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Singing in Danish: a guide to repertoire.

[This article, which focuses on Danish vocal repertoire, is the first in a two- part series. The second article will give detailed instructions on Danish lyric diction, enabling readers to study and perform the Danish repertoire.]

Take one part Andantino in 6/8, one part minor, and one part Danish pear compote that has stood out all night; stir the whole thing together well, set it over a slow fire, and let it cook for around twenty minutes.

--Composer Carl Nielsen's recipe for the "national element" (1)

DEFINING A NATIONAL STYLE OR SENSIBILITY is always problematic, the very idea being built around vague assumptions and essentialisms. The definition of a Danish musical aesthetic is no exception, as the repertoire encompasses a vast range of styles, genres, and subject matter, even within the output of a single composer. Danish art songs, called romancer (singular romance), covers the spectrum from lush, rhapsodic pieces, to thunderous and rumbling settings, to spare and simple "folk-like" favorites. All of these elements have been variously cited as examples of a so-called "Danish style" that seems to elude concrete definition.

Questions of national and regional style are further complicated by a tendency, particularly by outsiders, to indiscriminately consider the Scandinavian countries or the Nordic region as a unit. (2) The terms "Scandinavian" and "Nordic" elicit multifaceted meanings in various contexts. While it is true that Denmark's history, language, and culture share common elements with its northern neighbors, it is equally intertwined with that of Germany. It is simplistic to consider two countries as different as Denmark and Finland, for example, as only parts of a homogenous whole; their linguistic profiles alone--one Indo-European, the other Uralic--could hardly be more different. As scholars and performers, we must investigate the musical repertoires of all these respective nations individually, in their historical, cultural, geographic, linguistic, and musical contexts.

The identification of Danish songs as definitively "Danish" is in part a product of the way in which "Danishness" and its associated temperament has been constructed throughout history, particularly during the rise of nationalism across Europe in the nineteenth century, when the core of the repertoire was composed. This Danish identity, as it inhabited the imagination of Denmark's composers, drew on the work of contemporary writers seeking to create a Danish national consciousness. Nikolai Frederik Severin Grundtvig (1783-1872) is credited with the creation of a national school of literature, including his own retelling of Old Norse myths as well as a large body of hymns in the vernacular. (3) His son, Svend Grundtvig (1824-1883), was an ethnographer and collector of Danish folk songs and ballads. Bernhard Severin Ingemann (1789-1862), a contemporary and close friend of the elder Grundtvig, was known for his poetry and historical novels that recall the greatness of Denmark's past. Writers at this time emphasized attitudes and traditions of the peasantry, or "folk," as embodying the unspoiled essence of true Danishness. The Folkehojskole (folk high school) movement, initiated by Grundtvig, was an effort to cultivate a self-aware peasantry to preserve their culture. This emphasis on the folk as it related to national identity spilled into all areas of Danish artistic life, including music.

Vestergard and Vorre use a constructivist analysis to debunk the idea of "authentically Danish" material in Carl Nielsen's (1865-1931) song contribution to the Folkehojskolens Melodibog (Folk High School Songbook). Their analysis of Nielsen's compositional intentions, performance contexts, and reception history reveals that there is nothing inherently Danish about the music at all, only the way it was conceived and received. (4) Reynolds counters, however, that precisely because of the reception of Nielsen's music as Danish, qualities of Nielsen's music have become, in their own right, intrinsically Danish: "The 'Danishness' in Nielsen's music, then, depends largely on the fact that his music has long represented Denmark to the rest of the world, and his distinctive voice has been embraced by his countrymen as their own." (5) Whether this conclusion may be extrapolated from the works of any given composer is open to debate.

It is possible to entertain a different approach, that the manifestation of "Danish style" may be revealed by identifying trends in rhythmic language and melodic structure as they relate to the linguistic qualities of a song text. The fact that text and music in classical art song enjoy an intimate relationship is accepted among performers, but research only recently has begun to explore these linguistic-musical links empirically. This research suggests that composers are influenced by the linguistic properties of a song text. Sampsa Konttinen compared stylistic and structural differences in the song output of polyglot Finnish composers, which revealed some correlation between acoustic properties of the language used (Swedish, Finnish, or German) and compositional technique. (6) Konttinen's work builds on Leigh vanHandel's research, in which the melodic range of French songs versus German songs was seen to parallel average frequency variation in the spoken language. (7)

One may assume that a talented composer consciously crafts these bonds between language and musical setting, but new scientific research suggests that these tendencies may be largely subconscious. Patel, in Music, Language, and the Brain, explores this music-language connection in terms of cognitive and neural processing using a variety of methods, including brain imaging, behavioral experiments, and acoustic research. (8) (Using these methods, even instrumental music can be linked to prevailing pitch patterns of a composer's native language.) (9) At last, science is beginning to reinforce a belief that singers and teachers have long held: that a composer's artistic intentions are best served by performance of art song in its original language. Unfortunately, Danish art songs are often published and performed in either German or English translation, certainly resulting in a loss of the intimate link between language and music.

Despite general consensus that vocal music is best performed in its original language, a lack of diction resources in foreign languages other than French, German, and Italian presents one of the greatest technical obstacles to its performance. Even in recent years, as many university and conservatory diction curricula have expanded to include nontraditional languages, I am unaware of any courses that cover Danish, or the other Scandinavian languages.

In catalogues or surveys of art song repertoire, Danish art song (and that of the rest of Scandinavia) is usually relegated to a brief section devoted to "other art song," or is omitted altogether. Even the famous Danish singer Aksel Schiotz, in his book The Singer and His Art, devotes only a few sentences to the song tradition of his homeland, and advocates for performance in translation. (10) Perhaps he realized that scores for these songs were not (and still are not) widely available outside of Denmark. This article represents the first step in an effort to bring this repertoire to a wider audience. Before delving into the vocal music, it is important to trace the development of art song and its notable composers in the context of Danish music, and likewise that of Danish music in the context of Europe as a whole.

OVERVIEW OF DANISH MUSIC

While Sweden and Norway remained relatively isolated in terms of musical development, Denmark's music history more closely paralleled that of mainland Europe. Important composers intersected with Danish musical life over several centuries. Under Christian IV (reigned 1588-1648), English lutenist John Dowland worked as a highly paid musician in the Danish court for nearly a decade. (11) The same monarch sent other musicians to study madrigal composition with Giovanni Gabrieli in Venice; these royal musicians were on par with those in the rest of Europe, and under their leadership the standard of music in the Danish court rose to its highest level. The son of Christian IV, Crown Prince Christian (who was to die before succeeding to the throne), engaged German composer Heinrich Schutz to direct the music for his 1634 wedding. Schutz was accompanied to Copenhagen by his pupil, Matthias Weckman. (12)

Most notable among early Danish composers is Dieterich Buxtehude (1637-1707). Although his nationality is contested, the sole contemporary source regarding his birthplace asserts that the composer considered himself a Dane, and he worked as an organist in Danish churches until accepting the prestigious position in Lubeck in 1668. (13) Although the large majority of his vocal works are in Latin and German, some pieces in Danish survive.

The 1700s saw the arrival of opera in Denmark, including a public opera house that featured productions imported from Italy, France, and Germany, paving the way for indigenous opera composers in the 1800s. Oratorio remained a significant genre, exhibiting the influence of C. P. E. Bach. At the same time, music societies flourished and publishers began distributing both foreign and Danish music, and a significant domestic symphonic tradition developed. (14)

Johann Abraham Peter Schulz (1747-1800), although he spent most of his career abroad, was an influential musical figure in Denmark. His Lieder im Volkston collections, also distributed in Danish translation in his homeland, established simple, folk-like strophic songs as the aesthetic standard for decades after his death. (15)

In the nineteenth century, domestic music-making became widespread in Denmark, and the core of the Danish song repertoire heard today was composed during this time. Arguably the most popular songs of the first half of the nineteenth century were those of Christoph Ernst Friedrich Weyse (1774-1842), a composer rooted firmly in the traditions of Classicism. He greatly admired Mozart, and became acquainted with Mozart's widow Constanze, who resided in Copenhagen for a decade after her remarriage to Danish diplomat Georg Nicolaus Nissen. Constanze bestowed on Weyse a portrait of her late husband. (16) Noted for a profound relationship between the text and his musical settings, Weyse was a pupil of Schulz and favored the strophic form. (17)

