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Singularly Imperfect Tautonyms.

Singularly Imperfect Tautonyms (SITS for short) are what I call words like NIGHTLIGHT in which a single letter in the second half of the word differs from the letter in the corresponding position in the first half of the word. Thus a single letter prevents NIGHTLIGHT from being a tautonym (NIGHTNIGHT). The SIT MENDMENT is prevented by a single letter from being a tautonymic sequence, rather than a tautonym, MENDMEND not being a word. For the purpose of this article, I do not distinguish between these two types of SITS. As a genre, SITS are only to be found amongst words with an even number of letters. Word sources can be found at the end.

HISTORY

On researching the relevant material in Word Ways etc., I quickly became immersed in terminology involving 'first-order reduplications' (or 'reduplications of the first-order'), 'second-order reduplications' and 'third-order reduplications'. But it seems that the same term means different things to different people! I will try and explain. To start with, what does 'reduplication' mean? The OED defines reduplication as 'the action of doubling'. It also defines duplication as 'the action of doubling'. So the re-part of 'reduplication' is redundant. Further, it seems that the only one of the three 'reduplication' terms whose meaning contributors to Word Ways seem not to have disagreed about is 'first-order reduplication', a word such as BOOBOO, a tautonym. But exactly what are second- and third-order reduplications? Take your pick!
 In Language on Vacation (page 176), Dmitri Borgmann says "if one
 letter in the second half of the word differs from the corresponding
 letter in the first half, as in MISHMASH or KNICKKNACK, the
 phenomenon is referred to as a second-order reduplication".

 In A Mysterious Pattern, a Kickshaws item in Word Ways 86114,
 Will Shortz says "words like FLIPFLOP, DING-DONG, and
 FIDDLE-FADDLE are known to
 linguists as reduplicative words of the third order".

 Wentworth and Flexner's Dictionary of American Slang defines a
 second-order reduplication as 'an initial consonant change', and a
 third-order reduplication as 'a change of the initial vowel
 occurring after one or more consonants'.


SITS TERMINOLOGY

Obviously, the above statements cannot be fully reconciled. A more precise, and concise, system of terminology and identification seems desirable. The SITS system I offer here is succinct:

* It pinpoints the position in the word of the letter which changes (1 indicates that the first letter of the word is changed in the second half of the word, 2 indicates that the second letter of the word is changed, and so on ...)

* It identifies the type of change: consonant to consonant (CC), vowel to vowel (VV), consonant to vowel (CV), or vowel to consonant (VC).

In the SIT HOTCHPOTCH, the first letter of the word, H, is replaced by P in the corresponding position in the second half of the word. This is a consonant to consonant change (CC). Thus we can identify HOTCHPOTCH as being a SIT of the order 1CC. Similarly, WIGGLEWAGGLE is a SIT of the order 2VV, WORDWOOD 3CV, and INGOINGS 4VC.

Tables 1 to 4 list SITS of the four orders CC, VV, CV and VC, respectively. The examples are either solid, or hyphenated, words (hyphens not shown). The letter Y is treated as a consonant. Wherever more than a single example is listed for a particular category, each has a different consonant/vowel pattern. I searched for examples with 8-, 10-, 12-, 14-, 16-and 18 letters.

NEIGHBOURLY SITS

In the SIT BUTTERCUTTER, the letter B in the first half of the word is replaced by the next letter in the alphabet, C, in the corresponding position in the second half of the word. This list of neighbourly SITS is arranged in alphabetical order of the letter which is replaced.
 BC 3CC LIBELICE (Slovenia) CD 1CC CERADERA (Colombia) DE 1CV
 DINGEING; 4CV WARDWARE FG 1CC FANGGANG (China) GH 3CC
 YOGIYOHI (Papua NG) HI 1CV HIDHIIDH (wadi in Somalia) JK 1CC
 JANGKANG (hill in Malaysia) KL 1CC KINGLING; 3CC KAKAKALA
 (Uganda) LM 1CC LONGMONG (Burma); 3CC GALAGAMA (Sri Lanka);
 4CC AOULAOUM (mesa in Algeria) MN 1CC MTHANTHA
 (mountain in Malawi);3CC MAMAMANA(Mali); 4CC WORMWORN;
 5CC UHLEMUHLEN (farm in Germany) NO 4CV QIANQIAQ (China)
 PQ 1CC PESHQESH (Albania) RS 1CC ROMESOME; 2CC TRENTSEN
 (Slovakia); 3CC CARICASI (Bolivia); 4CC KWARAKWASA (Nigeria)
 ST 1CC SOCOTOCO (Guatemala) 2CC HSANGHTANG
 (Burma); 3CC GASIGATI (Burundi) TU 1CV TRESURES VW 1CC
 VILIWILI (Zambia)


