Printer Friendly

Small business tax solutions.

Q To ensure that a corporate merger will be treated as a tax-free reorganization by the Internal Revenue Service, how should the continuity of interest requirement be measured under the new regulations that have been proposed by the Treasury Department?

A. To qualify as a tax-free reorganization, a merger transaction must meet various statutory and regulatory section 1.368-1(b), is known as the continuity of interest requirement. The current regulations require that the acquired company's shareholders have a continuing and substantial proprietary interest as shareholders in the acquiring company. Historically, two primary tests have been applied to determine whether the continuity of interest rules are satisfied.


The first test looks at how much of the consideration the acquired company's shareholders receive is in the form of stock; the IRS position is that at least 50% must be stock (revenue procedure 77-31, 1977-2 CB 568). The courts, however, have allowed less -- going as low as 38% -- to find continuity of interest. In John A. Nelson Co. v. Helvering (296 U.S. 374 [1935]), the court said 38% nonparticipating preferred stock was adequate to establish continuity.

Once a company is acquired, a second test is how long its shareholders have held the stock they received in the reorganization. The IRS position historically has been that continuity of interest can be thwarted by post-transaction sales if there is a "preconceived plan or arrangement" to dispose of the acquiring company's stock (revenue ruling 66-23, 1966-1 CB 67). The courts have adopted this view when a shareholder intends to dispose of his or her stock as soon as possible after the reorganization (see McDonalds Restaurants of Ill., Inc. v. Comm'r, 688 F.2d 520 [7th Cir. 1982] and Robert A. Penrod, 88 TC 1415 [1987]).

This second test has resulted in significant litigation and uncertainty in structuring reorganization transactions. In an effort to simplify transaction structuring, the IRS has proposed new regulations that would all but do away with continuity of interest problems.


The basic premise of the proposed regulations is that continuity of interest would be measured almost solely by reference to the consideration furnished by the acquiring company. As long as the portion of consideration composed of stock is substantial (50% or more, according to the IRS), post-transation sales would be disregarded -- subject to a few exceptions. The proposed regulations appear to eliminate the need to analyze post-transaction dispositions under the so-called step transaction doctrine.

Example. Anderson owns all of the stock of Orbit. Primo, Inc., acquires Orbit by merger. The merger agreement says Anderson will receive 50% Primo stock and 50% cash for her interest in Orbit. Immediately after the merger -- under the terms of a plan that existed before the merger -- Anderson sells her Primo stock to Barton, who is unrelated to Primo. This transaction satisfies the continuity of interest requirement under the proposed regulations (proposed Treasury regulations section 1.368-1(c)(3), example 1).

Under the proposed regulations, the exception is for transactions in which the acquirer or its affiliates have a plan or intention to reaquire for cash some or all of the stock given in the merger. The subsequent reacquisition would be combined with the reorganization and the determination of whether continuity is satisfied would be made after taking into account the post-transaction redemption.

Example. Anderson owns all of the stock of Orbit. Primo acquires Orbit by a merger in which Anderson receives 50% Primo stock and 50% cash for her interest. Under a binding agreement. Anderson agrees to sell the Primo stock back to Primo for cash. Under these circumstances, continuity of interest is not satisfied and the merger would not be tax-free. The same result would occur if Anderson sold her stock to an affiliate of Primo.

The proposed regulations would apply only transactions occurring after the regulations are final; they would not apply to transactions closing after the regulations are final under an agreement entered into before the regulations were final. It is curious that such a pro-taxpayer regulation would apply only prospectively. If the IRS is going to make such a fundamental change to its position, it should do so for all transactions that are still potentially subject to challenge, regardless of when they close.


It is worth noting that the IRS also proposed changes to its rules on the treatment of the exchange of options and warrants in a reorganization. The regulations currently provide that exchanging options and warrants is not tax-free under Internal Revenue Code section 354 (although, based on the facts, the exchange may not be taxable under IRC section 1001). The proposed regulations would treat options and warrants just like stock. This change also is prospective, effective only after the date the regulations are published in final form.
COPYRIGHT 1997 American Institute of CPA's
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 1997, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:the continuity-of-interest test for tax-free reorganizations
Author:Bloom, Bryan E.
Publication:Journal of Accountancy
Date:Jul 1, 1997
Previous Article:Marketing clinic.
Next Article:Levitt defends FASB.

Related Articles
... Use of Sec. 351 may produce favorable result.
Small business tax solutions.
Seagram and Dupont: exploring continuity.
Proposed change to continuity-of-shareholder-interest requirement in acquisitive reorganizations.
Transactions subsequent to a "B" reorganization.
Proposed section 368 regulations (remote continuity-of-interest doctrine). (Tax Executive Institute's comments submitted to IRS on April 30, 1997).
Getting back to basics - proposed continuity regulations.
COBE in Statutory Mergers.
Expansion of A reorg. provisions.
Statutory mergers.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters