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Sizing and arranging the source images.

Free Transform

Resize the tree by going to Edit, then Free Transform (Control+T). Scroll out so the Free Transform box is in full view. Select one of the corners, and while holding the Shift key, click and drag one of the corners until it looks appropriate in size. Holding the Shift key will keep your tree proportionate. The width and height can also be adjusted by Percentage, located at the top in the options bar. With the Free Transform box still active, select inside the box and move the tree to the far right of the back wall on top of the pigeons. Hit Enter for it to accept the changes or hit the ESC escape key to start over.

Drawing Guide Lines Using the Pencil Tool

There are several ways to create an illusion of perspective. This first method is purely by visual perception using Free Transform as stated above and resizing the item until it looks appropriate. You can create guide lines using the Pencil tool as an aid by first creating a new layer called "guide lines." Go to the Flyout menu of the Layers palette and select New Layer and name it "guide lines." Select the Pencil tool, and in the options bar at the top of the screen, select the Brush pull-down and set the master diameter to 9. Pick a point at the top of the tree to make a dot. Then go to the corner of the building, and while holding down the Shift key, select a point in the direction of the vanishing point. Holding down the Shift key between two selection points will draw and keep your line straight. Do this from the bottom point of the tree as well (figure 4-8).

When putting in more trees, use the Free Transform tool to resize them to fit within the guide lines. Once this is done, you can delete the guide lines layer by dragging it to the trash in the Layers palette or just turn it off by clicking on the eye next to the layer in the Layer palette.

Finish the Row of Trees

Source image 2 is of another tree. Open it, resize it, select out the tree (save the selection), and move it next to Tree 1 on the base image. Resize this tree using the Free Transform, flip it horizontally for the shadow (right-click inside the Free Transform box and select Flip Horizontal ), and then rename it Tree 2 in the Layers palette (figure 4-9).



Duplicating Layers

One way to duplicate a tree already in the base image is to duplicate the layer it is on. Activate the Tree 1 layer. Select the Flyout menu in the Layers palette and click on Duplicate (figure 4-10). You can also right-click while on the layer to duplicate, and then select Duplicate Layer.

Name it Tree 3. Using the Move tool, click and drag on the tree you duplicated. You will see a duplicate of it move while leaving the original in the same place. Use Free Transform to scale it down.



Another way to make a duplicate is to go to the Tree 2 layer, activate the Move tool, and while holding down the ALT key, click and drag Tree 2. You will see a duplicate of it move, leaving behind the original. Rename this layer Tree 4 and resize it using Free Transform.

You can also go to Edit, then Copy and Edit, then Paste and use the Move tool for moving the copied tree. Finish the row of trees by duplicating them. Rename the duplicate tree layers Tree 5 and Tree 6. To minimize the repetitious look of using the same two trees, alter their shape and form slightly by using the Transform and Free Transform commands.

Once all of the trees are in line (figure 4-11), turn off the guide lines layer by clicking on the eye to the left of the guide line layer or get rid of it by dragging the layer to the trash can at the bottom of the Layers palette. Close source image 1 and 2 by saving them as .psd files, which will save your selection within the image.


Layer Management

Notice that each time you copy a tree or bring in a new tree, it comes in on its own layer. Layers above other layers in the palette will appear in front of those items. To move a layer (or what is visible) above or below other layers, just click and drag the layer, depending on how you want it to be seen. Move your layers around until your trees work in the space. It is important to keep track of what objects are on what layers, so rename sources as soon as you put them on the base image. This gives you more control over manipulating items and organizing how they are seen.

Transform Perspective

Source image 3 is a hedge. Open it, resize it, and zoom into it. The hedge needs some adjustment in color to tone it down. This can be done on the source image itself or after the hedge has been brought over to the base image. This example will adjust the hedge once it is brought over to the base image. Select out a large section of the hedge using the Magnetic Lasso (save the selection) and using the Move tool, drag it onto the base image and over to the far left side of the picture. Resize it using Free Transform and then rename the layer Hedge. Go to Image, then Adjustments and select Levels. Adjust the slides until the hedge matches the lighting in the base image (this time the left-hand slide was adjusted to darken the hedge). Use Free Transform to resize it to fit along the left wall as seen in figure 4-12. Right-click in the hedge while Free Transform is still active and select Perspective or go to Edit--Transform and select Perspective. This gives you a box similar to the one used for Free Transform with grips on the corners. Pick and drag the corners of the perspective box up or down so that the hedge matches the perspective of the base image. Right-click inside the Free Transform box again and select Rotate. Hover your cursor outside of the Transform box, then pick and drag the hedge to match the angle of the ground. Hit Enter when it is in place. You can also try using Edit, Transform, and Scale, Skew, or Distort to get it to fit in the space. Save source image 3 of the hedge as a .psd image.

History States

Do not forget that if the hedge gets too distorted from using the Transform tools you can hit the ESC key to go back to the original. If you hit Enter and the distortion is accepted, you can click Back in the History States palette as far back as you need to go. If you go too far back, you can always click Forward as long as another command has not been started.

Polygon Lasso

The Polygon Lasso is great for selecting items that have straight edges. Source image 4 is of a door and overhang. Open it, resize the image, select out the door and overhang using the Polygon Lasso for the straight edges. Add to your selection using the Magnetic Lasso for the overhang if you need to. Save your selection. Move it to the base image along the left wall next to the shrubs and centered under the two windows above as seen in figure 4-12. Resize the door using the Free Transform, then rename the layer Door. Use the Perspective command to put it in better proportion. When it is in place go to the Layers palette, and click and drag the Door layer below the Hedge layer. This will make the hedge look like it is in front of the door.

Save this with the Photoshop (.psd) extension.

Load Selection and Transform Warp

Source image 5 is edging. The edging has already been selected out and saved. Open the image and load this selection by going to Select, Load Selection, and select 1.


Move it to the base image in front of the evergreen trees. Resize it using Free Transform and then rename the layer Edging. Make sure this layer is above the evergreen trees. Use Free Transform to resize it to fit in the space as seen in figure 4-13. Next, we will use Warp to give it a little more bend: go to Edit, Transform and select Warp. You will see a grid appear. Pick and drag any point within this grid area and it will warp the edging to create a smoother curve. If the edging gets too bent out of shape, hit the Escape or Enter key and then go back in the History States. Use Scale and Perspective as well to shift it around until it sits smoothly along the front of the evergreen trees as seen in figure 4-13.


Layer Via Copy

Source image 6 is of gravel and grass. Open it, resize the image, and use the Polygon Lasso to select out a large parcel of both the gravel and grass to fill in the ground plane of the image. Use the Move tool and drag it to the base image and align it so the gravel runs up to the door. Rename this layer Gravel and Grass. Patch some gravel on the right side of the image by activating the Gravel and Grass layer. Use the Rectangular Marquee to select a small rectangular patch of gravel near the spot to patch. Right-click inside the selection and select Layer Via Copy then flip it (using Edit, Transform and Flip Horizontal ) and move it into place. Also use this process to patch another area of gravel near the door (figure 4-14). Flip the copy so the texture matches with the original. Drag the Gravel and Grass layer above the copied layers and make sure all of these layers are below the Door, Hedge, Edging, and Tree layers.


Merging Layers

The gravel patches are on their own layer and separate from the Gravel and Grass layer. To put them on the Gravel and Grass layer, we will use Merge Down in the Layers palette. Activate the Gravel and Grass layer, which should be above the copied layers, and make sure the gravel patch layers are beneath it in the Layers palette. Go to the Flyout menu of the Layers palette and select Merge Down. This merges the two layers together. Rename the merged layers Gravel and Grass.

Do this with layers that have multiple parts to them. The evergreen trees were not merged because you may still want to shift them forward or backward according to how your other plants work with it.

Layer Via Cut versus Layer Via Copy

Next we will bring the hood of the car in the right corner of the base image into the foreground (figure 4-15). Turn off the Gravel and Grass layer so that you can see the hood of the car. Activate the background layer and use the Magnetic Lasso to select out the hood of the car and along the edges of the image. Right-click in the selection area and select Layer Via Copy. Rename the layer Car and move it above the Gravel and Grass layer so that it appears on top of the gravel as seen in figure 4-15. You could use Layer Via Cut, but it cuts out the item from the background layer to be put on a separate layer. Use caution when making any changes to the background layer since it is very difficult to fix.