GEOMETRICAL SITS

The SIT ACTAEACEAE (3CV) is a triangle word (see Geometrical Words Part 1 WW97193). The different letters of ACTAEACEAE (w2) occur in the ratio 4:3:2:1 which means that it can be shown diagrammatically as a triangle with like letters in the same rows.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

If the SIT DEADHEAD (1CC) is shown with like letters in the same rows, it makes a 5-sided polygon, a pentagon (see Geometrical Words Part 2 WW97280). In this case, an edge word HADE can be read along the edge of the pentagon from top to bottom.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Some other 8-letter SITS also make pentagons with edge words. In the first two pentagons shown below, the edge words read from the bottom upwards: LOGOLOGY makes the edge word LOGY (a heavy fish), and WYDEWEDE (an old form of 'widowhead') makes DEWY. In the remaining three pentagons, the edge words read downwards: COLOCOLA (the wild cat of S. America) makes ACOL (a bidding system in bridge), HITCHITI (tribe of American Indians) makes CHIT, and INNSIGNS appositely makes GINS!

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

HOOCHYCOOCHY, and its variant HOOCHIECOOCHIE, both make hexagons. No edge Words.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

HOIGHTYTOIGHTY, a variant of HOITYTOITY, makes a set of two equal-sized hexagons. The edge word GHY is an old form of the verb 'guy', to direct the course of an instrument etc. ITO is in Nigeria.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

TRANSPOSAL SITS

PONSIONS (pointed tools) is an 8-letter SIT of the order ICV. Move the final S to the beginning, and its transposal SPONSION (a formal pledge, frequently one entered into on behalf of a another person) is a SIT of the order 2CV, the change involving the same two letters (P + I). LAKELIKE and its transposal KILEKALE (lake in Canada) are both SITS of the order 2VV.

LETTER REPETITION IN SITS

The repetition of all but one of the letters in the two halves of SITS is, in longer words, a platform conducive to the repetition of a particular letter of the alphabet. All these examples incorporate 6 like letters:

2VV

BIBBLEBABBLE, DIDDLEDADDLE, PIPPLEPAPPLE, and TITTLETATTLE all share the consonant/vowel pattern CvCCCvCvCCCv.

TETTERTOTTER, TITTERTOTTER (both CvCCvCCvCCvC)

TITTYTOTTY (CvCCCCvCCC)

3VV

BRIBBLEBRABBLE, TRITTLETRATTLE, TWITTLETWATTLE (all CCvCCCvCCvCCCv)

TWITTERTWATTER (CCvCCvCCCvCCvC)

1CC

HEEBIEJEEBIE and TEENIEWEENIE (both CvvCvvCvvCvv)

TEENSIEWEENSIE (CvvCCvvCvvCCvv)

NIMINIPIMINI (CvCvCvCvCvCv) and MINIKINFINIKIN (CvCvCvCCvCvCvC) are also monovocalics, and in NIMINIPIMINI the six letter Is alternate with the consonants.

So far, we have explored the structure of SITS. Now let us take a look at their MEANINGS.

SITS, SEMANTICS AND SYNONYMS

The semantics of SITS is too large a study to deal with here in any great detail. However, two characteristics of SITS are outstanding and demand some attention:

* Many SITS have synonyms that are also SITS.

* The majority of SITS have a meaning suggestive of triviality or confusion or belittlement or some other, equally nihilistic, quality.

SITS that have SIT synonyms generally fall into one of two categories. In the first, the same first few letters are common to all the synonyms. This makes the synonyms instantly recognisable as variant spellings of a particular word. The SITS MIXTYMAXTY and MIXYMAXY are prime examples. They and their synonymic SITS all begin with MIX-. Both words are adjectives meaning 'confused, jumbled together', and both are also nouns meaning 'a confused mass'. Their synonymic SIT variants are MIXTIEMAXTIE, MIXTERMAXTER, MIXIEMAXIE and MIXEYMAXEY. Similarly, the SIT HOOTCHYKOOTCHY has several, instantly recognisable, SIT variant forms: HOOCHYCOOCHY, HOOTCHIEKOOTCHIE, HOOTCHIECOOTCIE, HOOCHIEKOOCHIE and HOOCHIECOOCHIE.

The second category of synonymic SITS do not have a common set of letters at their beginning. This means that, more often than not, they are visibly unrecognisable as synonyms. There are a number of SIT synonyms which basically mean 'a trifle', or a 'trifling thing'. GEWGAW is one such. Interestingly, GEWGAW appears in the OED as a synonym of 'kickshaw' which, though not itself a SIT, in turn, appears as a synonym of the SIT KNICKKNACK. Other GEWGAW synonyms include WHIMWHAM, JIMJAM, FLIMFLAM, TRIMTRAM, NINCETYFINCETY and FINGLEFANGLE.

One group of synonymic SITS mean 'idle talk', 'gossip', 'senseless chatter'. Note that most of these words incorporate repeated doubled letters: BIBBLEBABBLE, PIBBLEPABBLE, GIBBLEGABBLE, HIBBERJIBBER, JIBBERJABBER, FINTERFANTER, FIDDLEFADDLE, DIDDLEDADDLE, TITTLETATTLE, TWITTLETWATTLE, RIBBLE-RABBLE, RIVELRAVEL, CHITTERCHATTER.

Yet another group of synonymic SITS refer to 'rubbish', 'jumble', 'miscellaneous odds and ends': HOTCHPOTCH, MISHMASH, TRISHTRASH, SCRIPSCRAP, HUMBLEJUMBLE.

Some SITS, whilst not strictly synonyms, are, nevertheless, all derogatory descriptions of a person or persons: NITWIT (a stupid person), SILLYBILLY (a foolish person), JELLYBELLY (a fat person), ROLYPOLY (a rascal), HODDYDODDY (a short dumpy person), FUDDYDUDDY (an ineffectual old person), DEADHEAD (an unenterprising person) and RIFFRAFF (a collection of worthless persons).

The change of vowel in the second half of the word sometimes expresses alternation, as in DUNDLEDANDLE and NIDDYNODDY (both meaning 'to and fro'), PINGPONG (a series of verbal exchanges between two parties), DINGDONG (a cut and thrust argument), and HIGGLEHAGGLE (bargaining).

Next, we turn our attention to the PRONUNCIATION of SITS.

RHYMING SITS

In Rhyming Phenomena in English Words (73007), Iris M. Tiedt differentiates between words which demonstrate 'consonantal rhymes', 'vowel rhymes', and those having 'a repetition of the same syllable' (tautonyms). Words such as VOODOO and HOITY-TOITY, with an initial consonant change, fall into the 'consonant rhyme' group; but also in this group Tiedt includes oddities such as CLAPTRAP (in which two consonamnts are changed), and words which gain a consonant: ITSY-BITSY, TUTTI-FRUTTI and HARUMSCARUM. Tiedt's 'vowel rhymes' incorporate words with a vowel change: PING-PONG and WHIM-WHAM etc., together with oddities such as SHIPSHAPE, BRIC-A-BRAC and SEESAW. Tiedt's examples which I refer to as oddities do not qualify as SITS.

The only truly rhyming SITS are to be found amongst those words in which the letter change involves a consonant which is situated somewhere before the first vowel in the word. There are a large number of rhyming SITS of the order 1CC in which the initial consonant is directly followed by the first vowel in the word. In this selection, each SIT starts with a different consonant: BACKPACK, CURLIEWURLIE, DEMISEMI, FUZZYWUZZY, GABBIELABBIE (edd), HOBSONJOBSON, JINGSING (ginseng), KILLERDILLER, LIGHTTIGHT, MUMBOJUMBO, NAMBYPAMBY, PIGGYWIGGY, QARATARA(mountain in Afghanistan), RAGGLETAGGLE, SUPERDUPER, TOSYMOSY, VINETINE st (?pronunciation), WAYNEPAYNE,

XEROMERO (hill in Australia), YIELDSHIELDS (Strathclyde, Scotland), and ZOOLOO. There are a number of rhyming SITS of the order 2CC in which the word also begins with aconsonant. Examples include SHAHSTAH, SHOPSLOP, SLOPSHOP, SCAMBLESHAMBLE.

THE LONG AND THE SHORT OF IT

In A Mysterious Pattern (86114), Will Shortz says about words like FLIPFLOP and FIDDLEFADDLE, "First, the initial vowel always seems to be a short I and, second, the second vowel always seems to be a short A or O". Shortz lists 24 such words. He notes two exceptions, TEETER-TOTTER and SHIPSHAPE (long A as second vowel) but, obviously, these two do not come within my definition of SITS.

I found that, certainly, in the majority of SITS of the orders 2VV, 3VV and 4VV, the first vowel is a short I and that it is replaced in the second half of the word by a short A or O. However, there are a significant number of exceptions. Charles Bostick lists some of these exceptions, mostly 6-letter examples, in Colloquy 86152. My selection of words which do not adhere to Shortz's theory display a range of V to V transformations (shown in brackets). They include most of the longer examples listed by Bostick *:
Both Vs short
GANNGENN (AE) LANGLING * (AI) MALLEMOLLE (AO) RENTRANT *
 (EA)
WELLWILL (EI) TERYTORY (EO) SHIFFLESHUFFLE * (IU) KONGKANG (OA)
LOSSLESS (OE) QUODQUID (OI) MUSTERMASTER * (UA) FULLFILL (UI)

First V short--Second V long
CALICULI (AU) MOZEMIZE (OI)

First V long--Second V short

SAMESOME * w2
 (AO) HINDHAND * (IA) POSTPAST (OA) TYLOSTYLUS
 (OU)
BUTALBITAL st
 (UI)

Both Vs long
LAKELIKE *-- SOLESALE (OA) ROPERIPE * (OI)
 (AI)

First V long--Second V silent
TYLOSTYLES (OE)


TERMINAL TRANSFORMATIONS

In many words having E as their last letter, the E is silent. VV SITS in which the second V is the last letter of the word and an E are no exception. Both CARICARE and TRINITRINE have a short I and silent terminal E; COROCORE, CUBOCUBE, PHOBOPHOBE (st), PHONOPHONE (w2), PRIMOPRIME, CONCAVOCONCAVE, QUADRATOQUADRATE and OBJECTIVO OBJECTIVE all have a long O replaced in the second half of the word by a terminal silent E. Can you find any exceptions?

VV SITS in which the second V is the last letter of the word, but a vowel other than E, include COLOCOLA ch (long O/short A). In both TERUTERO (4VV) and TUCUTUCO (4VV), the U (pronounced 'ooh') is replaced by a long O. TUCATUCU (4VV) has a short A and a final U pronounced 'ooh'.

SITS having the vowel which changes as the first letter of the word are rare. ACALYCAL begins with a short A whilst the Y, acting as a vowel, is pronounced as a short I. ANICONIC has a short A and a short O. The Welsh SIT IGAMOGAM translates into the English SIT ZIGZAG! The I in IGAMOGAM is pronounced as a long E, and the O is a long O.

CONTRARY SITS

The identical groups of letters in the two halves of a few SITS are pronounced differently. The letter groups concerned are shown here in brackets: WATERGATER (ater), HOMESOME (ome), FOURHOUR (our) and WANDHAND (and). ROUGHWROUGHT is particularly interesting, not only are the two 'rough' groups pronounced differently, but the W is silent.

SITS IN DISGUISE

The SIT BANDSTANDS is both pronounced, and recognised, as BAND.STANDS, rather than BANDS.TANDS. In both pronunciation and meaning the word divides into two unequal parts. Such SITS are less easily recognisable than the normal run of SITS which divide naturally into two equal parts. Examples include the pluralised nouns FORESHORES, HANDSTANDS, HARUMSCARUMS, HELTERSKELTERS, HOTSPOTS, NICKSTICKS, PERISPERMS, POOPERSCOOPERS, POROSPORES (st), POTSHOTS, RICKSTICKS, TYLOSTYLES, and the verb OVERHOVERS.

Most of these next SITS are especially well disguised in both their pronunciation and appearance:

ACTAEACEAE, AVERAGER, BRIDLEBRIDGE, CATENATE, DEREDDENED, DERIDERS, EMENDEMENTE, EYELEVEL, HITCHITI (tribe of American Indians), INEDITED, INGOINGS, INSTINCT, KIPSKINS, LOGOLOGY, MONOMINO (jrm), MINICLINIC (WW72144), NIVENITE, ORICONIC (w2), OUTMOUTH, OVERGOVERN, PATESIATES, RESERENE, RESTRESS (w2), RETHRESH (w2), RIVERINE, SPONSION, TRESTLES, TYLOSTYLUS and UNCHURCH.

PROPER NAMES

Finally, let us take a look at some additional proper name SITS.

In the Bartholomew Gazetteer of Britain we find FISHNISH (Bay on the Scottish Island of Mull), FORFAR (Tayside, Scotland), GOODWOOD (Goodwood Park in W. Sussex is wellknown for its horse-race meetings), HORSEHOUSE (North Yorkshire), LANGLAND (Wales), LESSNESS (L. Heath in LONDON), SANDSENDS (S. Wyke and S. Ness, both in North Yorkshire), SHEPSHED (Leicestershire), and UPCHURCH (Kent). It is tempting to call these, and other such locations, SITeS.

As far as personal names are concerned, and bearing in mind that 2-word designations such as GALILEO GALILEI and ZACHARIAS ZACHARIAH are not allowed, can readers find any 'celebrity' SITS?. To start you off, there are HIROHITO and PICKWICK ...

SOURCES OF WORDS

Unreferenced words can be found in the Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition. Most of the locations are taken from The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) Unless otherwise stated, these locations are populated places.

ch The Chambers Dictionary

coll Collins English Dictionary

edd The English Dialect Dictionary

Hodge Handbook of American Indians, edited by F.W. Hodge 1907

jrm Journal of Recreational Mathematics

rh2 The Random House Dictionary, Second Edition

st Stedman's Medical Dictionary

tf Tertiary Faunas by A. Morley Davies

w2 Webster's Second Edition
TABLE 1. Order CC

letts. 8 10 12

1cc GANGBANG TRIANDRIAN HUMPTYDUMPTY
 HARIKARI NIGHTSIGHT RAZZLEDAZZLE
 MAINTAIN MUMBOJUMBO GENDERBENDER
 THENCHEN SUPERDUPER WALKIETALKIE
 SCHENCHE PIQUENIQUE HARUMSCARUMS
 KYRYMYRY BOUGHWOUGH NIMINIPIMINI
 SOUGIMOUGI TOOTSYWOOTSY
 BIOUSTIOUS TOODLELOODLE
 ROOTINTOOTIN
 BOOGIEWOOGIE
2cc UPCHURCH URANGUTANG NSENGANVENGA
 ITALICAL ALMANACMAN (Equatorial Guinea)
 THEETSEE
 SLOPSHOP
3cc INSTINCT OURANOUTAN OURANGOUTANG
 LIFELINE KARANKAWAN COLONGCOGONG
 LENSLESS TYPESTYLES(ch (Philippines)
 MARANAMAHANA (Colombia)
4cc ILLWILLY OVERHOVETH? KOUSOUKOUMOU (Chad)
 OUTMOUTH PHAGYPHANY LLANTALLACTA (Peru)
 LINTLING SPINASPIRA (tf)
 AVADAVAT
 MAIRMAID
 TSANTSAS
5cc ANDYPANDYS BRIDLEBRIDGE
 OVERCOVERS VUODHAVUODNA
 PLANKPLANT (bay in Norway)
 ABBADABBAS (rh2)
 TARANTARAS
 SIXTY SIXTH * (w2)
6cc EIGHTYEIGHTH(w2
 INKERPINKERS
 ARGUEBARGUES
 ARGLEBARGLES
 RIVERDRIVERS
 ROUGHWROUGHT
7cc
8cc

letts. 14 16

1cc FLUSTERBLUSTER SHIMMERYWHIMMERY
 KICKSIEWICKSIE HIGGLEDYPIGGLEDY
 HELTERSKELTERS NIPPERTYTIPPERTY
 HOMELTYJOMELTY
 MINIKINFINIKIN
 HOOTCHYKOOTCHY
 FURIOUSCURIOUS
 ROISTERDOISTER
 TEENSIEWEENSIE
 POOPERSCOOPERS
2cc SCAMBLESHAMBLE
3cc BALANGABADANGA (Papua New Guinea)
 HAMBURGHARBURG (station--Germany)
4cc
5cc BRUCHENBRUCKEN (Germany)
 MOUNTOUMOUNDOU (Chad)
6cc CHEREKECHERETE PHONETICPHONEMIC
 (hill in Ghana)
7cc SEVENTYSEVENTH (w2)
 TOOWEEHTOOWEES (Hodge)
8cc

* SIXTY SIXTH could also have been FIFTYFIFTH (w2)

TABLE 2. Order VV

letts. 8 10 12

1vv ANICONIC ?OERSTEERST ARBACHERBACH
2vv PINGPONG WISHYWASHY DINGLEDANGLE
 GIUEGOUE FIBLEFABLE JIBBERJABBER
 LAKELIKE RIVELRAVEL PITTIEPATTIE
 HIRIEHARIE
3vv * CHITCHAT CRISSCROSS SHILLYSHALLY
 QUODQUID CHUFFECHAFFE
 INOSINES?
4vv CUBOCUBE SCRIPSCRAP SPLISHSPLASH
 QUAIQUAE SWEATSWEET SQUISHSQUASH
 TOMISTOMAS (w2)
5vv TRINITRINE QUIRASQUIRIS
 (Hodge)
6vv KUTCHAKUTCHI
 (Hodge)
7vv
8vv

letts. 14 16

1vv (stream in Germany)
2vv ZIGGETYZAGGETY WIBBLETYWOBBLETY
3vv * CRINKLYCRANKLY
 TWITTLETWATTLE
 CHITTERCHATTER
4vv SCRITCHSCRATCH SCRIBBLESCRABBLE
 SQUIMBLESQUAMBLE
5vv CORRAMACORROMA
 (stream in Mozambique)
6vv STADHARSTADHUR
 (Iceland)
7vv CONCAVOCONCAVE
 TCHAPRITCHAPRA (Togo)
8vv QUADRATOQUADRATE

* FLIPPERTYFLOPPERTY satisfies an 18-letter 3vv pattern.

OBJECTIVOOBJECTIVE satisfies an 18-letter 9vv pattern.

TABLE 3. Order CV

letts. 8 10

1cv DROSEROS (ch) PATESIATES (w2)
 TESTIEST (coll)
 LOUSIOUS
2cv ISIDIOID PYTYRPATYR
 WYDEWEDE GYFFEGAFFE
 SPONSION
3cv ENCAENIA ACTAEACEAE
 BOLTBOAT TRYFETRAFE
 WALEWAIE HORSEHOUSE
4cv OTOTOTOI STERNSTEIN (mountain in Austria)
 SCHTSCHI QUIRIQUIAI (stream in Bolivia)
 SNOWSHOE AOURDAOUAD (stream in Djibouti)
 POSTPOSE
5cv SHAHRSHAHI (Afghanistan)
 HUAYCHUAYO (Bolivia)
 BACKSBACKA (Finland)
 TCHINTCHIA (Niger)
 ASSIGASSIA (Cameroon)
 BUNALBUNAI (Philippines)
6cv

letts. 12

1cv CAMANGEAMANG (Philippines)
2cv
3cv HASSENHAUSEN (Germany)
4cv PANDANPANAAN (Philippines)
 LENGWELENOWE (South Africa)
5cv TCHIPATCHIUA (stream in Angola)
6cv OULOUPOULOUI (stream in Guinea)

TABLE 4. Order VC

letts. 8 10 12

1vc OUTSHUTS OUERTHUERT
 ACALYCAL
2vc SENESYNE NIGHINNGHI (stream in Guinea) TEKALITSKALI
 (stream in
 Georgia)
3vc ARISARDS NOOGANONGA (pool in Australia)
 TEESTERS
4vc INGOINGS PERISPERMS
 SHOESHOP (w2)
 DERIDERS
5vc MUCKAMUCKS
 TETEATETES
6vc THREEOTHREES

QUADRATOQUADRATS satisfies a 16-letter 8vc pattern


Susan Thorpe

Great Missenden, Buckinghamshire, England

thorpeds@hotmail.com
COPYRIGHT 2003 Jeremiah Farrell
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2003 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Author:Thorpe, Susan
Publication:Word Ways
Date:Aug 1, 2003
Words:2997
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