Romancer became a particularly suitable vehicle for rising nationalist sentiment, a trend awakening in nations across Europe, but especially acute in Denmark, whose borders were shrinking or in dispute throughout much of the century. Composers Johann Peter Emilius Hartmann (1805-1900) and his son-in-law Niels Gade (1817-1890) were among the first to synthesize folk idioms with the Romantic aesthetic. While both composers travelled extensively, the exposure to various styles on mainland Europe affected each one differently. Hartmann reacted by solidifying his distinctly Danish style, drawing on medieval ballads, Danish hymns, and the texts of Grundtvig. (18) Although Schumann reviewed Hartmann's music favorably in Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik, it was Gade who was well connected with Mendelssohn and other notable figures in Leipzig. As a result, Gade built an international reputation. He absorbed the continental styles into his own compositional technique, which was viewed as a "betrayal" by some; the composer disliked "being measured against this 'Nordic' yardstick." (19) Regardless, both Hartmann and Gade, who for a period shared the directorship of the Copenhagen Conservatory, are regarded as leading figures of Danish music and in the development of the romance.

Peter Heise (1830-1879), considered the foremost art song composer in Denmark, composed over 300 songs in addition to other vocal works. (20) Like his predecessor Gade, he favored the strophic song form and had great respect for the Classical tradition, conceiving lyric melodies imbued with Romantic dramatic expression. His opera, Drot og marsk ("King and Marshal"), is the most enduring Danish opera in the repertoire.

Peter Lange-Muller (1850-1926) developed a uniquely dark, late Romantic style, and composed mostly songs and chamber pieces. Although somewhat influenced by Brahms and Heise, Lange-Muller was quite isolated due to severe headaches that kept him homebound for most of his life. (21) It is possible his medical condition also caused the predominance of short forms in his output. Aside from his songs, he is best known for the incidental music to Der var engang (Once upon a time), op. 25, a fantasy play by Holger Drachmann (1846-1908) still in the dramatic canon. Lange-Muller ceased composition altogether after the turn of the century.

Carl Nielsen, Denmark's most famous composer, is recognized outside of Denmark for his symphonies. His countrymen, however, know him best as a composer of vocal music: his early romancer and later popular strophic songs, in addition to two operas and many choral works. (22) Musicologists have treated both Nielsen's symphonic output and his vocal output in isolation, or have viewed the two bodies of work as an oppositional dichotomy. Nielsen favored a simpler, folk-like song style as his career progressed, while his symphonies became increasingly complex. However, as Reynolds has recently argued, these stylistic phenomena can be connected to the social and cultural climate, as well as to events in the composer's life, and his output must be viewed as a whole. Indeed, Nielsen himself favored a comprehensive view of his works, stating that his approach to symphonies and songs were essentially the same: "I feel precisely the same principles, the same musicality, are required to produce a unified composition, whether large or small." (23)

Nielsen's presence had an enormous influence on the generation of composers that followed: "Like Sibelius in Finland, Nielsen loomed so large on the horizon that younger Danish composers could hardly escape his magnetism." (24) Nielsen's work had an undeniable effect on twentieth century Danish composers, such as Rued Langgaard (1893-1952), Otto Mortensen (1907-1986), Ib Norholm (b. 1931), and Per Norgard (b. 1932).

Langgard, although his music has enjoyed a revival in the past few decades, is a lonely figure in Danish music. He showed early musical promise, but when his opera Antikrist (Antichrist) was rejected by the Royal Opera in 1925, he was vocal in his criticism of both Danish music and Nielsen. As a result, he was marginalized by the music community, and despite his virtuosity on the organ was able to secure a permanent position only in Ribe, nearly 300 kilometers from Copenhagen. He wrote a small number of songs, most of which are in German. He is best known for his early work Sfaerernes musik (Music of the Spheres, 1916, for soprano, chorus, and orchestra), which exhibited the influence of Nielsen, and foreshadowed the avant-garde music of Bartok. (25)

Mortensen's compositional output centers on the romance tradition, in the stylistic lineage of Nielsen. He is remembered as the greatest song composer of his generation, and composed songs for solo voice with piano, solo voice with orchestra, and school songs in the Folkehojskole tradition. (26) He also composed a number of songs in English, including settings of Robert Frost poetry.

Ib Norholm's style is eclectic, ranging from modernism in his early career, to serialism and experimental aleatory techniques in the 1950s and 1960s, to the more traditional Danish lyricism that pervades his later works. Norholm and his contemporary Per Norgard were part of a group of young composers who sought to reconcile the avant-garde style with the Danish tradition. Norgard's skill as a melodist remained constant throughout his long career, although like Norholm he experimented with a variety of styles and compositional techniques. He was highly influenced by Sibelius, and for a time was intent on musically capturing a Nordic frame of mind. (27)

REPERTOIRE SUGGESTIONS

The following list of suggested Danish repertoire is arranged by voice type. As in Sweden and Norway, Danish songs are only rarely transposed (likely a result of lower profit potential in the Danish market, historically smaller than in its German counterpart). It is common, therefore, for both low and high voices to sing a single song in the same key. In addition to the level of difficulty and melodic range, I have taken current recital programming trends in Denmark into account. When possible, I have tried to represent a variety of tempi and styles within for each voice type, with a potential recital song set in mind. Finally, I give resources for students and teachers interested in further exploration of the Danish romance repertoire.

Gateway Songs

Several simple songs offer a good introduction to the Danish repertoire for singers of any level or voice type. The melody of Nielsen's short strophic song "Saenk kun dit hoved, du blomst" (Bow your head, oh flower), simple and unobscured by a light accompaniment, provides a clear vehicle to build familiarity with Danish pronunciation, a subject to be addressed in the second article of this series on Danish vocal music (a phonetic transcription of this song text will be included). The piece makes a lovely addition to any recital program, and features the poetry of Johannes Jorgensen (1856-1966), who like Nielsen was born on the island of Funen.

Weyse's so-called "Morning and Evening Songs," is actually made up of two song sets, Morgensange for born (Morning songs for children, 1837) and Syv aften-sange (Seven evening songs, 1838), both with texts by Ingemann. The songs are simple and strophic, and have a child-like quality. In the same vein is Weyse's "Natten er sa stille" (The night is so still), with text by Johan Ludvig Heiberg (1791-1860), another strophic song with a charming melody recognized throughout Denmark.

Songs for Low Male Voices

Jens Peter Jacobsen's (1847-1885) poem "Det bodes der for" (The atonment) has been set by numerous composers, but Nielsen's setting from Viser og vers (Songs and verses), op. 6, no. 4 is the most well known. It is a dark strophic piece, with long, legato lines ideal for building breath endurance for a young singer. Available in both low and medium-low keys, it is appropriate for a young bass or bass baritone. Another Nielsen song, "Jens Vejmand" from Strofiske sange (Strophic songs), op. 21, no. 3, lies in a similar range (again in both low and medium-low versions), but has a lighter, more upbeat character.

In his song "Mit lov, mit lille trae: Vedis vuggevise" (My branches, my little tree: Vedi's lullaby, op. 14), Norgard sets the text in unexpected rhythmic patterns, with a piano accompaniment that is alternately complementary and antagonistic. The composer himself recorded this and other songs with baritone Lars Thodberg Bertelsen. (28)

Perhaps the most well known song by Langgaard, "Alle de voksende skygger" (All the growing shadows), is usually sung by a low male voice and is accessible to all skill levels. A testament to the quality of this poem is the fact that it has been set in solo and choral versions by numerous other composers, including Hugo Alfven, Agathe Backer-Grondahl, Sigurd von Koch, Wilhelm Peterson-Berger, and Wilhelm Stenhammar.

Songs for High Male Voices

Nielsen's op. 4, Fem digte (Five poems), are modified strophic or through-composed. They are ideal for a low tenor or high baritone, notably the setting of Jacobsen's popular poem "Irmelin Rose" (no. 4). This same text was also set by Swedish composer Wilhelm Stenhammar (1871-1927).

The five Erotiske digte (Erotic poems) of Heise are considered "must sing" repertoire for a young high baritone or low tenor. Settings of poetry by Emil Aarestrup (1800-1856), they are beyond the beginner level but well within reach of a competent undergraduate level singer. The songs include "Til en veninde" (To a girl, no. 1), a rhapsodic yet tender adoration of the beloved, and the most popular, "Skovensomhed" (Forest solitude, no. 4), the recollection of a passionate encounter in the seclusion of a beautiful forest.

Heise's cycle Farlige dromme: seks digte fra Holger Drachmanns Tannhauser (Dangerous dreams: six poems from Holger Drachmann's Tannhauser) is also appropriate for high baritone. The six poems are drawn from various vignettes in Drachmann's novel, and Heise's settings musically recreate the atmosphere of doom that pervades the original story. Farlige Dromme, along with his unfinished cycle for soprano Dyvekes sange (Dyveke's songs, see below), were Heise's last compositions.

Songs for Low Female Voices

Lange-Muller's songs, known for their darker quality, are particularly well suited to mezzo soprano voice. Two gems are found in Min tankes tanke: To melodier til samme tekst af HC Andersen (Thought of my thoughts: Two melodies to the same text of Hans Christian Andersen). The pair of brief movements, I. Allegretto con anima and II. Andante, as the title indicates, are contrasting settings of the same text by Denmark's most beloved writer. The first is joyful, with a flowing piano accompaniment, while the second is more reflective in nature, accompanied by foreboding chords in the piano. This same Andersen text was used in Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg's (1843-1907) most famous song, most often heard in German translation as "Ich liebe dich" (op. 5, no. 4).

Three excellent Danish song cyles for mezzo soprano offer rewarding musical challenges to intermediate or advanced singers. First, Heise's 1857 cycle Havfruens sange (Mermaid songs) utilizes texts by his friend Bernhard Severin Ingemann (1789-1862). Ingemann's mermaid, like Andersen's more famous fairy tale version, longs to meet her beloved on dry land. Originally consisting of five songs, Heise later reset the fourth poem, and now the cycle is often performed with both versions, bringing the total to six songs. Wave-like motives in the piano accompaniment tie the cycle together around its aquatic theme.

Another Heise cycle suited to a low mezzo soprano or contralto voice is Gudruns sorg (Gudrun's sorrow). Poul Martin Moller (1794-1838) translated these texts from the Icelandic Edda, a collection of Norse mythology (the same source for Wagner's Ring cycle). The subject matter of this song cycle is Gudrun's grief over the death of her husband, Sigurd. The six songs share a common melodic theme that Heise transforms throughout the cycle.

One of Lange-Muller's earliest works is the cycle Fem sange af Sulamith og Salomon (Five songs of Shulamite and Solomon, op. 1). The text, also by Ingemann, centers on Solomon's beloved (Shulamite), from the biblical Song of Songs. The final song, no. 5, "Sulamiths sang pa bjergene" (Sulamite's song on the mountains), is recitative-like and requires a careful study of Danish inflection.

Songs for High Female Voices

Lange-Muller's friend Thor Naeve Lange (1851-1915) translated Slavic poetry into Danish, which the composer set to music with delightful results. "Lille rode ronnebar" (Little red rowanberries, from Seks folkeviser [Six folksongs], op. 18, no. 3) is the perfect little song (duration is less than a minute) for a light voice to show off agility as well as mastery of Danish diction. The narrator in "Ak, favre ejer jeg fingre sma" (Oh, I have such little fingers) sings a version of "good things come in small packages." Both pieces have fast tempi and playful piano accompaniments, a good foil to the darker mood that dominates much of the Danish repertoire.

Mortensen's Ti sange af nordiske digtere (Ten songs of Nordic poets), which includes some texts in Swedish, offers a range of mood and tempo, ideal for a varied recital set for intermediate soprano. Notable among them are "Koretur" (Road trip), a whimsical little song, and "Det regnar" (It rains), in which incessant raindrops are portrayed in the piano accompaniment.

Considered the height of Danish art song, Heise's Dyvekes sange remained unfinished at the time of his death. The cycle centers on the life of Dyveke, a Dutch woman who was the mistress of King Christian II of Denmark in the sixteenth century. Drachmann's verses tell the story from her girlhood to her eventual death from suspected poisoning at the hands of a rival. Drachmann's story is in ten parts, of which Heise set the first through fifth, and the final two. It is assumed that he intended to set all ten parts. The dramatic arc of the whole work requires the singer to vocally portray both the innocence of a common girl confused by the advances of the king, as well as the mature Dyveke who fears for her life. Heise utilizes a wide array of emotion throughout the cycle, and even within a single song the music often takes an unexpected turn of mood. Composer Svend Simon Schultz (1913-1998) set the remaining three texts in a modern style, but they exist only in manuscript form.