Finishing the Image

Try to finish the image on your own using the commands above and the following images: source image 7 of candytuft, source image 8 of an oakleaf hydrangea, source image 9 of flowers for the window boxes, source image 4 of a potted geranium next to the door we already used, and source image 10 of people. If you get stuck, you can follow the steps and the figures below.

* Source image 7 is of candytuft ground cover. Open it, resize it, adjust the levels to tone it down, select it out, and move it as filler in front of the evergreen trees, just slightly to the left (figure 4-16). Resize it using Free Transform and then rename the layer Candytuft Left. Duplicate this layer and move this patch to the right. Use Perspective and Distort to fit it in well and adjust the shape (so it does not look like a stamp). Rename the layer Candytuft Right, and place both of these layers at the top of the palette so they are above both the trees and edging layers.

* Source image 8 is an oakleaf hydrangea. Open it, resize it, select it, and move it to go between the 2 patches of candytuft (figure 4-16). Resize it using Free Transform and then rename the layer Hydrangea. Arrange the layer so it is above the Edging layer and the evergreen tree but between the candytuft layers. Duplicate this layer, flip it, resize it, and move it over to form a mass of hydrangeas. Make another duplicate for the far right side of the planter and another next to the door. Use Transform and Free Transform to distort the shapes. Once the mass of hydrangeas on the right is arranged well, use Merge Down in the Layers palette to combine them on one layer. Leave the one by the door on its own layer so it can be moved to fit the space.

* Source image 9 is of some flowers for the window boxes on the brick building. Open it, resize it, select out a batch of flowers, and move it toward the existing window boxes (figure 4-17). Resize the flowers using the Free Transform, then rename it Window Box Flowers. To add variety, go back to the source image and select out another patch of flowers to add to the other window boxes. Use Free Transform and Transform to resize, create perspective, and move them into position. Rename the layers accordingly.

* Source image 4 (the door) has some potted geraniums. Open it, resize it, select out the potted geraniums to the right of the door and move them to the stoop of the door. Resize it using Free Transform and rename the layer Potted Geraniums.

* Source image 10 is of people, courtesy of William and Claire. Open it and load the existing selection. Use adjustment levels to lighten them slightly, then move them to the gravel area near the door (figure 4-18). Resize them using Free Transform, then rename the layer People.




Using Shadows and Effects

Drop Shadow

There are several effective ways to create shadows but they do not consistently work for everything. For instance, a person on a bike has a lot of intricacies that make it more difficult to look realistic than just using a drop shadow or rendering a soft cast.
   We will add a simple drop shadow on the hedge, which will help
   blend the existing bit of shadow along the bottom of it (figure

   Make the hedge left layer active and go to Layer, Layer Styles and
   select Drop Shadow (figure 4-19).


Change the sun angle to 115[degrees] and adjust the distance, size, and spread. Try checking some other options to see how they affect the hedge. Just uncheck them to take the effect off. Check the PREVIEW box so you can see the changes as they are being applied to the hedge. Hit OK when done. Notice that on the Hedge layer a small circle with an F appears on the right. This stands for Effects or what was previously known as FX. To adjust the effects for this layer, double-click on the circle and it will bring you back to the Layer Styles set for that layer. Once the sun angle is set, it will remain consistent for all the other layers that use it.

Burn/Dodge Tool

Another way to display a shadow is to simply use the Burn tool. It is located under the Dodge tool. The Burn tool will allow you to darken areas within a layer. Use the Burn tool on the edging and gravel under the candytuft and hydrangeas. This will give the overhanging plants some grounding and depth. Go to the Grass and Gravel layer and activate the Burn tool; in the options bar you can adjust your brush size and style. In this example, the brush is set to soft round 65.

