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Single and double dose of [PGF.sub.2][alpha] for estrus induction and conception rate in Gir cows.


India is blessed with vast dairy resources and contribution of dairy animals to our economy is now being widely recognised. The main contributors to total milk yield are buffalo, cattle and goat with 52, 45 and 3 percent, respectively. India has a very rich reservoir of genetic biodiversity and possesses some of the best milk breeds of cattle in the world with 37 cattle breeds, 13 buffalo breeds and 23 goat breeds. Gir is a famous milch cattle breed of India. The native tract of the breed is Gir hills and forests of Kathiawar including Junagadh, Gir-Somnath, Bhavnagar, Rajkot, Porbandar and Amreli districts of Gujarat. This breed is also known as Bhodali, Desan, Gujarati, Kathiawari, Sorthi and Surti in different parts of the breeding tract. The Gir animals are well-known for their tolerance to stress conditions and resistance to various tropical diseases. These animals contribute significantly to the total milk production of Gujarat state. The use of hormones is a major component of cattle reproduction. Prostaglandin F2 alpha ([PGF.sub.2][alpha]) is a potent luteolytic agent in cows and buffaloes and has been used successfully for induction of oestrus in cows that fail to show oestrus signs. The present study was carried out to determine the role of [PGF.sub.2][alpha] in inducing oestrus in postpartum Gir cows that did not show oestrus unto 90 days after calving.

Material and Methods

A total of 20 postpartum pluriparous Gir cows were selected by rectal palpation. The cows which did not show any signs of estrus upto 90 days postpartum were included in the study. All animals were maintained as a group and were housed in semi open system. Each animal was fed with 3035 kg of green fodder, 3-5 kg of concentrate (amuldhan and cotton seed cake), management of these animals was nearly similar and they were released extensively during the day for free grazing. All twenty cows (Group-I) were treated with single dose of prostaglandin (synthetic analogue, closprostenol 2 ml) while animal which did not respond (Group II) to first injection of prostaglandin were subjected to second injection of prostaglandin eleven days after first treatment beginning from the day of injection, all animal were observed for estrus twice a day at 7.00 am and 3.00 pm with a teaser bull. The cows were observed for oestrus activity next day onwards and was said to be in standing estrus if allowed the bull to mount and it was inseminated with good quality semen. Artificial insemination (AI) was conducted 18 hours after sign of estrus was clearly visible. The parameters measured were onset of estrus, duration of estrus, percentage of estrus and conception rate. Cows were rectally palpated to confirm pregnancy 60 days after last AI.

Results and Discussion

Time required for onset of Oestrus

The mean time required for onset of estrus observed was 70.24 [+ or -] 1.44 and 56.86 [+ or -] 1.96 hrs after 1st and 2nd dose of [PGF.sub.2][alpha], respectively. The result obtained for time required for onset of estrus was in close agreement with Jadhav (1999) and Patil (2000) whereas Mishra et al. (2011) reported higher time (89.6 2 [+ or -] 1.59 hrs) induction interval in suboestrus cows. However, Tegene et al. (1989) recorded the time required for onset of estrus was 31.8 hrs in Brahman cows. The difference in time required for onset of estrus may be due to breed difference (Table 1).

Duration of estrus (hrs)

The mean duration of estrus observed was 19.18 [+ or -] 0.69 and 16.13 [+ or -] 0.42 hrs after 1st and 2nd dose of [PGF.sub.2][alpha], respectively. The aggregate mean for duration of estrus observed in present study was similar with observations recorded by Pawshe et al. (1991) who recorded 18.25 [+ or -] 0.04 hrs estrus length in crossbred cows. However,

Elving et al. (1975) observed 16.71 [+ or -] 1.1 hrs estrus duration. Tandle et al. (1997) observed duration of estrus period was 16.72 [+ or -] 1.38 hrs.

Conception rate

A conception rate of 62.5 percent was observed in Group I while in Group II, a conception rate of 70 percent was achieved. Average number of services per conception observed was 2.5 and 2.25 in animals treated with single and double dose of prostaglandin, respectively. Chatterjee et al. (1989) reported 50 percent conception rate after 25 mg of [PGF.sub.2][alpha] (Dinofertin) administration intramuscularly to 10 subestrus cows. However, some workers have reported low conception rate. Mane et al. (1992) reported overall conception rate 33 percent after 25 mg injection of Dinofertin in twelve subestrus Red Kandhari cows. The variation observed in conception rate after [PGF.sub.2][alpha] administration at eleven day apart may be due to intensity of estrus, nature of service (A.I./N.S.), method and interval for heat detection, different managemental practices, season, doses, route of administration and nature of [PGF.sub.2][alpha] used.


It is concluded from the present investigation that, prostaglandin is able to synchronize estrus by inducing regression of corpus luteum. Because, prostaglandin is only effective in diestrus cows, a double prostaglandin protocol applied 11 to 14 days apart seems to be capable of bringing most cows to estrus administration of double dose of [PGF.sub.2][alpha] 11 days apart induces better estrus response and conception rate.


Chatterjee, A., Kharche, K.G. and Thakur, M.S. (1989). Use of [PGF.sub.2][alpha] in the treatment of sub estrus in cross bred cows. Ind. J. Anim. Reprod. 10: 185-87.

Elving, L., Brand, A. and de Bois, C.H.W. (1975). Oestrus synchronization and fertility in heifers treated with [PGF.sub.2][alpha]. Tijdschrift-Voor-Diergeneeskunde. 100: 758-62.

Jadhav, S.K. (1999). Comparative study on synchronization of estrus in crossbred cows with [PGF.sub.2][alpha] analogue Cluprostion (Luprostion and norgestomet ear implant), Post Graduate Thesis submitted to Dr. Punjabrao Deshmukh Vidyapeeth, Akola, India.

Mane, K.S., Paranoia, D.R., Bakshi, S.A., Markandeya, N.M., Tandle, M.K. and Deshpande, W.S. (1992). Efficacy of [PGF.sub.2][alpha] analogue (Dinofertin) for synchronization of oestrus in suboestrus cows. Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 13: 187-88.

Mishra, P.C., Mohanty, D.N., Das, S., Barik, A.K., Das, P.K. and Naik, G. (2011). Protocols for oestrus induction in postpartum anoestrus and suboestrus cows. Indian J. Field Vet. 7: 11-14.

Patil, A.T. (2000). Studies on synchronization of oestrus with [PGF.sub.2][alpha] analogue in non-descript cows. Post Graduate Thesis submitted to Dr. Punjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, India.

Pawshe, C.H. and Kadu, M.S. (1991). Efficacy of [PGF.sub.2][alpha] (Dionprost) using two routes of administration on oestrus synchrinization in crossbred cows. Indian J. Ani. Reprod. 12: 172-74.

Tandle, M.K., Mohd. Amanullah, Honnappagol, S.S., Kartikesh, S.M., Jagjiwanram and Sonwane, S.D. (1971). Serum cholesterol, total proteins, phosphorus and calcium levels in oestrus and anoestrus nondescript cows. Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 18: 44-45.

Tegegne, A., Wamick, A.C., Musaka-Mugerwa, E. and Ketema, H. (1989). Fertility of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred cattle after estrus synchronization. Theriogenology 31:361-70.

A.R. Ahlawat (1), V.B. Dongre, S.N. Ghodasara (2), K.S. Murthy (2) and P.U. Gajbhiye (2)

Cattle Breeding Farm College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Junagadh Agricultural University (JAU) Junagadh--362001 (Gujarat)

(1.) Associate Professor and Corresponding author. E-mail:

(2.) Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding
Table 1: The comparative effects of single dose and double doses
of [PGF.sub.2][alpha] injection for estrus induction in Gir cows

Sl. No   Attribute                        Group I (Single dose
                                       [PGF.sub.2][alpha] treated)

1        No. of animal treated                     20
2        Response (Animal induced)                  8
3        Estrus induction time (hrs)       70.24 [+ or -] 1.44
4        Percentage response                       40%
5        Animal bred                               8/8
6        Animal conceived                          5/8
7        Conception rate (%)                      62.5
8        Average no. of AI/                        2.5

Sl. No      Group II (double dose
         [PGF.sub.2][alpha] treated)

1                    12
2                    10
3            56.86 [+ or -] 1.96
4                    83%
5                   10/10
6                   7/10
7                    70
8                   2.25
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Title Annotation:Clinical Article
Author:Ahlawat, A.R.; Dongre, V.B.; Ghodasara, S.N.; Murthy, K.S.; Gajbhiye, P.U.
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Date:Jan 1, 2015
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