RESOURCES FOR SCORES AND FURTHER STUDY

Det Kongelige Bibliotek (The Royal Library) in Copenhagen is the richest resource on Danish art song, even for singers in North America. The Danish National Digital Sheet Music Archive, an arm of The Royal Library, has led efforts in the past decade to digitize much of its holdings, resulting in a treasure trove of scores and original manuscripts that are easily accessible. (29) Complete song cycles currently available include Heise's Erotiske digte, Havfruens sange, Dyvekes sange, and Gudruns sorg, Lange-Muller's Seks folkeviser, and Weyse's Syv aftensange. (30)

Notable among the manuscripts are Heise's late cycles Farlige dromme and Dyvekes sange. The lack of dynamic markings in these manuscripts is striking, in contrast to the manuscript of the earlier cycle, Gudruns sorg, also available in the digital archive. (31)

Although a majority of The Royal Library's website is navigable only in Danish, many of their digital holdings are also available via the International Music Score Library Project/Petrucci Music Library (look for facsimile scores uploaded by Det Kongelige Bibliotek). (32) Danish song repertoire currently available through IMSLP includes Weyse's Syv aftensange and Morgensange for born, and Heise's Dyvekes sange (including a version for low voice).

Certainly the most monumental accomplishment of The Royal Library is the authoritative critical edition of Carl Nielsen's works, in collaboration with publisher Wilhelm Hansen. The first volume (the opera Maskarade) was published in 1998, and the final volume was completed in 2009. Although scores may be purchased from Wilhelm Hansen, (33) the entire Carl Nielsen Edition is available online. (34) The edition includes English translations of all the songs, as well as critical commentary.

In 2009, The Royal Library formed a research center called Dansk Center for Musikudgivelse (Danish Center for Music Publication), which is dedicated to creating new editions of Danish music for scholars and performers. These editions may be purchased in paperback versions, or downloaded online free of charge. (35) As the Center is a relatively new venture, singers and scholars may look forward to future publications.

For singers who desire hard copies, complete editions of the song output of Weyse, (36) Heise, (37) and Lange-Muller (38) have been published. Each edition cited here is available at numerous conservatory and university music libraries in North America, and may be obtained through Interlibrary Loan.

In 1984, Aksel Schiotz's wife published a five-volume anthology of Scandinavian songs (all in the original language, with English translations), a project Schiotz had begun prior to his death. (39) The first volume is dedicated to Danish art song, and contains a wide variety of songs by fifteen different Danish composers, including Rued Langgaard, Otto Mortensen, and Per Norgard. These three composers' works, as well as those of Ib Norholm, are widely available through Interlibrary Loan. Many are still in print, and may be purchased from Wilhelm Hansen. (40)

CONCLUSIONS

The Danish musical tradition is rich with song choices for all voice types and skill levels. With a bit of effort, scores and recordings may be located, enabling singers to familiarize themselves with this abundant repertoire. The remaining obstacle to performing these works is the

unfamiliarity of the Danish language. Danish pronunciation is not inherently more difficult than German or French, for example, but resources on the subject are currently not available. The second in this series of articles will address the details of Danish lyric diction, providing singers and teachers resources necessary to study this repertoire.

NOTES

(1.) Carl Nielsen, interview in Politiken, published in John Fellow, ed., Carl Nielsen til sin samtid [Carl Nielsen to his contemporaries], vol. 1 (Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1999), 312, as cited in Anne-Marie Reynolds, "Carl Nielsen's Folk-like Songs and the 'Danish National Tone'," in Niels Krabbe, ed., Carl Nielsen Studies, v. 4 (Copenhagen: The Danish Royal Library Press, 2009), 146.

(2.) Even the terms "Scandinavian" and "Nordic" are problematic. In common usage, "Continental Scandinavia" refers to Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, while "Scandinavia" encompasses those countries in addition to Iceland and the Faroe Islands. "Nordic" expands this definition to include Finland, and sometimes Greenland. However, there is little consistency in the application of these terms.

