Small arms of the Volkssturm: the Germans had the very best until near the end of World War II, when anything that would fire a bullet was pressed into combat service.
While the German military was obviously influenced by the .30 M1 Garand semiautomatic rifle, the fact is that it had a long history of experimentation with semiautomatic rifles prior to World War II. In 1940 an expedited developmental program was initiated to evaluate and adopt a semiautomatic rifle in the standard German service caliber, 7.92x57mm.
One was designed by Walther, the other by Mauser. Although the breech locking systems were completely different, the gas systems and magazines were similar. The Walther system eventually prevailed. While clearly superior to the earlier G41(W), Walther's G43 was ordered into series production before development was complete.
A trial performed by the U.S. Army in 1946 concluded negatively that, the general performance and endurance of the weapons tested was poor, as excessive malfunctions and breakages were encountered. The weapon does not appear to possess any outstandingly meritorious design features. Hitler, however, favored the G43 and was adamantly opposed to the Sturmgewehr and its 7.92x33mm ammunition.
But, by the first of October 1943, fueled by optimistic reports of its deployment at the Russian front, he finally gave his approval to the production of the MP43 as a replacement of the MP40 submachine gun only.
Nevertheless, the German army mainly soldiered through World War II with a 19th century bolt-action rifle, the Model 1898 Mauser, which prior to World War II was shortened and slightly revised into what the designated as the K98k.
Examination of specimens from the beginning of the war to 1945 clearly and graphically again demonstrate the catastrophic decline of Germany's industrial potential as it struggled to conduct a world war on two major fronts.
A brief description of four of the many K98k rifles from my personal collection demonstrates this in a rather startling juxtaposition. The earliest specimen carries the manufacturer's code of "byf 41," which indicates manufacture by Mauserwerk K.-G., Oberndorf am Neckar in 1941.
The year 1941 represents the high point in Nazi Germany's manufacturing capacity and success on the battlefield. In new, unfired condition, this rifle features all machined components with a high-polish, deep blue finish. The buttplate, barrel bands, trigger guard and magazine floorplate are all machined steel forgings. The stock is walnut.
There are Waffenamt stempels and serial numbers (all matching) on almost all components, including even small screw heads. The stock itself has six different stamps, including eagle-over-H (indicating issue to the Heeres [army]). Approximately 346,440 K98k rifles were manufactured at Mauserwerk in 1941, although specimens in this condition from that early in the war are quite rare and this rifle will sell for more than $6,000.
The second specimen carries the manufacturer's code of "ce 42," which indicates manufacture by J.P. Sauer & Sohn, Gewehrfabrik, Suhl in 1942. In general, this rifle at first glance appears to be made to the same prewar standards as the "byf 41" K98k described above. However, the buttstock is now a wood laminate of the type that prevailed throughout the war. The buttplate is also the more common cupped type.
On close inspection, the blued finish appears to be of slightly lesser quality than that of the "byf 41". Also, there are fewer Waffenamt stempels (eagle-over-37 and eagle over-359) than found on the 1941 Mauser specimen. The sling is original and carries the code "bad" (Schmidt, Leo, o.H.G., Lederriemenfabrik, Munchen 15, Lindwurmstr. 75.) and the date of manufacture, 1942. This rifle complete with the original sling and in excellent condition, is also quite rare and would easily fetch $5,000 plus today. Sauer made 193,320 K98k rifles in 1942.
The third specimen carries the manufacturers code of "byf 44," which indicates manufacture by Mauserwerk K.-G., Oberndorf am Neckar in 1944. This rifle clearly indicates that the fortunes of war had turned dramatically against Germany. This is the first of the so-called Kriegsmodell (War model) K98k, in which all of the very practical, cost-cutting features were standardized. This is the K98k at its next to crudest level of development.
Although this specimen has a bayonet mount, most do not. There is no provision for a cleaning rod. The bolt disassembly disc was eliminated and replaced with a small hole on the side of the late-type stamped, cupped buttplate. The stock has been left unstained and unfinished.
The barrel band retaining spring was eliminated and the upper and lower barrel bands--now welded sheet metal pressings--held by wood screws. The trigger guard and magazine floorplate are now sheet metal pressings. The finish is phosphate with some small blued components. Mauserwerk manufactured 1,411,314 K98k rifles in. 1944. Although it has an excellent bore and all matching serial numbers, this Kriegsmodell K98k will sell for only $1,500 to $2,000.
