Short Communication - NEW RECORDS OF GENUS PTECTICUS LOEW, 1855 (DIPTERA: STRATIOMYIDAE) FROM PAKISTAN.
Keywords: Ptecticus, Stratiomyidae, New Records, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.
The soldier flies belong to family Stratiomyidae of suborder Brachycera, infraorder Stratiomyomorpha and are the sister group of the Xylomyidae (Woodley et al., 2009). The Stratiomyidae (Diptera) are commonly known as soldier flies with worldwide distribution and comprise nearly 2,800 described species in 377 genera (Woodley, 2001, 2011; Fachin and Assis-Pujol, 2016). The larvae are scavengers, many found in decaying organic matter or in soil, and are found in a variety of ecological situations. Subfamily Pachygastrinae, are found under bark of fallen or dying trees, and Stratiomyinae and Nemotelinae, are aquatic in situations ranging from lakes and rivers to more transient water sources such as tree holes and mossy seeps. Adults are generally found near larval habitats while, Stratiomyinae, frequent visit flowers (Woodley, 2009).
Ptecticus Loew, 1855, a genus in subfamily Sarginae, currently includes 52 species from the Oriental region (RozkoA!ny and Hauser, 2009). The important taxonomic works on the genus had been done by RozkoA!ny and Jong (2001), RozkoA!ny and Kovac (2003), RozkoA!ny and Courtney (2005) and Hauser and RozkoA!ny (2007), however RozkoA!ny and Hauser (2009) is the noteworthy revisionary work providing a key to the known species of Ptecticus from Oriental region with identification of eight species groups. In India, Ptecticus is a diverse genus with 13 species whilst a single species Ptecticus melanurus (Walker, 1848) has been reported from Pakistan (Wachkoo et al., 2017). The present study reports two species as new country records, Ptecticus kerteszi and Ptecticus vulpianus from Pakistan. Ptecticus in Pakistan is thus represented by three species, an identification key to species is provided here.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The adult soldier flies were collected by using aerial net from Poonch district Azad Kashmir and Murree (Punjab), Pakistan during 2016-17. The adult soldier flies were killed by using potassium cyanide and pinned for detail examination to species level under Olympus SZX7, Model SZ2-ILST stereo-microscope. Photographs were prepared under a Nikon SMZ 1500 binocular microscope attached to a Nikon Digital Sight DS-Fi1 camera and identified by using the available literature (RozkoA!ny and Jong, 2001; RozkoA!ny and Kovac, 2003; Hauser and RozkoA!ny, 2007; RozkoA!ny and Hauser, 2009). The photographs were cleaned by using Adobe Photoshop CS6 software. The examined specimens are deposited at Biosystematics Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
In total, 13 adult soldier flies were collected from the study areas along with two species as new country records, Ptecticus kerteszi and Ptecticus vulpianus from Pakistan. The detail latitude, longitude and elevation along with the localities of the known species are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Distributional records of known species under the genus Ptecticus Loew, 1855 from Pakistan along with their latitude, longitude and elevation.
P. vulpianus(Enderlein)###Rawalakot###Azad Kashmir###33Adeg51'32.18" N###73Adeg45'34.93" E###5374 ft
P. kerteszi De Meijere###Murree###Punjab###33Adeg55.315 N###73Adeg24.212 E###6324 ft
P. melanurus(Walker)###Rawalakot###Azad Kashmir###33Adeg51'32.18" N###73Adeg45'34.93" E###5374 ft
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Key to the Ptecticus species of Pakistan
1. Median occipital (postvertical) sclerite black, (rest of the occiput black); male terminalia as fig. 2.............................................P. vulpianus
_. Median occipital (postvertical) sclerite yellow, rest of the occiput black...................................2
2. Wing bicoloured, orange at the base and blackish at the tip; darkening of the wing apex reaching discal cell or nearly so; male terminalia as fig. 4........................P. melanurus
_. Wing with orange and black colorations, darkening of wing with apical third black; male terminalia as fig. 3........................P. kerteszi Genus Ptecticus Loew, 1855
The members of the genus Ptecticus are distinguished from the other genera of subfamily Sarginae by the second antennal segment usually overlapping 3rd on inner side by a thumb-like extension (Brunetti, 1920). The known species from Pakistan belong to below mentioned groups (RozkoA!ny and Hauser, 2009):
Ptecticus australis group: Upper frons, median occipital sclerites and vertex black; wings hyaline with darkened apex; scutum uniformly yellow, sometimes with a metallic shine, rarely black and metallic blue; vein R2+3 nearly twice as long as Rs, parallel to R1 and radial triangle (r2+3) thus virtually replaced by long and narrow, distally opened cell, cross vein M-Cu usually indistinct; M3 straight, parallel to M2 and postcubitus (CuP) unpigmented, hyaline, often indistinct. The species under this group includes; P. annulipes, P. artocarpophilus, P. australis, P. fukienensis, P. kubani, P. srilankai, P. semimetallicus, P. subaustralis and P. vulpianus.