On the Edging layer, brush along the parts of the overhanging hydrangeas and candytuft. You will see the edging darken, casting a slight shadow (figure 4-20). You can use this subtle technique any place that needs a slight adjustment. In the example, the base of each of the trees and hedge was burned, as well as many of the other plants, parts of the wall behind the trees, and in the corner. In contrast to this, the Dodge tool will lighten things up using the same process.


Intricate Shadows

For larger, more intricate shadows like those of people, we will use the brightness/ contrast and opacity to create one and then distort it to cast it onto the ground (figure 4-21). Go to the People layer, right-click, duplicate the layer, and name it People Shadow. Select Image-Adjustments--Brightness/Contrast and slide both down to the left. Edit--Transform-Distort. Click and drag it to the ground. Move the Shadow layer so it is underneath the People layer. Finally, back in the Layers palette, slide the opacity down to 20%.


Blur Tool

To soften some of the edges of the source images, use the Blur tool. Activate the Hedge layer and then select the Blur tool. Run it along the edges of the hedge to soften it. Change the brush size in the Options menu if the brush is too small or large for the areas to touch up.

Vanishing Point

Another great method for creating the illusion of perspective is to use the Vanishing Point command. This is a more advanced method and works better with such items as windows or signs. Open source image 11 of the Lembi Park sign, resize the image, and select out the top part of the sign using the rectangular marquee. Save the selection once it is complete. Instead of dragging this selection over go to Edit and Copy. Back on the base image make a new layer for the sign to be copied too by going to the Flyout menu and selecting New Layer. Name it Sign, make it current, and make sure it is located below the Tree layers. Then go to Filter and select Vanishing Point and select the four corners of the brick wall where the sign is to go, as seen in figure 4-22.


A blue box of grids in perspective will be created, demonstrating the effect of the vanishing point. (If the box is red or yellow, try tracing the four corners again with straighter lines.) Hit Control+V to paste the sign. Move it into place and use the Transform tool located on the left to resize it while holding the Shift key to keep it proportionate. You will see that as you move your sign onto the grid area it will distort into perspective on its own (figure 4-23). Once the sign is in place, hit OK and it will bring you back to the workspace.


Clean Up with the Healing Brush Tool

Now that the base image has all the sources added to it, we will clean up the areas that are visible. Starting with the building on the right we will use the Healing Brush tool. It takes a sample of pixels that you select and puts them in a new location but blends them smoothly with the surrounding textures and colored pixels. Make a new layer called Healed Brick and put it just above the background image layer. Activate the healing brush tool, and while on the background image layer, hold down the ALT key and pick a point on the wall close to the vent above the sign, as seen in figure 4-24.


On the Healed Brick layer go back and spot clean up areas of the wall by picking areas close to those that need to be cleaned (figure 4-25). If you start to get a repetition of the wall segment above, go back to the background layer and make another selection by holding down the ALT key. This helps to patch the wall with a variety of samples so it does not look so stamped. Spot clean the worst areas.


Also clean up the cable on the white wall at the bottom of the left-hand-side building. Try using the Clone Stamp tool located underneath the Healing Brush tool. It works the same in that you take a sample using the ALT key and picking a point while on the background layer, and after going to the Healed layer you can brush on the sample to clean the facade. The Clone Stamp does not try to adjust pixel textures or colors. It is an exact clone of the sample.

To patch the old door next to the one added, go to the background layer and using the rectangular marquee, select out a clear area of wall. Go to Edit, Copy and then Edit, Paste or right-click and select Layer Via Copy. Move it into place to cover the old door. Make copies of the patch if you need to cover more space. Merge the layers once they are arranged and fully cover the old door. Rename the layer door patch and use Blur to soften the edges. This was also used to patch some brick next to the far left window on the brick building that had a wooden board on it (figure 4-26). At this point, you may want to run a test plot to see how your project is all coming together.


By Professor Ashley Calabria
COPYRIGHT 2009 Delmar Learning
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2009 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Title Annotation:CHAPTER 4: Photoshop Imaging
Author:Calabria, Ashley
Publication:Computer Graphics for Landscape Architects, An Introduction
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2009
Previous Article:Selecting out materials and moving to the base image.
Next Article:Saving and plotting.

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