The final K98k carries the manufacturer's code of "swp45," which tells us it was manufactured by Waffenwerke Brunn AG, Brno, Czechoslovakia in 1945. It represents the lowest level to which the K98k descended and the end days of the "Thousand Year Reich". It's quite similar to the "byf 44" Kriegsmodell, except that even the bayonet lug has been omitted.
The machined metal components are semi-finished only, with both blued and phosphated parts. All the parts have noticeable lathe rings and milling marks. The laminate stock on these variants will be found both polished and unpolished and stained and unstained.
The stamped sheet metal trigger guard is the large so-called "winter" type found only on these very late K98k rifles. The specimen has all matching serial numbers and the Waffenamt stempel eagle-over-63 on all of the components. Some of these rifles were issued with fixed, sheet metal rear sights. This rifle is coming close in crudeness to the subject of this article.
The Birth of the Volkssturm
Germany had a military reserve system by the end of the 19th century, and reservists were used during World War I. However, not wanting to appear defeatist, Hitler rejected the idea of a home guard in 1943. When advance units of the U.S. Army pierced the western German border in September of 1944, Hitler finally authorized the formation of some kind of home guard.
Toward the end of September,. 1944, it was decided to call this home guard the Deutsche Volkssturm (German People's Assault). Martin Bormann was charged with organizing the Volkssturm and the infamous Reichsfuhrer-SS, Heinrich Himmler was placed in charge of its military affairs. The Volkssturm was to include all German males between the ages of 16 to 60, who were not already members of the German armed forces.
Although without doubt the vast majority of the more than 14.6 million K98k rifles produced from 1934 through 1945 (more than a third of which were manufactured in 1943 and 1944) were absorbed by the Wehrmacht during the war, a small quantity were with certainly deployed by the Volkssturm, especially the late and much cruder Kriegsmodell.
In addition, the Volkssturm was armed with an incredible hodgepodge of rifles from countries like Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Italy. Many were chambered (or rechambered) for the standard German 7.92x57mm rifle/machine gun cartridge, but many were fielded in their original chamberings.
Examples include the Hungarian G98/40, the Czech Gewehr 33/40 (issued mostly to the Gebirgsjager, or mountain troops of the Wehrmacht and Waffen SS). Italian rifles of all kinds, including the M38 Carbine chambered for the 7.92x57mm cartridge, Austrian Mannlichers, captured Soviet small arms of all kinds, and French, Belgian, Dutch and Danish rifles.
These were further supplemented by civilian arms of all kinds, like .22 rimfire rifles, shotguns, drillings and hunting rifles. Still, this was not enough and the desperate needs of the Volkssturm would have to be met by other means. In addition, the advancing Red Army was led by hordes of Soviet T-34 tanks, against which rifles like the Italian Carcano were of absolutely no use.
The Volkssturm needed a means by which the. T-34 could be defeated. The imperfect solution was to become the Panzerfaust ("Armored Fist"). The Heereswaffenamt sent out an urgent request for a portable antitank weapon that could be deployed from a distance of only 40 meters. From these somewhat vague specifications was coined the term Faustpatrone (literally "Fist Cartridge").
One of the first efforts was the PWM(1), which was a fin-stabilized, hollow-charge hand grenade. It could penetrate up to 3 inches of armor plate. Other early devices of this type were unsuccessful.
But, by December of 1942, a designer by the name of Heinrich Langweiler came up with a much-improved individual, aimed, disposable, single-shot antitank weapon, which was later to be called the Panzerfaust. This and all future versions can be described as follows: a finstabilized, hollow-charge grenade with a simple firing mechanism inside a lengthened firing tube with crude sights (a flip-up, keyhole rear sight and very minimal front sight on top of the grenade itself) that required the long firing tube.
The first of these--the Panzerfaust 30m (klein--"small") had sights pre-set for 30 meters. A larger version was designated as the Panzerfaust 30m (grosse--"large") and could penetrate up to 11 inches of armor plate. This latter weapon was in series production by October of 1943 with 200,000 per month being made.
It was replaced by the much-improved Panzerfaust 60m in 1944, which was manufactured and issued in the hundreds of thousands. By November of 1944, the Panzerfaust 60m was in turn replaced by the Panzerfaust 100m, with a two-stage propellant charge that further increased its effective range to 100 meters.
Added to this array of handheld antitank weapons eventually were copies of the U.S. Bazooka--the Ofernrohr--and a version with an Schutzschild (Face Shield) that was called the Panzerschreck.
While the various Panzerfaust weapons were effective, although all too often hazardous to deploy, the Volkssturm still needed literally millions of rifles. The idea of producing simple and cheap, mass-produced small arms had been floated as early as 1942-43 as part of what was called the Primitiv-Waffen-Programm.
Initially, both Hitler and Albert Speer opposed the development of a Volksgewehr (People's Rifle) and Speer argued that it would just further drain the overburdened small arms industry. However, even though Speer was able to direct manufacturers to their highest levels of production in 1944, both losses and the needs of the Wehrmacht went far beyond the small arms manufacturers production capacity.
As a consequence, Speer had no choice but to accept the concept of a Volksgewehr for the Volkssturm. Industrial genius that he was, Speer insisted on a single design for uniform issue.
Furthermore, Speer's concept mandated that the "People's Rifle" would have to reliably function within an unusually wide degree of tolerances and make no use of metal pipe material, complicated forgings, or extensive machining operations. In addition, the rifle would have to be incredibly cheap and simple enough for manufacture in numerous small workshops.
Only five manufacturers submitted designs for the first round of testing on 28 October, 1944. They were Gustav Appel, Deutsche-Industrie-Werke (DIW), Erma, Gustloff-Werke and Mauser. None of these entries were deemed acceptable. In the second round of tests, designs by Walther, Bergmann and Rochling (Coenders) were added.
By 17 November, 1944 only the rifles submitted by Mauser, Rheinmetall and Walther were judged to be acceptable, with the Walther rifle emerging as the front-runner. On 12 December, 1944, the Walther design was adopted. An initial order for 50,000 was followed two weeks later for an order of 1.5 million Walther Volksgewehr. Other firms continued to develop rifles for this project, including several chambered for the 7.92x33mm Kurz cartridge of the Sturmgewehr.
The Walther VG
Although Speer had guaranteed the Nazi Party heads a monthly production of 100,000 rifles, this proved to be completely unrealistic. The first problem was the barrels, which required both advanced skills and specialized machinery to manufacture. To initiate production, the Wehrmacht pledged to deliver from Luftwaffe stores a quarter million MG15, MG17 and MG81 aircraft machine gun barrels immediately and another 180,000 to follow, all of which were being held in reserve. Subsequent barrels were promised by Walther from six locations with the necessary drilling machines.
The specifications of the VG1 are as follows. The caliber is 7.92x57mm and the feed mechanism is the 10-round, staggered-column, two-position-feed, detachable box magazine of the G43 semiautomatic rifle. The overall length varies from 930mm to 1033mm (36.6 to 40.6 inches), depending upon the manufacturer. The barrel length was a nominal 400mm (15.75 inches), but also varies as a consequence of the manufacturer and type of barrel used. The weight is a nominal 33 kg (7.3 pounds) and also varies depending upon the manufacturer.
The front sight on my specimen is a rectangular blade with a stamped sheet metal hood that is quite different from that of the K98k. The rear sight is a fixed, open Unotch, pre-zeroed for 100 meters.
The receiver is a simple split-bridge of the type found on the Italian Model 1.891 Carcano rifles and carbines. It was machined from steel bar stock. Recesses machined into the forward portion of the receiver accept the bolt's locking lugs. A cutout on the right side of the receiver for the bolt handle serves as a third locking abutment.
The bottom of the receiver was machined flat, with a stamped steel bracket attached, to serve as the pivot point for the simple trigger assembly: in the rear and to retain the magazine in. front. Further minor machining accommodates the stock's recoil lug, the trigger mechanism and the ejector. The trigger mechanism, which has no machined components and was made from stampings retained by axis pins, was copied directly from that of the Mauser 1898 action. The trigger guard, safety and magazine catch/release are also simple sheet-metal stampings.
The bolt mechanism is also as simple as possible. The bolt body is a very crudely machined forging with two forward locking lugs. A slot was machined to accept a stamped sheet metal extractor. A longitudinal hole was drilled and tapped and the cylindrical bolt handle screwed and sometimes also staked in place.
Firing pins were case-hardened stampings that were machined only at the tip and for the spring collar slot. The barrels were press-fit into the receiver and pinned in place. An MG81 aircraft machine gun barrel was used to fabricate the VG1 in my personal collection and the distinctive forward bearing bulge was not removed.