1. Ptecticus vulpianus (Enderlein, 1914) Fig. 1-A Material Examined: Azad Kashmir: Rawalakot, 5374 ft., 33Adeg51'32.18"N,73Adeg45'34.93" E, 2a, 2a, 14.iv.2016, 2a, 2a, 26.vi.2016, leg. M.A. Hassan.
Distribution: India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Taiwan (RozkoA!ny and Hauser, 2009).
Diagnosis: Median occipital sclerites black; hind legs at least partly yellow, hind tibia and base of hind basitarsus black; CuP (postcubitus) developed at most as hyaline, M3 straight as parallel to M2; R2+3 arising close to anterior cross-vein, not confluent with R1; scutum uniformly yellow to yellowish brown; wings not infumated; lower half of frontal callus pale. See also notes by (RozkoA!ny and Kovac, 2003).
Habitat: This species was collected from dense vegetation under the forest area near water channel.
Ptecticus aurifer group: Upper frons, median occipital sclerites and vertex yellow; wings bicolored or more or less darkened; scutum uniformly yellow to brown; M3 slightly sinuated, CuP (postcubitus) well developed, pigmented; vein R2+3 slightly sinuate, shorter than Rs, radial triangle (r2+3) higher than crossvein R-M, crossvein M-Cu well developed. The species under this group includes; P. aurifer, P. aurobrunneus, P. kerteszi, P. melanurus, P. sarawakensis and P. subaurifer.
2. Ptecticus kerteszi De Meijere, 1924 Fig. 1-B Material Examined: Pakistan: Murree, 6324 ft., 33Adeg55.315 N, 73Adeg24.212 E, 1a, 24.ix.2017, leg. M.A. Hassan.
Distribution: India, Indonesia, Laos, Nepal and Thailand (RozkoA!ny and Kovac, 2003; Wachkoo et al., 2017).
Diagnosis: Median occipital sclerites yellow; scutum uniformly yellow to yellowish brown; upper frons yellow to brown; hind femora uniformly yellow; wings at least partly infuscate. See also: RozkoA!ny and Kovac (2003).
Habitat: This species was collected from dense vegetation under the Pine trees.
3. Ptecticus melanurus (Walker, 1848) Fig. 1-C Material Examined: Azad Kashmir: Rawalakot, 5374 ft., 33Adeg51'32.18" N, 73Adeg45'34.93" E, 2a, 20.vi.2016, 1a, 7.viii.2016, leg. M.A. Hassan.
Distribution: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Nepal, West Pakistan, West and East Malaysia (RozkoA!ny and Kovac, 2003).
Diagnosis: Median occipital sclerites yellow; scutum uniformly yellow to yellowish brown; upper frons yellow to brown; hind femora uniformly yellow; wings bicoloured orange at base and blackish at tip, darkening of wing apex reaching discal cell or nearly so; basal 3-4 abdominal segments usually ochre-yellow. See also: RozkoA!ny and Kovac (2003).
Habitat: This species was collected from dense vegetation under the forest area near water channel.
Acknowledgements: We are thankful to Dr. Martin Hauser, Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Pest Diagnostics Branch, USA for help in conformation of the species. We also acknowledge Dr. Aijaz Ahmad Wachkoo, Department of Zoology, Govt. Degree College, Shopian, Jammu and Kashmir, India for improving the language of the manuscript.
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|Publication:||Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences|
|Date:||Feb 28, 2019|
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