(3.) N. F. S. Grundtvig, Nordens mythologi eller sindbilled-sprog historisk-poetisk udviklet og oplyst [Norse mythology, or symbolic language developed and enlightened in a historic-poetic way] (Copenhagen: J. H. Schubothes Boghandling, 1823).

(4.) Karen Vestergard and Ida-Marie Vorre, "Danishness in Nielsen's Folkelige Songs," in Niels Krabbe, ed., Carl Nielsen Studies, v. 3 (Copenhagen: The Danish Royal Library Press, 2008), 80-101.

(5.) Reynolds, 145-163.

(6.) Sampsa Konttinen, "Another Language--Different Sound?" (paper presented at the International Congress of Voice Teachers, Brisbane, Australia, July 2013).

(7.) Leigh vanHandel, "Setting a Menu to Music: Prosody and Melody in 19th Century Art Songs" (doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, 2005); http://search.proquest.com/doc view/305434973?accountid=10920.

(8.) Aniruddh D. Patel, Music, Language, and the Brain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008).

(9.) Ibid., 218-225.

(10.) Aksel Schiotz, The Singer and His Art (New York: Harper and Row, 1970), 110. Schiotz (1906-1975), who studied with Swedish luminary John Forsell, had a successful career as an operatic tenor. He was struck with a brain tumor in 1950, but recovered to continue performing as a baritone. He taught at the University of Minnesota, University of Colorado, Boulder, and finally in Copenhagen.

(11.) Peter Holman and Paul O'Dette, "Dowland, John," in Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press; http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.db03.linccweb.org/ subscriber/article/grove/music/08103 (accessed October 19, 2013).

(12.) Niels Martin Jensen et al., "Denmark," Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press; http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.db03.linccweb.org/subscriber/article/grove/musi c/07563 (accessed October 19, 2013).

(13.) Kerala J. Snyder, "Buxtehude, Dieterich," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press; http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/ subscriber/article/grove/music/04477 (accessed October 14, 2013).

(14.) Jensen et al.

(15.) Raymond A. Barr, "Schulz, Johann Abraham Peter," Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press; http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.db03.linccweb.org/ subscriber/article/grove/musi/25146 (accessed October 10, 2013).

(16.) Richard Paullis, "Mozart og Weyse" [Mozart and Weyse], Fund ogForskning3 (1956): 136-141.

(17.) Jens Peter Larsen and Gorm Busk, "Weyse, Christoph Ernst Friedrich," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press; http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.db03.linccweb.org/subscriber/article/grove/musi c/30191 (accessed October 19, 2013).

(18.) John Bergsagel, "Hartmann," Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press; http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.db03.linccweb.org/subscriber/article/grove/musi c/12476pg2 (accessed October 12, 2013).

(19.) Bo Marschner and Finn Egeland Hansen, "Gade, Niels W.," Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press; http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.db03.linccweb.org/ subscriber/article/grove/music/10464 (accessed October 19, 2013).

(20.) Niels Martin Jensen, "Heise, Peter," Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press; http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.db03.linccweb.org/ subscriber/article/grove/music/12716 (accessed October 19, 2013).

(21.) Niels Martin Jensen, "Lange-Muller, Peter Erasmus," Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press; http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.db03.linccweb.org/subscriber/ article/grove/music/15978 (accessed October 14, 2013).

(22.) Anne-Marie Reynolds, Carl Nielsen's Voice: His Songs in Context (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 2010), 13.

(23.) Ibid.

(24.) Robert Layton, "Denmark," The Oxford Companion to Music, Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press; http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.db03.linccweb.org/ subscriber/article/opr/t114/e1880 (accessed October 19, 2013).

(25.) Bendt Viinholt Nielsen, "Langgaard, Rued," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press; http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.db03.linccweb.org/subscriber/ article/grove/music/15982 (accessed October 29, 2013).

(26.) Niels Martin Jensen and Daniel M. Grimley, "Mortensen, Otto," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press; http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.db03.linccweb.org/ subscriber/article/grove/music/19176 (accessed October 30, 2013).

(27.) Julian Anderson, "N0rgard, Per," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press; http://www.oxf.ordmusiconline.com.db03.linccweb.org/ subscriber/article/grove/music/20066 (accessed November 1, 2013).