The stocks were usually cut from beech blanks from wood of usually low quality. Little attempt was made to contour the stocks except at the wrist and fore-end Inletting for the barrel and receiver was quite crude. A slot was cut in the stock's butt for the sling and an incredibly simple wire sling swivel with a leather washer was attached through the fore-end.
The buttplate was made from stamped sheet metal and retained by two wood screws. It has been estimated that it cost no more than $5 to produce a VG1. This compares to the $25 to $35, depending upon the manufacturer, that it cost to manufacture a K98k rifle. Keep in mind, of course, that $5 in 1945 is more than $63 in 2012 currency.
The actual number of VG 1 rifles produced, as well as the precise identity of all the manufacturers, will never be known for certain. The following manufacturers' codes have been found on VG1 rifles: "ac" (Carl Walther Waffenfabrik, Zella-Mehlis), "ac Ng" (presumed to be Metallwerke Neuengamme), "avk" (Ruhrstahl AG, Presswerk, Bielefeld-Brackwede), "axw" (Billeter & Klunz, Werkzeugmaschinenfabrik un Eisengiesserei, Aschersleben), "bnn" (Sudbahn-Werke, AG, Wien), "ce" J.P. Sauer & Sohn, Suhl), "eeo" (Deutsche Waffen-und Munitions-fabriken [DWM]), "kxs" (Schricker & Co., Furth-Vach, bei Numberg), "qve" (Berlin-Lubecker Maschinenfabrik, Lubeck), "swp" (Waffenwerke Brunn AG, Brno, Czechoslovakia), and "tbq" (presumed to be Rheinmetall, Unterluss). Unknown codes include "srg", "ST", and "tme".
My specimen is marked "VG1 tbq 383 A". Rheinmetall-Borsig was, and is, a large firm in Dusseldorf Rheinmetall manufactured the VG1 and also continued, development on its own Volksgewehr, which was designated as the VG3. It has been estimated that from. 1.00 to as many as 500 Rheinmetall VG1 rifles were actually manufactured. The lowest serial number known on a "tbq"-coded VG1 is "86 A" and the highest is "422 A". Of the rifles marked with the "tbq" code, all compare favorably with those manufactured by others. The exteriors were oxide blued and exhibit good machine work.
The magazine accompanying this specimen is marked "K43", with the manufacturer's code "avx". This code was assigned to Sudmetall A.-G., Mussbach a.d. Weinstr. It is a blued magazine and the general consensus is that blued G43/K43 magazines most often fit better in the VG1 than the slightly thicker black enamel versions.
The exact number of Volksgewehre produced will never be known for certain. Manufacture was spread out throughout Germany, the last months of the war were chaotic and records were sometimes poorly kept and often lost or destroyed. The best estimate on the total number of VG1 rifles produced appears to be no more than 50,000, with some manufacturers producing slightly over 10,000 and some fewer than 50.
A most important question is, what is a VG1 worth today? Certainly a few have been sold at garage sales for no more than $50, from and to individuals for whom it was only a crude piece of junk of unknown origin. However, all of the Volksgewehre are extremely rare, and among the most desirable of the German small arms of the World-War-II era.
Most often, they end up being sold at "high ticket" auctions, where they commonly fetch from $5,500 to $6,500 from extremely knowledgeable individuals. But, this is a highly specialized niche item that appeals only to the most advanced collectors. In addition to its rarity, no small portion of its allure to collectors is that it represents the last pitiful gasp of the "Thousand Year Reich" in its agonizing death throes.
Other Volksgewehre included the Spreewerke VG2, a crude bolt-action rifle made almost entirely from stamped sheet metal, which also used the 10-round K43 magazine. It has been estimated that between 16,000 to 18,000 were produced. The Rheinmetall VG3 is a cal. 7.92x33mm Kurz, bolt-action rifle that used the MP44 Sturmgewehr magazine. Less than 50 are thought to have been manufactured.
The Mauser VG4, another bolt-action design, was made in prototype in both 7.92x57mm and 7.92x33mm Kurz, but no more than 10 were probably made. The Steyr VG5 is a radically simplified K98k, originally designated at the VK98 with an estimated total production of no more than 10,000.
The Gustloff Volkssturmgewehr is, to collectors, the most desirable of all the Volksgewehre. Designed by Gustloff's Karl Barnitzke, the Volkssturmgewehr is a semiautomatic-only version of Barnitzke's selective-fire MP507, which is a simple, delayed blowback rifle with the barrel fixed to a receiver made from two sheet-metal halves welded together.
