The VIII International Conference of Eng., Mech. and Tech. TEHNO'98, Timisoara, pp. 531-548.

[12] Selariu, Mircea Eugen, Quadrilobic Vibration Systems, The11th International Conference on Vibration Engineering, Timisoara, Romania, Sep. 27-30, 2005.

[13] Selariu, Mircea Eugen, Introducerea strfiambei In matematic?, The National Symposium of Gh. Anghel University, Drobeta Turnu Severin, May 2003, 171-178.

[14] Savescu, M. Constantin, I. Petrescu, T., Metode de aproximare In analiza circuitelor electronice, Technical printing house, Bucharest, 1982.

Mircea Eugen Selariu

National Research Institute for Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter

The "Politehnica" University of Timioara, Romania