(28.) Lars Thodberg Bertelsen and Per N0rgard, Per Norgard: Songs (Copenhagen: Da Capo, 2002).

(29.) The Danish National Digital Sheet Music Archive: digital facsimiles of printed and manuscript music; http://www.kb.dk/en/nb/samling/ma/digmus/ (accessed November 1, 2013).

(30.) The Royal Library: song repertoire e-scores; http://www.kb.dk/permalink/2006/mus/SANGMUSIK/ (accessed October 31, 2013).

(31.) The Royal Library: Peter Heise--online manuscripts; http://www.kb.dk/da/nb/samling/ma/digmus/heisevaerk.html (accessed October 31, 2013).

(32.) International Music Score Library Project; http://imslp.org/ (accessed October 31, 2013).

(33.) Edition Wilhelm Hansen: The Carl Nielsen Edition; http://webshop.ewh.dk/group.asp?group=384&lang=uk (accessed October 31, 2013).

(34.) The Royal Library: The Carl Nielsen Edition download; http:// www.kb.dk/en/kb/nb/mta/cnu/download.html (accessed October 31, 2013).

(35.) Danish Centre for Music Publication: free music scores download; http://www.kb.dk/en/kb/nb/mta/dcm/udgivelser/ noder_til_download.html (accessed October 31, 2013).

(36.) Christoph Ernst Friedrich Weyse, Sange med klaver [Songs with piano], 2 vol., ed. Sten H0gel (Copenhagen: Samfundet, 2007).

(37.) Peter Heise, Sange med klaver [Songs with piano], 4 volumes, ed. Niels Martin Jensen (Copenhagen: Edition Wilhelm Hansen, 1990. An earlier complete edition of Heise's songs, also by Hansen, is available online through the Sibley Music Library at the Eastman School of Music. Peter Heise, Romancer og sange [Romances and songs], 6 vol. (Copenhagen: Wilhelm Hansen Musik-Forlag, 1880); http://hdl.handle.net/1802/19279 (accessed November 1, 2013).

(38.) P. E. Lange-Muller, Sange [Songs], 3 vol. (Copenhagen: Hansen, 1900), available in North America only at Harvard University, St. Olaf College, and Cornell University Libraries.

(39.) Gerd Schi0tz, ed., The Aksel Schiotz Anthology of Nordic Solo Songs, 5 vol. (Copenhagen: Edition Wilhelm Hansen, 1984).

(40.) Edition Wilhelm Hansen; http://www.ewh.dk (accessed October 31, 2013).

Leslie De'Ath, Associate Editor

Soprano Anna Hersey is a noted expert on Scandinavian vocal repertoire and the diction of the Scandinavian languages. She was a Fulbright Fellow at the Kungliga Musikhogskolan (The Royal College of Music) in Sweden, where she collaborated with pianist Matti Hirvonen, and received a postdoctoral fellowship from the American Scandinavian Foundation for additional research at Det Kongelige Bibliotek (The Royal Library) in Denmark. She has authored numerous articles on Scandinavian song and diction, and has presented research at the International Congress of Voice Teachers, the National Association of Teachers of Singing, the Yale Conference on Baltic and Scandinavian Studies, the National Opera Association, and the University of Copenhagen Centre for Internationalisation and Parallel Language Use.

As a performer, Hersey has sung with Palm Beach Opera, Florida Chamber Orchestra, Hispanic-American Lyric Theater, The Minnesota Opera, Theatre de la Jeune Lune, Skylark Opera, and Berkeley Repertory Theater, among others. South Florida Classical Review described her as "a vivacious, compelling, and vocally impressive stage presence."

Hersey earned master's degrees in vocal performance and musicology/ ethnomusicology from the University of Minnesota, and recently received her doctorate from the University of Miami. An active teacher, she completed the Certificate of Vocal Pedagogy at the University of Minnesota. Hersey participated in the 2013 NATS Intern Program, where she was apprenticed to Karen Brunssen of Northwestern University. She currently teaches at the University of Miami, Barry University, and Broward College, and was previously on the faculty of Iowa State University,
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Title Annotation:LANGUAGE AND DICTION
Author:Hersey, Anna
Publication:Journal of Singing
Article Type:Essay
Geographic Code:4EUDE
Date:Mar 1, 2014
Words:5838
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