It utilized the MP44 Sturmgewehr magazine, and Barnitzke himself stated after the war that approximately 10,000 were made. Several have sold at recent auctions for more than $50,000.
Without doubt there are still a substantial number of Volksgewehre, mostly the VG1, Spreewerke VG2, Steyr VG5 and Volkssturmgewehr resting in steamer trunks in attics and basements throughout the United States. Brought back by GIs, who themselves did not really know what they were, the children and grandchildren of these now mostly deceased veterans know even less about them.
My VG1 was brought into a gun store and traded for a refurbished Glock and a couple hundred dollars. Your chance of finding a Volksgewehr are slim, but considerably better than winning the Power Ball lottery. Some have even been sold at garage sales for less than a hundred dollars. However, the Internet has increased almost everyone's database and many people are now more knowledgeable about the rarity and value of the Volksgewehre.
The Wehrmacht was always enamored with handguns. The German military issued a far larger number of pistols than the Allied armies, both because they felt it was a legitimate weapon and in addition, a distinctive badge of rank By the end of the war, the P.38 was the Wehrmacht's chief sidearm. However, production never met the demand and, as a consequence; very few ended up in the Volkssturm. Pistols were every bit the important badge of rank in the Volkssturm that they were in the Wehrmacht; but the Volkssturm was left to scramble for an amazing hodgepodge of pistols.
A significant number of Walther PP and PPK pistols issued to the Nazi party (NSDAP) were requisitioned for the Volkssturm. Captured pistols, such as the Italian Beretta Model 1934 and the Czech CZ27 were widely issued to the Volkssturm. Small quantities of the Mauser HSc and revolutionary Sauer 38(H) caliber 7.65mm (.32 ACP) pistols also ended up with the Volkssturm. But, none of these were enough.
A request was made for a simple, cheap, easy-to-produce pistol operated by means of uncomplicated blowback and chambered for the 9x19mm Parabellum cartridge and utilized the common P.38 magazine.
Three companies responded to the request for a Volkspistole: Gustloff-Werke, Mauser and Walther. Gustloff-Werke produced one prototype, an upscaled version or Barnitzke's 7.65mm design, but withdrew almost immediately for lack of time and production capacity. Very little is known of the Gustloff-Werke Volkspistole.
Mauser designed a series of simplified designs that also made exclusive use of stamped sheet metal parts, except for the barrel. But none of Mauser's designs were approved or placed into production. Walther developed both a locked-breech and simple blowback version of the Volkspistole. The blowback design was approved in late 1944, but neither it nor the Mauser entry ever went into series production or were issued to the Volkssturm.
During the 1930s, the German military considered the machine gun to be the infantry's most important weapon. Subsequent to World War I, the German army (Heer) concluded that they required a "universal" machine gun--one that could be used in both the light and heavy roles, and also for antiaircraft applications. As no existing machine gun met the specifications desired, a completely new weapon was required.
The project was assigned to Rheinmetall under the direction of its chief designer, Louis Stange. As a consequence of the despised Versailles treaty, only Simson & Co. in Suhl was allowed to manufacture machine guns after World War I. To get around this complication., in 1929 Rheinmetall purchased 90% of the stock of Waffenfabrik Solothurn AG in Solothurn, Switzerland. Solothurn handled the prototypes and shuffled the paperwork. The actual development of the new machine gun took place at the Dreyse factory in Somraerda.
The machine gun developed and adopted, the MG34, together with its tripod, the Lafette 34, was undoubtedly the most elaborate machine gun ever manufactured. The gun itself has more than a hundred different components. The Lafette 34 has double that number of parts.
The elegant-looking MG34 very soon demonstrated itself to be less than ideal, as it was quite dust-sensitive and a complex machinist's nightmare whose production never fulfilled the Germans ever-increasing, and ever more desperate, demands. The Heereswaffenamt (Army Ordnance Office) determined that the MG34, developed in peacetime, did not represent the degree of simplicity and ease of production. required.
Rheinmetall-Borsig of Sommerda proposed a gas-operated weapon designed by Louis Strange. Stubgen in Erfurt also submitted a gas-operated design The Paul Kurt Johannes Grossfuss Metall-und Lackierwarenfabrik in Doblen, Saxony had no previous experience in the manufacture of small arms, however, it was recognized as a leader in the development of techniques for manufacture by means of sheet metal stampings.
The Grossfuss prototype submitted on 26 October 1937 used a truly unique method of operation developed by Dr. Werner Gruner, their chief designer. The bolt system was recoil-operated and roller locked. Gruner had no previous experience with small arms and had no record of military service.
Gruner's demonstration model consisted of only two sidewalls and a bolt locking mechanism. The most significant feature of Gruner's design was the receiver, which was made from two sheet metal stampings. The world's first sheet-metal machine gun, the so-called MG39 was followed by the MG39/41. Series production of the MG42 commenced in 1942 by Maget, a Rheinmetall subsidiary.
By the end of the war, approximately three quarters of a million had been assembled. Clearly the M42 represented not only a technological design advance over the MG34, but a great many cost-saving features, such as the vastly increased use of sheet metal stampings and a simpler method of operation. Masked by this advance in technology, however, was the fact that Germany's manufacturing potential was beginning to feel the heavy burden the war was beginning to place on Germany's industrial capacity.
Of all the weapons utilized by the Volkssturm, with the possible exception of the Panzerfaust, none were more important than the machine gun Here again, the Volkssturm, ended up with no more than the crumbs from the Wehrmacht's table. Machine guns issued to the Volkssturm included the water-cooled Maxim '08 and '08/15, and the air-cooled, recoil-operated MG13.
A substantial number of Luftwaffe machine guns also found their way into the Volkssturm. There were several reasons for this. First, the Luftwaffe had, by the end of the war, been rendered essentially inactive by fuel shortages and crippling losses of both experienced pilots and aircraft.
Furthermore, cal. 7.92x57mm machine guns, such as the MG15, MG17 and MG81, were early on found to be of insufficient caliber for use against aircraft and were thus already obsolescent after the first two years of the war. A very few of the heavier caliber aircraft machine guns, such as the 13mm MG131 (based upon the MG17) and the Mauser MG151 (based upon the MG81), were issued to the Volkssturm as heavy support weapons, the latter on a wheeled mount.
Of Germany's two principal infantry machine guns, the incredibly complex MG34 and the MG42, only a few thousand MG34s went to the Volkssturm. Nevertheless, the MG34, essentially made obsolete by the MG42, was the most prevalent machine gun in Volkssturm service.
While a few handpicked Volkssturm units on the Oder Front were issued MG42s, possibly for publicity purposes, the overwhelming majority of the MG42 machine guns went to front-line regulars of the Wehrmacht and Waffen SS.
The author would like to express his gratitude to Mel Smith, Jr., who is a highly regarded authority on German World-War-II-era Volksgewehre, and who provided much valuable information for this article and the K43 magazine I needed for my VG1. Anyone seeking advice or technical information on the subject of Volksgewehre can contact Mel at P.O. Box 1341, Bay City, MI 48706; phone: 989-798-8709; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Desperate Measures--The Last-Ditch Weapons of the Nazi Volkssturm By W. Darrin Weaver. Published by Collector Grade Publications, Inc., P.O. Box 1046, Cobourg, Ont K9A 4W5, Canada; phone: 905-342-3434; fax: 905-342-3688; e-mail: email@example.com; web site: www.collectorgrade.com. Copyright 2005. ISBN 0-88935-372-7. 424 pages, 558 illustrations. $69.95.
Backbone of the Wehrmacht--The German K98k Rifle, 1934-1945 By Richard D. Law. Published by Collector Grade Publications, Inc., P.O. Box 1046, Cobourg, Ont K9A 4W5, Canada; phone: 905-342-3434; fax: 905-342-3688; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; web site: www.collectorgrade.com. Copyright 1991. ISBN 0-88935-102-3.336 pages, 433 illustrations. $75.
Kriegsmodell--A Collectors Guide to K98k Production in the Last Months of WW2 By Michael Steves and Bruce Karem. Published by 3rd Party Press under the auspices of www.k98kforum.com. Copyright 2009 and 2010. 412 pages with numerous black & white and color photographs. Available online only, with the price varying up to $170.
Panzerfaust 60m Replica: International Military Antiques, Inc., Dept. SGN, 1000 Valley road, Gillette, New Jersey 07833; phone: 908-903-1200; fax: 908-903-0106; website: www.ima-usa.com.
Text and photos by Peter G. Kokalis
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|Title Annotation:||LAST-DITCH TREASURES|
|Author:||Kokalis, Peter G.|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2012|
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